29 research outputs found

    Kidney Recovery and Death in Critically Ill Patients With COVID-19‚ÄďAssociated Acute Kidney Injury Treated With Dialysis: The STOP-COVID Cohort Study

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    Acute kidney injury treated with kidney replacement therapy (AKI-KRT) occurs frequently in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We examined the clinical factors that determine kidney recovery in this population. Multicenter cohort study. 4,221 adults not receiving KRT who were admitted to intensive care units at 68 US hospitals with COVID-19 from March 1 to June 22, 2020 (the ‚ÄúICU cohort‚ÄĚ). Among these, 876 developed AKI-KRT after admission to the ICU (the ‚ÄúAKI-KRT subcohort‚ÄĚ). The ICU cohort was analyzed using AKI severity as the exposure. For the AKI-KRT subcohort, exposures included demographics, comorbidities, initial mode of KRT, and markers of illness severity at the time of KRT initiation. The outcome for the ICU cohort was estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at hospital discharge. A 3-level outcome (death, kidney nonrecovery, and kidney recovery at discharge) was analyzed for the AKI-KRT subcohort. The ICU cohort was characterized using descriptive analyses. The AKI-KRT subcohort was characterized with both descriptive analyses and multinomial logistic regression to assess factors associated with kidney nonrecovery while accounting for death. Among a total of 4,221 patients in the ICU cohort, 2,361 (56%) developed AKI, including 876 (21%) who received KRT. More severe AKI was associated with higher mortality. Among survivors, more severe AKI was associated with an increased rate of kidney nonrecovery and lower kidney function at discharge. Among the 876 patients with AKI-KRT, 588 (67%) died, 95 (11%) had kidney nonrecovery, and 193 (22%) had kidney recovery by the time of discharge. The odds of kidney nonrecovery was greater for lower baseline eGFR, with ORs of 2.09 (95% CI, 1.09-4.04), 4.27 (95% CI, 1.99-9.17), and 8.69 (95% CI, 3.07-24.55) for baseline eGFR 31-60, 16-30,¬†‚ȧ15 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively, compared with eGFR > 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Oliguria at the time of KRT initiation was also associated with nonrecovery (ORs of 2.10 [95% CI, 1.14-3.88] and 4.02 [95% CI, 1.72-9.39] for patients with 50-499 and¬†<50 mL/d of urine, respectively, compared to¬†‚Č•500 mL/d of urine). Later recovery events may not have been captured due to lack of postdischarge follow-up. Lower baseline eGFR and reduced urine output at the time of KRT initiation are each strongly and independently associated with kidney nonrecovery among critically ill patients with COVID-19. [Display omitted

    The Role of Zinc in Cardiovascular Disease

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    Zinc is an essential trace element due to its role as a key part of human enzymatic activity. As a cofactor in metalloenzymes and metalloproteins, zinc participates in diverse biological functions, including gene transcription, translation, and replication, phagocytosis, and immunoglobulin and cytokine production. In this review, we will focus on the role of zinc in the cardiovascular system, including heart failure, vascular calcification, and myocardial infarction. We will further highlight the role of zinc in cardiovascular pathology in individuals with chronic kidney disease, and type II diabetes mellitus, groups uniquely at risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality

    Characteristics and Outcomes of Individuals With Pre-existing Kidney Disease and COVID-19 Admitted to Intensive Care Units in the United States

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    Rationale &amp; objectiveUnderlying kidney disease is an emerging risk factor for more severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) illness. We examined the clinical courses of critically ill COVID-19 patients with and without pre-existing chronic kidney disease (CKD) and investigated the association between the degree of underlying kidney disease and in-hospital outcomes.Study designRetrospective cohort study.Settings &amp; participants4,264 critically ill patients with COVID-19 (143 patients with pre-existing kidney failure receiving maintenance dialysis; 521 patients with pre-existing non-dialysis-dependent CKD; and 3,600 patients without pre-existing CKD) admitted to intensive care units&nbsp;(ICUs) at 68 hospitals across the United States.Predictor(s)Presence (vs absence) of pre-existing kidney disease.Outcome(s)In-hospital mortality (primary); respiratory failure, shock, ventricular arrhythmia/cardiac arrest, thromboembolic events, major bleeds, and acute liver injury (secondary).Analytical approachWe used standardized differences to compare patient characteristics (values&gt;0.10 indicate a meaningful difference between groups) and multivariable-adjusted Fine and Gray survival models to examine outcome associations.ResultsDialysis patients had a shorter time from symptom onset to ICU admission compared to other groups (median of 4 [IQR, 2-9] days for maintenance dialysis patients; 7 [IQR, 3-10] days for non-dialysis-dependent CKD patients; and 7 [IQR, 4-10] days for patients without pre-existing CKD). More dialysis patients (25%) reported altered mental status than those with non-dialysis-dependent CKD (20%; standardized difference=0.12) and those without pre-existing CKD (12%; standardized difference=0.36). Half of dialysis and non-dialysis-dependent CKD patients died within 28 days of ICU admission versus 35% of patients without pre-existing CKD. Compared to patients without pre-existing CKD, dialysis patients had higher risk for 28-day in-hospital death (adjusted HR, 1.41 [95% CI, 1.09-1.81]), while patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD had an intermediate risk (adjusted HR, 1.25 [95% CI, 1.08-1.44]).LimitationsPotential residual confounding.ConclusionsFindings highlight the high mortality of individuals with underlying kidney disease and severe COVID-19, underscoring the importance of identifying safe and effective COVID-19 therapies in this vulnerable population

    AKI Treated with Renal Replacement Therapy in Critically Ill Patients with COVID-19

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    BACKGROUND: AKI is a common sequela of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, few studies have focused on AKI treated with RRT (AKI-RRT). METHODS: We conducted a multicenter cohort study of 3099 critically ill adults with COVID-19 admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) at 67 hospitals across the United States. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify patient-and hospital-level risk factors for AKI-RRT and to examine risk factors for 28-day mortality among such patients. RESULTS: A total of 637 of 3099 patients (20.6%) developed AKI-RRT within 14 days of ICU admission, 350 of whom (54.9%) died within 28 days of ICU admission. Patient-level risk factors for AKI-RRT included CKD, men, non-White race, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, higher body mass index, higher d-dimer, and greater severity of hypoxemia on ICU admission. Predictors of 28-day mortality in patients with AKI-RRT were older age, severe oliguria, and admission to a hospital with fewer ICU beds or one with greater regional density of COVID-19. At the end of a median follow-up of 17 days (range, 1-123 days), 403 of the 637 patients (63.3%) with AKI-RRT had died, 216 (33.9%) were discharged, and 18 (2.8%) remained hospitalized. Of the 216 patients discharged, 73 (33.8%) remained RRT dependent at discharge, and 39 (18.1%) remained RRT dependent 60 days after ICU admission. CONCLUSIONS: AKI-RRT is common among critically ill patients with COVID-19 and is associated with a hospital mortality rate of \u3e60%. Among those who survive to discharge, one in three still depends on RRT at discharge, and one in six remains RRT dependent 60 days after ICU admission

    Glycerol-3-Phosphate is an FGF23 Regulator Derived from the Injured Kidney

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    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a bone-derived hormone that controls blood phosphate levels by increasing renal phosphate excretion and reducing 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D] production. Disorders of FGF23 homeostasis are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, but a fundamental understanding of what regulates FGF23 production is lacking. Because the kidney is the major end organ of FGF23 action, we hypothesized that it releases a factor that regulates FGF23 synthesis. Using aptamer-based proteomics and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based (LC-MS-based) metabolomics, we profiled more than 1600 molecules in renal venous plasma obtained from human subjects. Renal vein glycerol-3-phosphate (G-3-P) had the strongest correlation with circulating FGF23. In mice, exogenous G-3-P stimulated bone and bone marrow FGF23 production through local G-3-P acyltransferase-mediated (GPAT-mediated) lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) synthesis. Further, the stimulatory effect of G-3-P and LPA on FGF23 required LPA receptor 1 (LPAR1). Acute kidney injury (AKI), which increases FGF23 levels, rapidly increased circulating G-3-P in humans and mice, and the effect of AKI on FGF23 was abrogated by GPAT inhibition or Lpar1 deletion. Together, our findings establish a role for kidney-derived G-3-P in mineral metabolism and outline potential targets to modulate FGF23 production during kidney injury

    Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 and Klotho in AKI

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    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with many of the same mineral metabolite abnormalities that are observed in chronic kidney disease. These include increased circulating levels of the osteocyte-derived, vitamin D-regulating hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), and decreased renal expression of klotho, the co-receptor for FGF23. Recent data have indicated that increased FGF23 and decreased klotho levels in the blood and urine could serve as novel predictive biomarkers of incident AKI, or as novel prognostic biomarkers of adverse outcomes in patients with established AKI. In addition, because FGF23 and klotho exert numerous classic as well as off-target effects on a variety of organ systems, targeting their dysregulation in AKI may represent a unique opportunity for therapeutic intervention. We review the pathophysiology, kinetics, and regulation of FGF23 and klotho in animal and human studies of AKI, and we discuss the challenges and opportunities involved in targeting FGF23 and klotho therapeutically

    Iron, Hepcidin, and Death in Human AKI

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    BACKGROUND: Iron is a key mediator of AKI in animal models, but data on circulating iron parameters in human AKI are limited. METHODS: We examined results from the ARF Trial Network study to assess the association of plasma catalytic iron, total iron, transferrin, ferritin, free hemoglobin, and hepcidin with 60-day mortality. Participants included critically ill patients with AKI requiring RRT who were enrolled in the study. RESULTS: Of the 807 study participants, 409 (51%) died by day 60. In both unadjusted and multivariable adjusted models, higher plasma concentrations of catalytic iron were associated with a significantly greater risk of death, as were lower concentrations of hepcidin. After adjusting for other factors, patients with catalytic iron levels in the highest quintile versus the lowest quintile had a 4.06-fold increased risk of death, and patients with hepcidin levels in the lowest quintile versus the highest quintile of hepcidin had a 3.87-fold increased risk of death. These findings were consistent across multiple subgroups. Other iron markers were also associated with death, but the magnitude of the association was greatest for catalytic iron and hepcidin. Higher plasma concentrations of catalytic iron and lower concentrations of hepcidin are each independently associated with mortality in critically ill patients with AKI requiring RRT. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that plasma concentrations of catalytic iron and hepcidin may be useful prognostic markers in patients with AKI. Studies are needed to determine whether strategies to reduce catalytic iron or increase hepcidin might be beneficial in this patient population

    Dysregulated Mineral Metabolism in AKI

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    Dysregulated mineral metabolism is a nearly universal sequalae of acute kidney injury (AKI). Abnormalities in circulating mineral metabolites observed in patients with AKI include hypocalcemia, hyperparathyroidism, hyperphosphatemia, decreased vitamin D metabolite levels, and increased fibroblast growth factor 23 levels. We review the pathophysiology of dysregulated mineral metabolism in AKI with a focus on calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone, and vitamin D metabolites. We discuss how mineral metabolite levels can serve as novel prognostic markers for incident AKI and other related outcomes in various clinical settings. Finally, we discuss how vitamin D metabolites potentially could be used as novel therapeutic agents for AKI prevention and treatment

    Chairside Fantasy

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    Phosphate Homeostasis Disorders

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    Our understanding of the regulation of phosphate balance has benefited tremendously from the molecular identification and characterization of genetic defects leading to a number of rare inherited or acquired disorders affecting phosphate homeostasis. The identification of the key phosphate-regulating hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), as well as other molecules that control its production, such as the glycosyltransferase GALNT3, the endopeptidase PHEX, and the matrix protein DMP1, and molecules that function as downstream effectors of FGF23 such as the longevity factor Klotho and the phosphate transporters NPT2a and NPT2c, has permitted us to understand the complex interplay that exists between the kidneys, bone, parathyroid, and gut. Such insights from genetic disorders have allowed not only the design of potent targeted treatment of FGF23-dependent hypophosphatemic conditions, but also provide clinically relevant observations related to the dysregulation of mineral ion homeostasis in health and disease