2,882 research outputs found

    Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy Type 1 is associated with a high risk of malignant ventricular arrhythmias and end-stage heart failure

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    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) is caused by variants in EMD (EDMD1) and LMNA (EDMD2). Cardiac conduction defects and atrial arrhythmia are common to both, but LMNA variants also cause end-stage heart failure (ESHF) and malignant ventricular arrhythmia (MVA). This study aimed to better characterise the cardiac complications of EMD variants. METHODS: Consecutively referred EMD variant-carriers were retrospectively recruited from 12 international cardiomyopathy units. MVA and ESHF incidence in male and female variant-carriers was determined. Male EMD variant-carriers with a cardiac phenotype at baseline (EMDCARDIAC) were compared to consecutively recruited male LMNA variant-carriers with a cardiac phenotype at baseline (LMNACARDIAC). RESULTS: Longitudinal follow-up data were available for 38 male and 21 female EMD variant-carriers (mean [SD] ages 33.4 [13.3] and 43.3 [16.8] years, respectively). Nine (23.6%) males developed MVA and five (13.2%) developed ESHF during a median [IQR] follow-up of 65.0 [24.3, 109.5] months. No female EMD variant-carrier had MVA or ESHF, but nine (42.8%) developed a cardiac phenotype at a median [IQR] age of 58.6 [53.2, 60.4] years. Incidence rates for MVA were similar for EMDCARDIAC and LMNACARDIAC (4.8 and 6.6 per 100 person-years, respectively; log-rank p = 0.49). Incidence rates for ESHF were 2.4 and 5.9 per 100 person-years for EMDCARDIAC and LMNACARDIAC, respectively (log-rank p = 0.09). CONCLUSIONS: Male EMD variant-carriers have a risk of progressive heart failure and ventricular arrhythmias similar to that of male LMNA variant-carriers. Early implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation and heart failure drug therapy should be considered in male EMD variant-carriers with cardiac disease

    PSD3 downregulation confers protection against fatty liver disease

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    Fatty liver disease (FLD) is a growing health issue with burdening unmet clinical needs. FLD has a genetic component but, despite the common variants already identified, there is still a missing heritability component. Using a candidate gene approach, we identify a locus (rs71519934) at the Pleckstrin and Sec7 domain-containing 3 (PSD3) gene resulting in a leucine to threonine substitution at position 186 of the protein (L186T) that reduces susceptibility to the entire spectrum of FLD in individuals at risk. PSD3 downregulation by short interfering RNA reduces intracellular lipid content in primary human hepatocytes cultured in two and three dimensions, and in human and rodent hepatoma cells. Consistent with this, Psd3 downregulation by antisense oligonucleotides in vivo protects against FLD in mice fed a non-alcoholic steatohepatitis-inducing diet. Thus, translating these results to humans, PSD3 downregulation might be a future therapeutic option for treating FLD. Employing a candidate gene approach, Mancina et al. identify a genetic variant of the Pleckstrin and Sec7 domain-containing 3 (PSD3) gene that reduces susceptibility to fatty liver disease. Functional studies in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that targeting PSD3 protects against fatty liver disease.Peer reviewe

    Constraints on the χ_(c1) versus χ_(c2) polarizations in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV

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    The polarizations of promptly produced χ_(c1) and χ_(c2) mesons are studied using data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, in proton-proton collisions at √s=8  TeV. The χ_c states are reconstructed via their radiative decays χ_c → J/ψγ, with the photons being measured through conversions to e⁺e⁻, which allows the two states to be well resolved. The polarizations are measured in the helicity frame, through the analysis of the χ_(c2) to χ_(c1) yield ratio as a function of the polar or azimuthal angle of the positive muon emitted in the J/ψ → μ⁺μ⁻ decay, in three bins of J/ψ transverse momentum. While no differences are seen between the two states in terms of azimuthal decay angle distributions, they are observed to have significantly different polar anisotropies. The measurement favors a scenario where at least one of the two states is strongly polarized along the helicity quantization axis, in agreement with nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics predictions. This is the first measurement of significantly polarized quarkonia produced at high transverse momentum