58 research outputs found

    Modelling and Experimental Investigation of Hexagonal Nacre-Like Structure Stiffness

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    A highly ordered, hexagonal, nacre-like composite stiffness is investigated using experiments, simulations, and analytical models. Polystyrene and polyurethane are selected as materials for the manufactured specimens using laser cutting and hand lamination. A simulation geometry is made by digital microscope measurements of the specimens, and a simulation is conducted using material data based on component material characterization. Available analytical models are compared to the experimental results, and a more accurate model is derived specifically for highly ordered hexagonal tablets with relatively large in-plane gaps. The influence of hexagonal width, cut width, and interface thickness are analyzed using the hexagonal nacre-like composite stiffness model. The proposed analytical model converges within 1% with the simulation and experimental result

    Influence of the Reaction Injection Moulding Process on the Thermomechanical Behaviour of Fast Curing Polyurethane

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    In this contribution, the influence of the reaction injection moulding process on the thermomechanical material behaviour of aliphatic hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) based fast curing polyurethane is demonstrated. Uniaxial tensile tests, temperature-frequency dependent dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) are used to show the differences in properties for ten different sets of process parameters. The mould and resin components temperature, the mass flow during the filling process and the residence time during the reaction process of the polyurethane are varied in several stages. Further experiments to determine the molar mass of the molecular chain between two crosslinking points of the polyurethane are used to explain the process influences on the thermomechanical properties. Thus, a direct correlation between manufacturing and material properties is shown. In addition, the mutual effect of the different parameters and their overall influence on the material behaviour is presented

    Determination of Strain Limits for Dimensioning Polyurethane Components

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    Within the scope of this contribution, a method for the determination of a strain limit for designing components made of elastomeric polyurethane systems is presented. The knowledge of a material-specific strain limit is essential for the structural-mechanical calculation of plastic components in the context of component design. Compared to a commonly used component design, based on a simplified dimensioning approach taking only linear viscoelastic deformations into account, the strain limit determined in this study allows an improved utilisation of lightweight construction potential in the dimensioning of technical components made of polyurethanes through the consideration of permissible nonlinear viscoelastic deformations. The test method comprises a sequence of quasi-static loading and unloading cycles, with a subsequent load-free recovery phase, allowing the relaxation of the viscoelastic forces. Standardised tensile and simple shear test specimens and a dynamic mechanical thermal analyser (DMTA) are used within the tests. The strain limit is determined by means of the so-called residual energy ratio, which is a characteristic quantity for the evaluation of hystereses of loadÔÇôunload cycles. These hystereses are increasingly formed by deformations outside the range of linear viscoelastic deformations. The residual energy ratio relates the proportion of deformation energy recovered during unloading to the deformation work that is applied. In this contribution, the residual energy ratio is successfully used to detect a significant evolution of loss energy under increasing load and to correlate this transition to a characteristic strain. The latter is used as a dimensioning parameter for the design of components made of elastomeric polyurethane materials for quasi-static load cases. The determination of this strain limit is performed under consideration of the criterion of reversibility of deformation

    Investigation of process control influence on tribological properties of FLM-manufactured components

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    In recent years, additive manufacturing methods such as Fused Layer Modeling have been continuously improved by industry and research institutions. In many cases, the influence of process control on the mechanical component properties is being investigated. Influencing parameters include the infill and its orientation as well as patterns. Extrusion parameters such as the volume flow, which can be influenced by the speed, the line width, and the layer thickness, and the temperatures, which determine the interlaminar bonding between the lines and layers, are relevant as well. In this contribution, the influence of process control on the tribological properties of cylindrical tribo-test specimens made of polybutylene terephthalate is investigated. Using a reciprocating pin-on-plate tribo-tester, the static and dynamic friction forces as well as the linear wear is determined. The results show a significant influence of the orientation and density of the infill on the tribological properties. Due to the process-specific large degrees of freedom, the advantage of a load-compatible individualisation and consequently the optimisation of tribologically exposed components is given compared to conventional manufacturing processes

    Correlation between Processing Parameters, Morphology, and Properties of Injection-Molded Polylactid Acid (PLA) Specimens at Different Length Scales

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    Polylactic acid (PLA) is one of the most promising bioplastic representatives that finds application in many different areas, e.g., as single-use products in the packaging industry, in the form of mulch film for agriculture, or in medical devices. For the development of new areas, especially in terms of long-term applications and the production of recyclable products, the material properties controlled by processing must be known. The state of the art is investigations at the global scale (integral values) without consideration of local structure inhomogeneities and their influence on the material properties. In this work, morphological, thermal, and mechanical properties of injection-molded PLA tensile bars are investigated at different length scales (global and local) as a function of processing parameters. In addition to the processing parameters, such as melt temperature, mold temperature, and cooling time in the mold, the influence of the D-isomer content on the crystallization behavior and the resulting material properties are investigated. The material was found to form crystalline structures only when cooled in a mold tempered above Tg. In addition, PLA with a lower content of D-isomer was found to have a higher degree of crystallinity. Since the mechanical properties obtained by tensile tests could not be correlated with the degree of crystallinity, detailed analysis were performed showing a characteristic inhomogeneous morphology within the tensile bars. By means of micromechanical investigations on samples with different microstructure ranges, the relationship between local morphology and failure behavior could be explained

    Process Monitoring of a Vibration Dampening CFRP Drill Tube in BTA deep hole drilling using Fibre-Bragg-Grating Sensors

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    The large tool length in BTA deep hole drilling often leads to strong torsional vibrations of the tool system, leading to a reduced bore hole quality failures. When substituting steel drill tubes with tubes from composite material, the laminate structure dampens these vibrations. Secondly, the integration of sensors allow to monitor process vibrations. This contribution introduces a new sensor platform to measure process vibrations, feed force and drilling torque using Fibre-Bragg Grating Sensors. The presented experimental results focus on characteristic frequency spectra with natural torsional and compression frequencies of the CFRP drill tube, which show variations due to changed feed

    FEM updating for damage modeling of composite cylinders under radial compression considering the winding pattern

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    This work aims at developing a strategy to obtain damage evolution parameters of wound cylinders to verify the influence of the winding pattern on them. First, a detailed description of the pattern generation is presented. Then, a finite element (FE) model is developed, in which the cylinders are constructed with winding patterns (WP) of 1/1, 2/1, and 3/1 and subjected to radial compressive loading. Since the cylinder-to-plate contact is considered, the variation of radial stiffness with respect to the parallel plate position is also analyzed. In addition, a damage model is used to predict the progressive failure of those cylinders. A finite element model updating (FEMU) routine is then developed to find the damage input parameters that best simulate experimental forceÔÇôdisplacement curves. Key results show that the FEMU algorithm is strongly dependent on the initial guesses producing, however, an excellent correlation with experimental data. The predicted force versus displacement curves for all winding patterns are within the experimental standard deviation, except for the cases in which the winding pattern is not taken into consideration. The computational framework proposed is validated both quantitatively and qualitatively through post-mortem analysis of the specimens. The winding pattern affects the failure and damage mechanisms of the cylinders and, consequently conventional FE models that disregard the pattern cannot capture these mechanisms

    Visualization of Tensor Fields in Mechanics

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    Tensors are used to describe complex physical processes in many applications. Examples include the distribution of stresses in technical materials, acting forces during seismic events, or remodeling of biological tissues. While tensors encode such complex information mathematically precisely, the semantic interpretation of a tensor is challenging. Visualization can be beneficial here and is frequently used by domain experts. Typical strategies include the use of glyphs, color plots, lines, and isosurfaces. However, data complexity is nowadays accompanied by the sheer amount of data produced by large-scale simulations and adds another level of obstruction between user and data. Given the limitations of traditional methods, and the extra cognitive effort of simple methods, more advanced tensor field visualization approaches have been the focus of this work. This survey aims to provide an overview of recent research results with a strong application-oriented focus, targeting applications based on continuum mechanics, namely the fields of structural, bio-, and geomechanics. As such, the survey is complementing and extending previously published surveys. Its utility is twofold: (i) It serves as basis for the visualization community to get an overview of recent visualization techniques. (ii) It emphasizes and explains the necessity for further research for visualizations in this context

    Spinning of Endless Bioactive Silicate Glass Fibres for Fibre Reinforcement Applications

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    Bioactive glasses have been used for many years in the human body as bone substitute. Since bioactive glasses are not readily available in the form of endless thin fibres with diameters below 20 ┬Ám, their use is limited to mainly non-load-bearing applications in the form of particles or granules. In this study, the spinnability of four bioactive silicate glasses was evaluated in terms of crystallisation behaviour, characteristic processing temperatures and viscosity determined by thermal analysis. The glass melts were drawn into fibres and their mechanical strength was measured by single fibre tensile tests before and after the surface treatment with different silanes. The degradation of the bioactive glasses was observed in simulated body fluid and pure water by recording the changes of the pH value and the ion concentration by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry; further, the glass degradation process was monitored by scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, first in vitro experiments using murine pre-osteoblast cell line MC3T3E1 were carried out in order to evaluate the interaction with the glass fibre surface. The results achieved in this work show up the potential of the manufacturing of endless bioactive glass fibres with appropriate mechanical strength to be applied as reinforcing fibres in new innovative medical implants

    Reduction of ejection forces in injection molding by applying mechanically post-treated CrN and CrAlN PVD films

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    In injection molding, the reduction of ejection forces is a process relevant aspect to improve the production rates. For this purpose, CrN and CrAlN films were sputtered on cylindrical and quadratic AISI H11 cores of an injection mold in order to investigate their influence on the resulting ejection forces to demold polypropylene test components. Within this context, the ejection forces of the PVD coated cores were compared to those of uncoated cores made of AISI H11. For both the cylindrical and quadratic cores, the as-deposited CrN and CrAlN films exhibit higher ejection forces than the uncoated cores due to the increase of the roughness profile after sputtering. It is known that the ejection forces are directly related to the surface roughness. In order to ensure comparable surface conditions to the uncoated surfaces, and to demonstrate the potential of PVD coated mold surfaces when reducing the ejection forces, the coated surfaces were mechanically post-treated to obtain a similar roughness profile as the uncoated cores. The combination of a PVD deposition and post-treatment ensures a significant reduction of the ejection forces by 22.6% and 23.7% for both core geometries
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