74 research outputs found

    Dynamic relocalization of hOGG1 during the cell cycle is disrupted in cells harbouring the hOGG1-Cys(326) polymorphic variant

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    Numerous lines of evidence support the role of oxidative stress in different types of cancer. A major DNA lesion, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG), is formed by reactive oxygen species in the genome under physiological conditions. 8-OxoG is strongly mutagenic, generating G·C→T·A transversions, a frequent somatic mutation in cancers. hOGG1 was cloned as a gene encoding a DNA glycosylase that specifically recognizes and removes 8-oxoG from 8-oxoG:C base pairs and suppresses G·C→T·A transversions. In this study, we investigated the subcellular localization and expression of hOGG1 during the cell cycle. Northern blots showed cell-cycle-dependent mRNA expression of the two major hOGG1 isoforms. By using a cell line constitutively expressing hOGG1 fused to enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP), we observed a dynamic relocalization of EGFP-hOGG1 to the nucleoli during the S-phase of the cell cycle, and this localization was shown to be linked to transcription. A C/G change that results in an amino acid substitution from serine to cysteine in codon 326 has been reported as a genetic polymorphism and a risk allele for a variety of cancers. We investigated the cellular localization of the corresponding protein, hOGG1-Cys(326), fused to EGFP and observed a dramatic effect on its localization that is explained by a change in the phosphorylation status of hOGG1

    Human ALKBH4 Interacts with Proteins Associated with Transcription

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    The Fe(II)- and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent dioxygenase AlkB from E. coli is a demethylase which repairs alkyl lesions in DNA, as well as RNA, through a direct reversal mechanism. Humans possess nine AlkB homologs (ALKBH1-8 and FTO). ALKBH2 and ALKBH3 display demethylase activities corresponding to that of AlkB, and both ALKBH8 and FTO are RNA modification enzymes. The biochemical functions of the rest of the homologs are still unknown. To increase our knowledge on the functions of ALKBH4 and ALKBH7 we have here performed yeast two-hybrid screens to identify interaction partners of the two proteins. While no high-confidence hits were detected in the case of ALKBH7, several proteins associated with chromatin and/or involved in transcription were found to interact with ALKBH4. For all interaction partners, the regions mediating binding to ALKBH4 comprised domains previously reported to be involved in interaction with DNA or chromatin. Furthermore, some of these partners showed nuclear co-localization with ALKBH4. However, the global gene expression pattern was only marginally altered upon ALKBH4 over-expression, and larger effects were observed in the case of ALKBH7. Although the molecular function of both proteins remains to be revealed, our findings suggest a role for ALKBH4 in regulation of gene expression or chromatin state.© 2012 Bjørnstad et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited

    Peptides containing the PCNA interacting motif APIM bind to the β-clamp and inhibit bacterial growth and mutagenesis

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    In the fight against antimicrobial resistance, the bacterial DNA sliding clamp, β-clamp, is a promising drug target for inhibition of DNA replication and translesion synthesis. The β-clamp and its eukaryotic homolog, PCNA, share a C-terminal hydrophobic pocket where all the DNA polymerases bind. Here we report that cell penetrating peptides containing the PCNA-interacting motif APIM (APIM-peptides) inhibit bacterial growth at low concentrations in vitro, and in vivo in a bacterial skin infection model in mice. Surface plasmon resonance analysis and computer modeling suggest that APIM bind to the hydrophobic pocket on the β-clamp, and accordingly, we find that APIM-peptides inhibit bacterial DNA replication. Interestingly, at sub-lethal concentrations, APIM-peptides have anti-mutagenic activities, and this activity is increased after SOS induction. Our results show that although the sequence homology between the β-clamp and PCNA are modest, the presence of similar polymerase binding pockets in the DNA clamps allows for binding of the eukaryotic binding motif APIM to the bacterial β-clamp. Importantly, because APIM-peptides display both anti-mutagenic and growth inhibitory properties, they may have clinical potential both in combination with other antibiotics and as single agents

    Cell cycle-specific UNG2 phosphorylations regulate protein turnover, activity and association with RPA

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    Human UNG2 is a multifunctional glycosylase that removes uracil near replication forks and in non-replicating DNA, and is important for affinity maturation of antibodies in B cells. How these diverse functions are regulated remains obscure. Here, we report three new phosphoforms of the non-catalytic domain that confer distinct functional properties to UNG2. These are apparently generated by cyclin-dependent kinases through stepwise phosphorylation of S23, T60 and S64 in the cell cycle. Phosphorylation of S23 in late G1/early S confers increased association with replication protein A (RPA) and replicating chromatin and markedly increases the catalytic turnover of UNG2. Conversely, progressive phosphorylation of T60 and S64 throughout S phase mediates reduced binding to RPA and flag UNG2 for breakdown in G2 by forming a cyclin E/c-myc-like phosphodegron. The enhanced catalytic turnover of UNG2 p-S23 likely optimises the protein to excise uracil along with rapidly moving replication forks. Our findings may aid further studies of how UNG2 initiates mutagenic rather than repair processing of activation-induced deaminase-generated uracil at Ig loci in B cells

    Activation of multiple stress responses in Staphylococcus aureus substantially lowers the minimal inhibitory concentration when combining two novel antibiotic drug candidates

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    The past few decades have been plagued by an increasing number of infections caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria. To mitigate the rise in untreatable infections, we need new antibiotics with novel targets and drug combinations that reduce resistance development. The novel β-clamp targeting antimicrobial peptide BTP-001 was recently shown to have a strong additive effect in combination with the halogenated pyrrolopyrimidine JK-274. In this study, the molecular basis for this effect was examined by a comprehensive proteomic and metabolomic study of the individual and combined effects on Staphylococcus aureus. We found that JK-274 reduced activation of several TCA cycle enzymes, likely via increasing the cellular nitric oxide stress, and BTP-001 induced oxidative stress in addition to inhibiting replication, translation, and DNA repair processes. Analysis indicated that several proteins linked to stress were only activated in the combination and not in the single treatments. These results suggest that the strong additive effect is due to the activation of multiple stress responses that can only be triggered by the combined effect of the individual mechanisms. Importantly, the combination dose required to eradicate S. aureus was well tolerated and did not affect cell viability of immortalized human keratinocyte cells, suggesting a species-specific response. Our findings demonstrate the potential of JK-274 and BTP-001 as antibiotic drug candidates and warrant further studies

    Helicase-Like Transcription Factor HLTF and E3 Ubiquitin Ligase SHPRH Confer DNA Damage Tolerance through Direct Interactions with Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA)

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    To prevent replication fork collapse and genome instability under replicative stress, DNA damage tolerance (DDT) mechanisms have evolved. The RAD5 homologs, HLTF (helicase-like transcription factor) and SHPRH (SNF2, histone-linker, PHD and RING finger domain-containing helicase), both ubiquitin ligases, are involved in several DDT mechanisms; DNA translesion synthesis (TLS), fork reversal/remodeling and template switch (TS). Here we show that these two human RAD5 homologs contain functional APIM PCNA interacting motifs. Our results show that both the role of HLTF in TLS in HLTF overexpressing cells, and nuclear localization of SHPRH, are dependent on interaction of HLTF and SHPRH with PCNA. Additionally, we detected multiple changes in the mutation spectra when APIM in overexpressed HLTF or SHPRH were mutated compared to overexpressed wild type proteins. In plasmids from cells overexpressing the APIM mutant version of HLTF, we observed a decrease in C to T transitions, the most common mutation caused by UV irradiation, and an increase in mutations on the transcribed strand. These results strongly suggest that direct binding of HLTF and SHPRH to PCNA is vital for their function in DDT

    Helicase-Like Transcription Factor HLTF and E3 Ubiquitin Ligase SHPRH Confer DNA Damage Tolerance through Direct Interactions with Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA)

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    To prevent replication fork collapse and genome instability under replicative stress, DNA damage tolerance (DDT) mechanisms have evolved. The RAD5 homologs, HLTF (helicase-like transcription factor) and SHPRH (SNF2, histone-linker, PHD and RING finger domain-containing helicase), both ubiquitin ligases, are involved in several DDT mechanisms; DNA translesion synthesis (TLS), fork reversal/remodeling and template switch (TS). Here we show that these two human RAD5 homologs contain functional APIM PCNA interacting motifs. Our results show that both the role of HLTF in TLS in HLTF overexpressing cells, and nuclear localization of SHPRH, are dependent on interaction of HLTF and SHPRH with PCNA. Additionally, we detected multiple changes in the mutation spectra when APIM in overexpressed HLTF or SHPRH were mutated compared to overexpressed wild type proteins. In plasmids from cells overexpressing the APIM mutant version of HLTF, we observed a decrease in C to T transitions, the most common mutation caused by UV irradiation, and an increase in mutations on the transcribed strand. These results strongly suggest that direct binding of HLTF and SHPRH to PCNA is vital for their function in DDT

    The human RAD5 homologs, HLTF and SHPRH, have separate functions in DNA damage tolerance dependent on the DNA lesion type

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    Helicase-like transcription factor (HLTF) and SNF2, histone-linker, PHD and RING finger domain-containing helicase (SHPRH), the two human homologs of yeast Rad5, are believed to have a vital role in DNA damage tolerance (DDT). Here we show that HLTF, SHPRH and HLTF/SHPRH knockout cell lines show different sensitivities towards UV-irradiation, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), cisplatin and mitomycin C (MMC), which are drugs that induce different types of DNA lesions. In general, the HLTF/SHPRH double knockout cell line was less sensitive than the single knockouts in response to all drugs, and interestingly, especially to MMS and cisplatin. Using the SupF assay, we detected an increase in the mutation frequency in HLTF knockout cells both after UV- and MMS-induced DNA lesions, while we detected a decrease in mutation frequency over UV lesions in the HLTF/SHPRH double knockout cells. No change in the mutation frequency was detected in the HLTF/SHPRH double knockout cell line after MMS treatment, even though these cells were more resistant to MMS and grew faster than the other cell lines after treatment with DNA damaging agents. This phenotype could possibly be explained by a reduced activation of checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2) and MCM2 (a component of the pre-replication complex) after MMS treatment in cells lacking SHPRH. Our data reveal both distinct and common roles of the human RAD5 homologs dependent on the nature of DNA lesions, and identified SHPRH as a regulator of CHK2, a central player in DNA damage response
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