105 research outputs found

    Terrestrial Very-Long-Baseline Atom Interferometry: Workshop Summary

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    Summary of the Terrestrial Very-Long-Baseline Atom Interferometry Workshop held at CERN: https://indico.cern.ch/event/1208783/This document presents a summary of the 2023 Terrestrial Very-Long-Baseline Atom Interferometry Workshop hosted by CERN. The workshop brought together experts from around the world to discuss the exciting developments in large-scale atom interferometer (AI) prototypes and their potential for detecting ultralight dark matter and gravitational waves. The primary objective of the workshop was to lay the groundwork for an international TVLBAI proto-collaboration. This collaboration aims to unite researchers from different institutions to strategize and secure funding for terrestrial large-scale AI projects. The ultimate goal is to create a roadmap detailing the design and technology choices for one or more km-scale detectors, which will be operational in the mid-2030s. The key sections of this report present the physics case and technical challenges, together with a comprehensive overview of the discussions at the workshop together with the main conclusions

    No difference in outcomes between large- and small-pore meshes in a prospective, randomized, multicenter trial investigating open retromuscular meshplasty for incisional hernia repair

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    Kroh A, Zufacher M, Eickhoff R, et al. No difference in outcomes between large- and small-pore meshes in a prospective, randomized, multicenter trial investigating open retromuscular meshplasty for incisional hernia repair. Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery. 2023;408(1): 22.STUDY DESIGN: A randomized, controlled, prospective multicenter clinical trial with a parallel group design was initiated in eight surgical centers to compare a large-pore polypropylene mesh (Ultrapro) to a small-pore polypropylene mesh (Premilene) within a standardized retromuscular meshplasty for incisional hernia repair.; METHODS: Between 2004 and 2006, patients with a fascial defect with a minimum diameter of 4 cm after vertical midline laparotomy were recruited for the trial. Patients underwent retromuscular meshplasty with either a large-pore or a small-pore mesh to identify the superiority of the large-pore mesh. Follow-up visits were scheduled at 5 and 21 days and 4, 12, and 24 months after surgery. A clinical examination, a modified short form 36 (SF-36), a daily activity questionnaire, and an ultrasound investigation of the abdominal wall were completed at every follow-up visit. The primary outcome criterion was foreign body sensation at the 12-month visit, and the secondary endpoint criteria were the occurrence of hematoma, seroma, and chronic pain within 24 months postoperatively.; RESULTS: In 8 centers, 181 patients were included in the study. Neither foreign body sensation within the first year after surgery (27.5% Ultrapro, 32.2% Premilene) nor the time until the first occurrence of foreign body sensation within the first year was significantly different between the groups. Regarding the secondary endpoints, no significant differences could be observed. At the 2-year follow-up, recurrences occurred in 5 Ultrapro patients (5.5%) and 4 Premilene patients (4.4%).; CONCLUSION: Despite considerable differences in theoretical and experimental works, we have not been able to identify differences in surgical or patient-reported outcomes between the use of large- and small-pore meshes for retromuscular incisional hernia repair.; TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials NCT04961346 (16.06.2021) retrospectively registered. © 2023. The Author(s)

    Terrestrial Very-Long-Baseline Atom Interferometry Workshop (TVLBAI 2023)

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    This document presents a summary of the 2023 Terrestrial Very-Long-Baseline Atom Interferometry Workshop hosted by CERN. The workshop brought together experts from around the world to discuss the exciting developments in large-scale atom interferometer (AI) prototypes and their potential for detecting ultralight dark matter and gravitational waves. The primary objective of the workshop was to lay the groundwork for an international TVLBAI proto-collaboration. This collaboration aims to unite researchers from different institutions to strategize and secure funding for terrestrial large-scale AI projects. The ultimate goal is to create a roadmap detailing the design and technology choices for one or more km-scale detectors, which will be operational in the mid-2030s. The key sections of this report present the physics case and technical challenges, together with a comprehensive overview of the discussions at the workshop together with the main conclusions

    Electrolyte-Controlled Permeability in Nanocellulose-Stabilized Emulsions

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    Publisher Copyright: © 2022 The Authors. Advanced Materials Interfaces published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.Particle-stabilized emulsions, so-called Pickering emulsions (PEs), are a promising low-tech avenue to precisely engineered materials for applications in drug delivery, catalysis, or water remediation. The particle assembly at the liquid–liquid interface provides superior stability and an adjustable permeability, which is a key parameter for controllable compound capture and release. However, understanding the complex factors that control the particle assembly in detail is a still-remaining challenge limiting practical applications of PEs in an industrial framework. In this study, the properties of oil-in-water emulsions, stabilized by cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), are investigated. It is shown how high ionic strength leads to low polydispersity droplets, with restricted permeability across the oil-water interface due to the dense packing of the CNC layer. In contrast, lower electrolyte concentration enables enhanced uptake through the interface, while providing the required stability for the reusability of the material. The authors continue to study the impact of the electrolyte content on the dynamic responses of the emulsions, leading to a liquid–liquid system with tunable cyclic uptake and release levels. Overall, the results highlight the potential of nanocellulose-stabilized emulsions as tunable and robust material platform with well-defined permeability characteristics—made in a simple way.Peer reviewe

    Structural details of amyloid β oligomers in complex with human prion protein as revealed by solid-state MAS NMR spectroscopy

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    Human PrP (huPrP) is a high-affinity receptor for oligomeric amyloid β (Aβ) protein aggregates. Binding of Aβ oligomers to membrane-anchored huPrP has been suggested to trigger neurotoxic cell signaling in Alzheimer’s disease, while an N-terminal soluble fragment of huPrP can sequester Aβ oligomers and reduce their toxicity. Synthetic oligomeric Aβ species are known to be heterogeneous, dynamic, and transient, rendering their structural investigation particularly challenging. Here, using huPrP to preserve Aβ oligomers by coprecipitating them into large heteroassemblies, we investigated the conformations of Aβ(1–42) oligomers and huPrP in the complex by solid-state MAS NMR spectroscopy. The disordered N-terminal region of huPrP becomes immobilized in the complex and therefore visible in dipolar spectra without adopting chemical shifts characteristic of a regular secondary structure. Most of the well-defined C-terminal part of huPrP is part of the rigid complex, and solid-state NMR spectra suggest a loss in regular secondary structure in the two C-terminal α-helices. For Aβ(1–42) oligomers in complex with huPrP, secondary chemical shifts reveal substantial β-strand content. Importantly, not all Aβ(1–42) molecules within the complex have identical conformations. Comparison with the chemical shifts of synthetic Aβ fibrils suggests that the Aβ oligomer preparation represents a heterogeneous mixture of β-strand-rich assemblies, of which some have the potential to evolve and elongate into different fibril polymorphs, reflecting a general propensity of Aβ to adopt variable β-strand-rich conformers. Taken together, our results reveal structural changes in huPrP upon binding to Aβ oligomers that suggest a role of the C terminus of huPrP in cell signaling. Trapping Aβ(1–42) oligomers by binding to huPrP has proved to be a useful tool for studying the structure of these highly heterogeneous β-strand-rich assemblies

    Nanocellulose : Recent Fundamental Advances and Emerging Biological and Biomimicking Applications

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    In the effort toward sustainable advanced functional materials, nanocelluloses have attracted extensive recent attention. Nanocelluloses range from rod‐like highly crystalline cellulose nanocrystals to longer and more entangled cellulose nanofibers, earlier denoted also as microfibrillated celluloses and bacterial cellulose. In recent years, they have spurred research toward a wide range of applications, ranging from nanocomposites, viscosity modifiers, films, barrier layers, fibers, structural color, gels, aerogels and foams, and energy applications, until filtering membranes, to name a few. Still, nanocelluloses continue to show surprisingly high challenges to master their interactions and tailorability to allow well‐controlled assemblies for functional materials. Rather than trying to review the already extensive nanocellulose literature at large, here selected aspects of the recent progress are the focus. Water interactions, which are central for processing for the functional properties, are discussed first. Then advanced hybrid gels toward (multi)stimuli responses, shape‐memory materials, self‐healing, adhesion and gluing, biological scaffolding, and forensic applications are discussed. Finally, composite fibers are discussed, as well as nanocellulose as a strategy for improvement of photosynthesis‐based chemicals production. In summary, selected perspectives toward new directions for sustainable high‐tech functional materials science based on nanocelluloses are described.publishedVersionPeer reviewe

    A Giant Extracellular Matrix Binding Protein of Staphylococcus epidermidis Binds Surface-Immobilized Fibronectin via a Novel Mechanism

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    Although it is normally an innocuous part of the human skin microbiota, Staphylococcus epidermidis has emerged as a major nosocomial pathogen, and implanted foreign materials are an essential risk factor for the development of an infection. The extraordinary efficiency of S. epidermidis to colonize artificial surfaces is particularly related to the ability to form biofilms. Biofilm formation itself critically depends on stable pathogen binding to extracellular host matrix components, e.g. fibronectin (Fn), covering inserted devices in vast amounts. Extracellular matrix binding protein (Embp) and its subdomains referred to as the F-repeat and the FG-repeat are critical for adherence of S. epidermidis to surface-immobilized Fn. Embp-Fn interactions preferentially occur with surface-bound, but not folded, globular Fn via binding to the F3 domain. High-resolution structure analysis of F- and FG-repeats revealed that both repeats are composed of two tightly connected triple α-helix bundles, exhibiting an elongated but rather rigid structural organization in solution. Both F- and FG-repeat possess Fn-binding capacity via interactions with type III subdomain FN12, involving residues within the C and F β-sheet. FN12 essentially supports stability of the globular Fn state, and thus these findings reasonably explain why Embp-mediated interaction of S. epidermidis necessitates Fn surface immobilization. Thus, Embp employs an uncharacterized bacterial Fn-binding mechanism to promote staphylococcal adherence

    mTOR Inhibition Is Most Beneficial After Liver Transplantation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients With Active Tumors

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    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival benefit of sirolimus in patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (exploratory analysis of the SiLVER-trial). SUMMARY AND BACKGROUND DATA: Patients receiving LT) for HCC are at a high risk for tumor recurrence. Calcineurin inhibitors have shown evidence to promote cancer growth, whereas mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors like sirolimus have anticancer effects. In the SiLVER-trial (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00355862), the effect of sirolimus on the recurrence of HCC after LT was investigated in a prospective randomized trial. Although the primary endpoint of improved disease-free survival (DFS) with sirolimus was not met, outcomes were improved for patients in the sirolimus-treatment arm in the first 3 to 5 years. To learn more about the key variables, a multivariate analysis was performed on the SiLVER-trial data. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data from 508 patients of the intention-to-treat analysis were included in exploratory univariate and multivariate models for overall survival (OS), DFS and a competing risk analysis for HCC recurrence. RESULTS: Sirolimus use for ≥3 months after LT for HCC independently reduced the hazard for death in the multivariate analysis [hazard ratio (HR): 0.7 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.52-0.96, P = 0.02). Most strikingly, patients with an alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) ≥10 ng/mL and having used sirolimus for ≥3 months, benefited most with regard to OS, DFS, and HCC-recurrence (HR: 0.49-0.59, P = 0.0079-0.0245). CONCLUSIONS: mTOR-inhibitor treatment with sirolimus for ≥3 months improves outcomes in LT for HCC, especially in patients with AFP-evidence of higher tumor activity, advocating particularly for mTOR inhibitor use in this subgroup of patients. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT: 2005-005362-36 CLINICALTRIALS.GOV:: NCT00355862.status: publishe
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