312 research outputs found

    Sistemi di ventilazione nelle attivitĂ  cantieristiche in sotterraneo: aspetti di sicurezza e salute del lavoro

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    Le attività per la realizzazione di opere in sotterraneo costituiscono un aspetto rilevante, ancora oggi inforte crescita, stante il continuo sviluppo nei paesi dell’Unione Europea di reti di comunicazione e trasferimento di persone, beni e servizi, e risultano di particolare interesse a livello Nazionale date le caratteristiche morfologiche del territorio.Le tematiche associate agli aspetti di Sicurezza e Salute del lavoro, OS&H, assumono particolare importanza nelle attività in sotterraneo, caratterizzate da marcate peculiarità, tra cui limitatezza di spazi,compresenza di molteplici attività nella zona di avanzamento, difficoltà di illuminazione, comunicazione, ecc.In questi scenari diviene dunque a maggior ragione fondamentale un rigoroso approccio in Valutazione e Gestione dei Rischi, unico in grado di guidare a scelte valide in materia di tecniche e tecnologie operative ed in generale nella gestione delle condizioni ambientali: si possono così ottenere risultati economicamente soddisfacenti - un fermo d’avanzamento in galleria comporta costi anche ampiamente superiori a 100k €/giorno (valore indicativo per scavo di una galleria con diametro di 8 m tramite Tunnel Boring Machine aperta) - e efficace tutela delle condizioni di OS&H dei lavoratori impegnati nella realizzazione dell’opera, nonché dei futuri fruitori, manutentori, ecc.Di non secondaria importanza è anche la considerazione che gli inquinanti generati dalle attività di scavo sono destinati, in mancanza di opportune contromisure, ad impattare sull’ambiente esterno, al paridi altri possibili impatti quali vibrazioni, cedimenti indotti in superficie, ecc. Le citate problematiche costituiscono certamente nel loro insieme tema di studio ed approfondimento nell’ambito del corso dilaurea in Tecniche della Prevenzione nell’Ambiente e nei Luoghi di Lavoro e delle tesi applicative derivanti.Ci si propone qui di focalizzare l’attenzione su uno degli aspetti del problema della gestione della sicurezza nelle opere in sotterraneo in corso di realizzazione, ovvero un’efficace progettazione e gestionedei sistemi di ventilazione

    TUNNELING OPERATIONS, OCCUPATIONAL S&H AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION: A PREVENTION THROUGH DESIGN APPROACH

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    The study refers on the main results of a research work that has been carried out by the Safety and Health group of the Department of Environment, Land and Infrastructure engineering (DIATI) at the Politecnico di Torino, with reference to the substantial difference that exists between the case of an established absence of hazards due to the presence of noxious materials such asbestos, crystalline silica, in the rock mass to be excavated and the situations in which these minerals can be present. Since, when carcinogenic substances can be expected, corrective action following exposure or dispersion is clearly unacceptable, the presence of critical pollutants requires special preventive actions for the health of the workers and the muck which can introduce risks for the users (e.g., during mechanical processing involving feeding, crushing, milling, sizing and sorting operations) should not be considered for any reuse

    Formalized Approach in Prevention through Design and Detailed Definition of the Input Data on the Basis of Occurred Accidents: Some Experiences at Italian Extractive Activities

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    The paper deals with the principia and results of a formalized approach in Prevention Through Design applied to a number of North Western Italian extractive activities. The goal of an effective occupational Risk Analysis and Management, coherent to the national enforcements of the European safety regulations for the exploitation plan and development, nvolves a pro-active approach. The statistical data confirms in fact that the extractive activities should be considered with special care, due to the impressive figures of work related accidents (in number and seriousness), and of the health impairments associated with the presence of quite noxious pollutants at the workplaces. Taken into account on one hand the impressive developments in the geotechnics – geomechanic sciences, and in the mining techniques and technologies, and on the other hand the results of the recent epidemiologic surveys, in particular with reference to the possible criticality of the silica dust, a Prevention through Design approach appears to be the only solution to correctly manage the substantially modified overall safety situation. Obviously, the availability of reliable input data drawn from occurred accidents is essential for the development of an exhaustive Risk Analysis and Management in the Prevention through Design proactive approach. To overcome the physiological limits to the work related accidents available databases, and to get detailed information on the chain of intermediate events up to the root causes laying at the very base on an accident, a special technique was developed, useful also to pinpoint the safety measures necessary to prevent the accident. The characteristic of the technique and the possible results are discussed, together with the possibilities and advantages of its implementation in a computer assisted tool

    Discussion on Possible Approaches for the Management of Pollutants in Tunneling in Rock Formations Containing Asbestos Minerals

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    Workers’ exposure to asbestos minerals is a major factor in the Occupational Safety and Health risks typical of tunneling. For, as well as being a carcinogen, the distribution of asbestos minerals in rock formations is highly irregular since their possible formation during the metamorphic process depends on various parameters. This makes a special risk assessment and management necessary. Many case studies of specific risk assessment and management of pollutants applied in tunneling are available in literature, so the aim of this research study is to define which can be implemented in case of formations containing asbestos minerals, in combination also with other solutions, and organize them in hierarchical order. Initially, to achieve this goal, a literature review was carried out in accordance with the PRISMA statement, to select the current solutions used to manage possible workers’ exposure to asbestos minerals. Subsequently, the various solutions selected (e.g., specific excavation techniques, catcher systems near the source, ventilation systems etc.) were given a hierarchy by order of priority and compared to each other. The selection of solutions and the priority order were achieved by taking into account the safety requirements for the construction of the base tunnel of the Turin-Lyon railway line. The study highlighted the fact that despite technological progress there are still some critical aspects in the management of pollutants and in particular of asbestos mineral
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