15,679 research outputs found

    Incorporation of cytochrome oxidase into cardiolipin bilayers and induction of nonlamellar phases.

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    Cytochrome oxidase from beef heart has been lipid-substituted with beef heart cardiolipin. The lipid phase behavior and protein aggregation state of the reconstituted complexes have been studied with 31P NMR, freeze-fracture electron microscopy, and saturation-transfer ESR of the spin-labeled protein. In the absence of salt, the lipid has a lamellar arrangement, and the protein is integrated and uniformly distributed in the membrane vesicles and undergoes rapid rotational diffusion. The presence of the protein stabilizes the cardiolipin lamellar phase against salt-induced transitions to the inverted hexagonal phase. The threshold salt concentration becomes higher and the extent of conversion becomes lower with decreasing lipid:protein ratio. In high salt, lamellar-phase lipid with integrated protein coexists with hexagonal-phase lipid free of protein, and the rotational diffusion of the protein is drastically reduced as a result of the high packing density

    KIC 2856960: the impossible triple star

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    KIC 2856960 is a star in the Kepler field which was observed by Kepler for 4 years. It shows the primary and secondary eclipses of a close binary of 0.258d as well as complex dipping events that last for about 1.5d at a time and recur on a 204d period. The dips are thought to result when the close binary passes across the face of a third star. In this paper we present an attempt to model the dips. Despite the apparent simplicity of the system and strenuous efforts to find a solution, we find that we cannot match the dips with a triple star while satisfying Kepler's laws. The problem is that to match the dips the separation of the close binary has to be larger than possible relative to the outer orbit given the orbital periods. Quadruple star models can get round this problem but require the addition of a so-far undetected intermediate period of order 5 -- 20d that has be a near-perfect integer divisor of the outer 204d period. Although we have no good explanation for KIC 2856960, using the full set of Kepler data we are able to update several of its parameters. We also present a spectrum showing that KIC 2856960 is dominated by light from a K3- or K4-type star.Comment: 11 pages, 13 figures, accepted for publication in MNRAS August 21, 201

    Underperforming policy networks : the biopesticides network in the United Kingdom

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    Loosely integrated and incomplete policy networks have been neglected in the literature. They are important to consider in terms of understanding network underperformance. The effective delivery and formulation of policy requires networks that are not incomplete or underperforming. The biopesticides policy network in the United Kingdom is considered and its components identified with an emphasis on the lack of integration of retailers and environmental groups. The nature of the network constrains the actions of its agents and frustrates the achievement of policy goals. A study of this relatively immature policy network also allows for a focus on network formation. The state, via an external central government department, has been a key factor in the development of the network. Therefore, it is important to incorporate such factors more systematically into understandings of network formation. Feedback efforts from policy have increased interactions between productionist actors but the sphere of consumption remains insufficiently articulated

    Parametric study of transport aircraft systems cost and weight

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    The results of a NASA study to develop production cost estimating relationships (CERs) and weight estimating relationships (WERs) for commercial and military transport aircraft at the system level are presented. The systems considered correspond to the standard weight groups defined in Military Standard 1374 and are listed. These systems make up a complete aircraft exclusive of engines. The CER for each system (or CERs in several cases) utilize weight as the key parameter. Weights may be determined from detailed weight statements, if available, or by using the WERs developed, which are based on technical and performance characteristics generally available during preliminary design. The CERs that were developed provide a very useful tool for making preliminary estimates of the production cost of an aircraft. Likewise, the WERs provide a very useful tool for making preliminary estimates of the weight of aircraft based on conceptual design information

    Time-resolved spectroscopy of the pulsating CV GW Lib

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    We present time-resolved optical spectroscopy of the dwarf nova GW Librae during its rare 2007 April superoutburst and compare these with quiescent epochs. The data provide the first opportunity to track the evolution of the principal spectral features. In the early stages of the outburst, the optically thick disc dominates the optical and the line components show clear orbital radial velocity excursions. In the course of several weeks, optically thin regions become more prominent as strong emission lines replace the broad disc absorption. Post-outburst spectroscopy covering the I band illustrates the advantages of Ca II relative to the commonly used Balmer lines when attempting to constrain binary parameters. Due to the lower ionization energy combined with smaller thermal and shear broadening of these lines, a sharp emission component is seen to be moving in between the accretion disc peaks in the Ca II line. No such component is visible in the Balmer lines. We interpret this as an emission component originating on the hitherto unseen mass donor star. This emission component has a mean velocity of similar to -15 +/- 5 km s(-1) which is associated with the systemic velocity., and a velocity semi-amplitude of K-em = 82.2 +/- 4.9 km s(-1). Doppler tomography reveals an asymmetric accretion disc, with the S-wave mapping to a sharp spot in the tomogram with a velocity consistent to what is obtained with line profile fitting. A centre of symmetry analysis of the disc component suggests a very small value for the WD orbital velocity K-1 as is also inferred from double Gaussian fits to the spectral lines. While our conservative dynamical limits place a hard upper limit on the binary mass ratio of q < 0.23, we favour a significantly lower value near q similar to 0.06. Pulsation modelling suggests a white dwarf mass similar to 1 M-circle dot. This, paired with a low-mass donor, near the empirical sequence of an evolved cataclysmic variable close to the period bounce, appears to be consistent with all the observational constraints to date

    WD1953-011 - a magnetic white dwarf with peculiar field structure

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    We present H-alpha spectra of the magnetic white dwarf star WD1953-011 which confirm the presence of the broad Zeeman components corresponding to a field strength of about 500kG found by Maxted & Marsh (1999). We also find that the line profile is variable over a timescale of a day or less. The core of the H-alpha line also shows a narrow Zeeman triplet corresponding to a field strength of of about 100kG which appears to be almost constant in shape. These observations suggest that the magnetic field on WD1953-011 has a complex structure and that the star has a rotational period of hours or days which causes the observed variability of the spectra. We argue that neither an offset dipole model nor a double-dipole model are sufficient to explain our observations. Instead, we propose a two component model consisting of a high field region of magnetic field strength of about 500kG covering about 10% of the surface area of the star superimposed on an underlying dipolar field of mean field strength of about 70kG. Radial velocity measurements of the narrow Zeeman triplet show that the radial velocity is constant to within a few km/s so this star is unlikely to be a close binary.Comment: Accpeted for publication in MNRAS. 4 pages, 2 figure

    A Radial Velocity Study of CTCV J1300-3052

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    We present time-resolved spectroscopy of the eclipsing, short period cataclysmic variable CTCV J1300-3052. Using absorption features from the secondary star, we determine the radial velocity semi-amplitude of the secondary star to be K2 = 378 \pm 6 km/s, and its projected rotational velocity to be v sin i = 125 \pm 7 km/s. Using these parameters and Monte Carlo techniques, we obtain masses of M1 = 0.79 \pm 0.05 MSun for the white dwarf primary and M2 = 0.198 \pm 0.029 MSun for the M-type secondary star. These parameters are found to be in excellent agreement with previous mass determinations found via photometric fitting techniques, supporting the accuracy and validity of photometric mass determinations in short period CVs.Comment: Accepted for publication in MNRAS (24th January 2012). 10 pages, 9 figures (black and white

    Dissipative Particle Dynamics with energy conservation

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    Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) does not conserve energy and this precludes its use in the study of thermal processes in complex fluids. We present here a generalization of DPD that incorporates an internal energy and a temperature variable for each particle. The dissipation induced by the dissipative forces between particles is invested in raising the internal energy of the particles. Thermal conduction occurs by means of (inverse) temperature differences. The model can be viewed as a simplified solver of the fluctuating hydrodynamic equations and opens up the possibility of studying thermal processes in complex fluids with a mesoscopic simulation technique.Comment: 5 page

    Kinematics of the ultracompact helium accretor AM canum venaticorum

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    We report on the results from a five-night campaign of high-speed spectroscopy of the 17-min binary AM Canum Venaticorum (AM CVn), obtained with the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope on La Palma. We detect a kinematic feature that appears to be entirely analogous to the 'central spike' known from the long-period, emission-line AM CVn stars GP Com, V396 Hya and SDSS J124058.03-015919.2, which has been attributed to the accreting white dwarf. Assuming that the feature indeed represents the projected velocity amplitude and phase of the accreting white dwarf, we derive a mass ratio q = 0.18 +/- 0.01 for AM CVn. This is significantly higher than the value found in previous, less direct measurements. We discuss the implications for AM CVn's evolutionary history and show that a helium star progenitor scenario is strongly favoured. We further discuss the implications for the interpretation of AM CVn's superhump behaviour, and for the detectability of its gravitational-wave signal with the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). In addition, we demonstrate a method for measuring the circularity or eccentricity of AM CVn's accretion disc, using stroboscopic Doppler tomography. We test the predictions of an eccentric, precessing disc that are based on AM CVn's observed superhump behaviour. We limit the effective eccentricity in the outermost part of the disc, where the resonances that drive the eccentricity are thought to occur, to e = 0.04 +/- 0.01, which is smaller than previous models indicated

    Surface tension in bilayer membranes with fixed projected area

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    We study the elastic response of bilayer membranes with fixed projected area to both stretching and shape deformations. A surface tension is associated to each of these deformations. By using model amphiphilic membranes and computer simulations, we are able to observe both the types of deformation, and thus, both the surface tensions, related to each type of deformation, are measured for the same system. These surface tensions are found to assume different values in the same bilayer membrane: in particular they vanish for different values of the projected area. We introduce a simple theory which relates the two quantities and successfully apply it to the data obtained with computer simulations
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