23,565 research outputs found

    Bureaucrats, politicians and reform in Whitehall: analysing the bureau-shaping model

    Get PDF
    Dunleavy's bureau-shaping model has breathed new life into existing debates about the behaviour of senior bureaucrats. This article assesses the utility of this model as an explanation of the development of Next Step agencies in the last decade in Britain, using data drawn from a series of extensive interviews with senior civil servants. Our conclusion is that, although the bureau-shaping model represents a significant advance on previous models of bureaucratic behaviour that stress budget maximization, it is flawed. In particular, we argue that: it pays insufficient attention to the broader political context within which civil servants operate; mis-specifies bureaucrats' preferences; and oversimplifies the distinction between managerial and policy advice work. More specifically, we suggest that any explanation of the development of Next Steps agencies needs to recognize that: politicians rather that civil servants played the major role in their creation; the strategic calculations of bureaucrats were significantly more sophisticated than the model assumes; and the consequence of the reforms has been that senior civil servants have played a greater, rather than a more limited, management role

    The delineation and interpretation of the Earth's gravity field

    Get PDF
    The observed changes in velocity with time are reduced relative to the well-determined low degree and order GEM field model and accelerations are found by analytical differentiation of the range rates. This new map is essentially identical to the first map and we have produced a composite map by combining all 90 passes of SST data. The resolution of the map is at worst about 5 deg and much better in most places. A comparison of this map with conventional GEM models shows very good agreement. A reduction of the SEASAT altimeter data has also been carried out for an additional comparison. Although the SEASAT geoid contains much more high frequency information, it agrees very well with both the SST and GEM fields. The maps are dominated (especially in the east) by a pattern of roughly east-west anomalies with a transverse wavelength of about 2000 km. A further comparison with regional bathymetric data shows a remarkably close correlation with plate age

    Lithospheric structure in the Pacific geoid

    Get PDF
    In order that sub-lithospheric density variations be revealed with the geoid, the regional geoid anomalies associated with bathymetric variations must first be removed. Spectral techniques were used to generate a synthetic geoid by filtering the residual bathymetry assuming an Airy-type isostatic compensation model. An unbiased estimated of the admittances show that for region under study, no single compensation mechanism will explain all of the power in the geoid. Nevertheless, because topographic features are mainly coherent with the geoid, to first order an isostationally compensated lithosphere cut by major E-W fracture zones accounts for most of the power in the high degree and other SEASAT geoid in the Pacific

    Low cloud properties influenced by cosmic rays

    Get PDF
    The influence of solar variability on climate is currently uncertain. Recent observations have indicated a possible mechanism via the influence of solar modulated cosmic rays on global cloud cover. Surprisingly the influence of solar variability is strongest in low clouds (<= 3km), which points to a microphysical mechanism involving aerosol formation that is enhanced by ionisation due to cosmic rays. If confirmed it suggests that the average state of the Heliosphere is important for climate on Earth.Comment: 10 pages, 2 figure

    On gravity from SST, geoid from Seasat, and plate age and fracture zones in the Pacific

    Get PDF
    A composite map produced by combining 90 passes of SST data show good agreement with conventional GEM models. The SEASAT altimeter data were deduced and found to agree with both the SST and GEM fields. The maps are dominated (especially in the east) by a pattern of roughly east-west anomalies with a transverse wavelength of about 2000 km. Comparison with regional bathymetric data shows a remarkedly close correlation with plate age. Most anomalies in the east half of the Pacific could be partly caused by regional differences in plate age. The amplitude of these geoid or gravity anomalies caused by age differences should decrease with absolute plate age, and large anomalies (approximately 3 m) over old, smooth sea floor may indicate a further deeper source within or perhaps below the lithosphere. The possible plume size and ascent velocity necessary to supply deep mantle material to the upper mantle without complete thermal equilibration was considered. A plume emanating from a buoyant layer 100 km thick and 10,000 times less viscous than the surrounding mantle should have a diameter of about 400 km and must ascend at about 10 cm/yr to arrive still anomalously hot in the uppermost mantle

    Incorporation of cytochrome oxidase into cardiolipin bilayers and induction of nonlamellar phases.

    Get PDF
    Cytochrome oxidase from beef heart has been lipid-substituted with beef heart cardiolipin. The lipid phase behavior and protein aggregation state of the reconstituted complexes have been studied with 31P NMR, freeze-fracture electron microscopy, and saturation-transfer ESR of the spin-labeled protein. In the absence of salt, the lipid has a lamellar arrangement, and the protein is integrated and uniformly distributed in the membrane vesicles and undergoes rapid rotational diffusion. The presence of the protein stabilizes the cardiolipin lamellar phase against salt-induced transitions to the inverted hexagonal phase. The threshold salt concentration becomes higher and the extent of conversion becomes lower with decreasing lipid:protein ratio. In high salt, lamellar-phase lipid with integrated protein coexists with hexagonal-phase lipid free of protein, and the rotational diffusion of the protein is drastically reduced as a result of the high packing density

    Road safety and the role of the employer: a case study of a western multinational in Oman

    Get PDF
    Global data highlights the scale of road traffic driving harm showing 1.24 million deaths, and a further 20 to 50 million injuries annually, making it the eight-leading cause of death globally. A range of studies has shed light on the causes of such harm, its main contributing factors and the prevention strategies that can be adopted to reduce it. However, little attention has been paid to the role played by employers in preventing work-related driving harm, despite the fact work-related driving accounts for a significant proportion of the harm flowing from road accidents. This study represents an attempt to address this lack of research. The overall aim of the study was to shed new light on the role the employer can play in reducing work-related driving harm. Three supporting objectives were developed to support this aim. The first was to carry out a literature review encompassing a focus on the factors that influence road safety, both generally and in the work context, the potential role of employers in improving work-related driving, and the potential insights that can be gained into this role through findings contained in the literature on occupational health and safety management. The second was the undertaking of new empirical research focussed on the management of work-related safety, and, more particularly, its capacity to generate safety improvements and the factors that influence this capacity, through a case study. The third was to draw out the lessons from these conceptual and empirical strands of the research for current knowledge and future research regarding employer management of work-related driving. To support these aims and objectives three types of data collection was undertaken: semi-structured interviews, focus groups and descriptive statistical data on relevant performance outcomes. The study reported in this thesis has explicitly sought to address the first of these areas of weakness. The findings contribute to the current literature in three ways. Firstly, by shedding new light on the capacity of employers to take effective action to improve work-related driving safety. Secondly, by providing new evidence on the value of various type of employer road safety interventions. Thirdly, and more widely, adding to existing knowledge regarding the value of promulgated guidance on the organisational level management of road safety, and the challenges that confront the effective implementation of such approaches. In doing so, the study draws out and confirms often unacknowledged linkages between the literature on work-related road safety and that on workplace health and safety

    Selectivity of interaction of spin-labelled lipids with peripheral proteins bound to dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol bilayers, as determined by ESR spectroscopy.

    Get PDF
    The selectivity of interaction between spin-labelled lipids and the peripheral proteins, apocytochrome c, cytochrome c, lysozyme and polylysine has been studied using ESR spectroscopy. Derivatives of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylinositol (PI), diphosphatidylglycerol (CL) and diacylglycerol (DG) spin-labelled at the 5-C atom position of the sn-2 chain were used to study the association of these proteins with bilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylglycero. Binding of the proteins increased the outer hyperfine splitting in the ESR spectra of the lipid spin labees to an extent which depended both on the spin-labelled lipid species involved and on the particular protein. The order of selectivity for apocytochrome c follows the sequence: PI−>CL−≈DG PS−>PC±>PG−>PE±. The selectivity pattern for cytochrome c is: PI−>PG−>CL−>DG PS−≈PC±>PE±; for lysozyme is: CL−>PG−>DG PE−>PC±PS−>PI−; and that for polylysine is: CL−>PS−⩾PG−>PI−>PC±>DG PE+-. The overall strength of interaction is in the order lysozyme>cytochrome c>apcoytochrome c, for equivalent binding, and the spread of the selectivity for the different proteins is in the reverse order. Assuming fast exchange for the ESR spectra of the 5-C atom labelled lipids, the relative association constants of the different labels with the different proteins have been estimated

    Spectroscopic evidence for the binary nature of AM CVn

    Get PDF
    We analysed archival spectroscopic data of AM CVn taken with the William Herschel Telescope in 1996. In the literature two orbital periods for AM CVn are proposed. A clear S-wave in the HeI 4471, 4387 and 4143 \AA lines is revealed when the spectra are folded on the 1029 s period. No signature of this S-wave is seen when folded on 1051 s. Doppler tomography of the line profiles shows a clear signature of the hotspot. Using this we can constrain the value of K_2 to lie between 210 and 280 km/s. Our work confirms the binary nature of AM CVn beyond any doubt, establishes 1028.73 s as the true orbital period and supports the interpretation of AM CVn as a permanent superhump system.Comment: Accepted by MNRA

    A Radial Velocity Study of CTCV J1300-3052

    Get PDF
    We present time-resolved spectroscopy of the eclipsing, short period cataclysmic variable CTCV J1300-3052. Using absorption features from the secondary star, we determine the radial velocity semi-amplitude of the secondary star to be K2 = 378 \pm 6 km/s, and its projected rotational velocity to be v sin i = 125 \pm 7 km/s. Using these parameters and Monte Carlo techniques, we obtain masses of M1 = 0.79 \pm 0.05 MSun for the white dwarf primary and M2 = 0.198 \pm 0.029 MSun for the M-type secondary star. These parameters are found to be in excellent agreement with previous mass determinations found via photometric fitting techniques, supporting the accuracy and validity of photometric mass determinations in short period CVs.Comment: Accepted for publication in MNRAS (24th January 2012). 10 pages, 9 figures (black and white
    corecore