47 research outputs found

    Influence factors in dry-cured hams

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    Zdravstvena ispravnost sirovine, proizvodnja i prerada u odgovarajuńáim registriranim objektima i veterinarsko-sanitarni nadzor od farme do maloprodaje preduvjeti su bez kojih nema legalne proizvodnje prŇ°uta. Tek uz navedene uvjete zdravstvene ispravnosti moŇĺe se govoriti o kakvońái proizvoda, odnosno o ńćimbenicima koji utjeńću na proizvodnju viŇ°e ili manje kvalitetnog proizvoda. Proizvodi koji se proizvode s namjerom stavljanja na trŇĺiŇ°te moraju zadovoljiti propisane veterinarsko-sanitarne uvjete proizvodnje. Spomenuti ńćimbenici koji u lancu proizvodnje prŇ°uta od farme do stola utjeńću na konańćnu kakvońáu prŇ°uta, iako brojni, mogu se u osnovi podijeliti na ńćimbenike izbora sirovine i ńćimbenike nańćina prerade, odnosno preradbene tehnologije. Izbor sirovine, odnosno kakvońáa buta prvenstveno ovisi o genotipu, dobi i tjelesnoj masi svinja, ali i o brojnim drugim ńćimbenicima kao Ň°to su tehnologija uzgoja i tova svinja, postupku sa svinjama ante i post mortem, morfoloŇ°kim osobinama svinja, odnosu miŇ°ińánog i masnog tkiva, fizikalno ‚Äď kemijskim osobinama mesa (pH, WHC, sastav enzimskog sustava itd.) i dr. Definiranje odgovarajuńáih genotipova svinja pogodnih za proizvodnju prŇ°uta, te tehnologije njihova uzgoja i tova uz uvońĎenje standarda u tehnoloŇ°ki postupak prerade prŇ°uta, osobito tradicionalnih tipova (dalmatinski i istarski prŇ°ut) znańćajno bi doprinijelo rjeŇ°avanju problema neujednańćenosti kakvońáe finalnog proizvoda. Time bi se, uz definiranje osobina finalnog proizvoda i zakonsku zaŇ°titu imena (zaŇ°tita izvornosti i zemljopisnog podrijetla temeljem vaŇĺeńáih zakonskih propisa) doprinijelo ońćuvanju i unaprjeńĎenju visoke kakvońáe i trŇĺiŇ°ne vrijednosti naŇ°ih tradicionalnih tipova prŇ°uta, te njihova konkurentnost na domańáem i svjetskom trŇĺiŇ°tu.Ultimate prerequisites of legal dry-cured ham production are food safety standards, production and processing in properly registered buildings as well as veterinarian-sanitary surveillance from stable to table. In such food safety prerequisites product quality could be discussed as well as factors which influence the production of more or less quality products which, regardless of quality must fulfil legal requirements regarding food safety, if they are produced for the market. The above mentioned influence factors in dry-cured ham production chain (from stable to table), despite of being numerous, can be basically divided into raw ham quality factors as well as factors of processing technology. Selection of the raw ham to the dry-cured ham production, respectively raw ham quality, depends in the first place on genotype, age and weight of the hog as well as numerous other factors such as rearing and fattening technology, ante and post mortem treatment, processing technology, morphological characteristics of the hog, muscle and fatty tissue ratio, physico-chemical characteristics of meat (pH, WHC, the muscle enzyme system composition, etc) and so on. Definition of the hog genotypes eligible to dry-cured ham production, as well as rearing and fattening technology and standardization of the processing technology, especially the traditional dry-cured ham production (Dalmatian and Istrian ham) can significantly help solving the problem of variability in dry-cured ham quality. Thus with the definition of the final product characteristics and the legal protection of the product name (geographical indications and designations of origin according to the current legislative) should contribute to protection and improving of the high quality and market value of the traditional Croatian dry-cured ham types as well as to national and world competitiveness

    Dalmatinska kaŇ°tradina [koŇ°tradina]

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    Dalmatinska kaŇ°tradina (koŇ°tradina) se tradicionalno proizvodi od mesa uŇ°kopljenih, utovljenih ovnova i jalovih ovaca ili koza dobi 1 do 5 godina. Nakon klanja, hla&enja i rasijecanja trupova na polovice, svaka se polovica rasijeca na tri dijela: but, lopaticu i preostali dio tzv. ‚Äěkoru‚Äú. Meso se potom soli morskom solju (sa ili bez zacina) i slaŇĺe u posude. U ovim posudama meso stoji 6 do 13 dana, ovisno o kojoj se partiji mesa radi. Potom se meso ispere hladnom vodom, ocijedi i prenese u prostoriju za suŇ°enje. Postupak suŇ°enja traje 15 do 60 u kombinaciji s hladnim dimljenjem. U prosjeku prva faza suŇ°enja traje 7 do 10 dana (dimljenje i prosuŇ°ivanje), a slijedecih 30 do 50 dana odnosi se na suŇ°enje i zrenje mesa, odnosno cijeli postupak traje 30 do 60 dana. To ovisi o partiji mesa i tipu proizvoda (polutrajni ili trajni). KaŇ°tradina od uŇ°kopljenog ovna se najviŇ°e cijeni

    Lipolysis in muscle and adipose tissues during the processing of dry-cured ham

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    Lipoliza je sloŇĺeni biokemijski proces u tkivima buta tijekom prerade prŇ°uta u kojem pod utjecajem endogenih, a manjim dijelom i egzogenih enzima (enzimi mikroorganizama) dolazi do razgradnje lipida intramuskularnog i adipoznog tkiva do slobodnih masnih kiselina. Tijek lipolize intramuskularnih i lipida adipoznog tkiva bitno se razlikuju, Ň°to je uvjetovano razlikama u lipidnom i enzimskom sastavu. Intramuskularni lipidi sastavljeni su od triglicerida i fosfolipida te lipoliza ovdje zapońćinje njihovom hidrolizom, pri ńćemu tijek hidrolize triglicerida ide preko di- i monoacilglicerola do slobodnih masnih kiselina, a hidroliza fosfolipida izravno do slobodnih masnih kiselina. Razgradnja lipida adipoznog tkiva (intermuskularna i potkoŇĺna masnońáa) zapońćinje hidrolizom triglicerida od kojih su uglavnom sastavljeni, preko di- i monoacilglicerola i glicerola do slobodnih masnih kiselina. Proces lipolize ima veliki utjecaj na kvalitetu prŇ°uta zbog izravnog uńćinka na aromu i okus. Tijek lipolize uvelike ovisi o tipu prŇ°uta, tipu masnog tkiva (adipozno i intramuskularno) te kolińćini endogenih lipolitińćkih enzima i specifi ńćnim uvjetima u preradbenom procesu. Slobodne masne kiseline nastale u procesu lipolize, osobito one polinezasińáene, stvaranjem prekursora okusa i arome koji sluŇĺe kao supstrat za budu-ńáe oksidacijske procese izravno utjeńću na aromu i okus, odnosno kvalitetu prŇ°uta.Lipolysis is a complex biochemical process of lipids breakdown to free fatty acids by endogenous and partly exogenous (enzymes of microorganisms) enzymes action in intramuscular and adipose tissues during the dry-cured ham processing. Lipolysis in the intramuscular tissuesis quite different from lipolysis in the adipose tissues owing to differences in lipid and enzyme composition, respectively. Triglycerides and phospholipids compose intramuscular lipids so that lipolysis starts with their hydrolysis. Hydrolysis of triglycerides fl ow over the di- and mono-acylglycerols to free fatty acids and hydrolysis of phospholipid fl ow directly to free fatty acids. Adipose tissues lipids (intramuscular and subcutaneous tissues) are mostly composed of triglycerides so that lipolysis starts with hydrolysis of triglycerides and fl ow over the di- and mono-acylglycerols and glycerols to free fatty acids. Process of lipolysis has a great infl uence on dry-cured ham quality thanks to direct effect on fl avour. Many factors as type of dry-cured ham, type of fatty tissue (adipose and intramuscular), composition and quantity of endogenous lipolytic enzymes and specific processing conditions as well, affect the process of lipolysis. Free fatty acids produced by lipolysis process, especially those polyunsaturated, avail as a substrate in future reactions of oxidation producing precursors of fl avour and taste directly affect the quality of the dry-cured ham

    Effect of desalting on some physical characteristics of istrian dry-cured ham

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    Butovi zaklanih svinja pasmine Ň°vedski landras, utovljenih u sustavu mokrog tova do zavrŇ°ne tjelesne mase 190 do 200 kg, obrańĎeni su na tradicionalni istarski nańćin sa zdjelińćnim kostima, bez koŇĺe i potkoŇĺnog masnog tkiva. Za pokus je odabrano 26 butova mase od 12 do 15 kg koji su dobiveni od 13 svinja. TehnoloŇ°ki postupak prerade butova obavljen je prema tradicionalnoj istarskoj tehnologiji. Nakon suhog salamurenja i preŇ°anja butovi su podijeljeni u dvije grupe od kojih je jedna odsoljavana (O), a druga nije (N). Odsoljavanje butova obavljeno je potapanjem butova u hladnu vodu tijekom 24 sata s ciljem da se smanji koncentracija soli u butovima i utvrdi uńćinak postupka odsoljavanja, odnosno smanjenja koncentracije soli u butu, na kalo i pH istarskog prŇ°uta. Nakon salamurenja i preŇ°anja druga grupa butova je podvrgnuta daljnjem procesu prerade bez odsoljavanja. Usporedba srednjih vrijednosti sadrŇĺaja soli neodsoljavanih (6,83%) i odsoljavanih (5,33%) prŇ°uta pokazuje statistińćki visoko signifikantnu razliku (p<0,001). Analizom varijance s ponovljenim mjerenjima nije utvrńĎen statistińćki znańćajan uńćinak odsoljavanja na kalo prŇ°uta (p=0,140). Nisu utvrńĎene statistińćki znańćajne razlike izmeńĎu srednjih vrijednosti pH neodsoljavanih i odsoljavanih prŇ°uta kako na pońćetku preradbenog procesa, tako i kod zrelog prŇ°uta.The legs of slaughtered hogs (Swedish Landrace breed), bred in a wet fattening system to a final body weight of 190 to 200 kg, were processed in the traditional Istrian manner with the aitch bone and without the rind or subcutaneous adipose tissue. In this experiment, 26 raw hams weighting 12 to 15 kg taken from 13 hogs were used. The technological handling process of the raw hams was conducted according to the traditional Istrian technology. After salting and pressing, the raw hams were divided into two groups, of which one was desalted (O) and the other was not (N). The leg desalting (O) was conducted by soaking the leg in a cold water for 24 hours in order to reduce its salt content and to determine the effect of desalting and reducing of salt content on the weight loss and pH of the Istrian dry-cured ham. Following salting and pressing, the second group of legs (N) was subjected to continued processing, without the desalting phase. A comparison of mean salt content in non-desalted (6.83%) and desalted (5.33%) dry-cured hams showed a strongly significant difference (p<0.001). An Analysis of Variance with repeated measurements did not establish a statistical difference in the effect of desalting on the ham weight loss (p=0.140). There is no statistically significant difference between the mean pH of N and O dry-cured hams at the beginning of processing or with the mature dry-cured hams

    Activity of proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes during the dry-cured ham production

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    Biokemijske promjene u tkivima buta tijekom prerade prŇ°uta rezultat su brojnih i sloŇĺenih biokemijskih reakcija ńćiji tijek i obim ovise uglavnom o aktivnosti endogenog enzimskog sustava. Najznańćajnije biokemijske promjene tkiva buta u proizvodnji prŇ°uta uglavnom se odnose se na proteolizu i lipolizu. Stoga se i enzimski sustavi odgovorni za odvijanje ovih promjena sastoje od proteaza, odgovornih za razgradnju proteina i lipaza, odgovornih za razgradnju masti. MiŇ°ińáni enzimski sustav ńćine proteaze i miŇ°ińáne lipaze odgovorne za razgradnju lipida miŇ°ińánog tkiva, dok su za razgradnju lipida adipoznog tkiva odgovorne lipaze masnog tkiva. Osiguranje povoljnih uvjeta za aktivnost ovih enzimskih sustava u preradi prŇ°uta moŇĺe biti presudan ńćimbenik kvalitete finalnog proizvoda.The biochemical changes in ham tissues during the dry-cured ham production are made as a result of numerous and complex biochemical reactions which course and range are mostly depend on endogenous enzyme system activities. The most important changes in ham tissues are mostly related with proteolysis and lipolysis. Therefore the enzyme systems responsible for these types of reactions are made of proteases and lipases, responsible for proteins and lipids breakdown, respectively. The muscle enzyme system is constituted by proteases and muscle lipases which are responsible for degradation of muscle tissue lipids. The lipids of adipose tissue degradation are performed by the adipose tissue lipases. Assurance of adequate activity conditions for these enzyme systems during the dry-cured ham production can be a key influence factor on final products quality

    Effect of desalting on some physical characteristics of istrian dry-cured ham

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    Butovi zaklanih svinja pasmine Ň°vedski landras, utovljenih u sustavu mokrog tova do zavrŇ°ne tjelesne mase 190 do 200 kg, obrańĎeni su na tradicionalni istarski nańćin sa zdjelińćnim kostima, bez koŇĺe i potkoŇĺnog masnog tkiva. Za pokus je odabrano 26 butova mase od 12 do 15 kg koji su dobiveni od 13 svinja. TehnoloŇ°ki postupak prerade butova obavljen je prema tradicionalnoj istarskoj tehnologiji. Nakon suhog salamurenja i preŇ°anja butovi su podijeljeni u dvije grupe od kojih je jedna odsoljavana (O), a druga nije (N). Odsoljavanje butova obavljeno je potapanjem butova u hladnu vodu tijekom 24 sata s ciljem da se smanji koncentracija soli u butovima i utvrdi uńćinak postupka odsoljavanja, odnosno smanjenja koncentracije soli u butu, na kalo i pH istarskog prŇ°uta. Nakon salamurenja i preŇ°anja druga grupa butova je podvrgnuta daljnjem procesu prerade bez odsoljavanja. Usporedba srednjih vrijednosti sadrŇĺaja soli neodsoljavanih (6,83%) i odsoljavanih (5,33%) prŇ°uta pokazuje statistińćki visoko signifikantnu razliku (p<0,001). Analizom varijance s ponovljenim mjerenjima nije utvrńĎen statistińćki znańćajan uńćinak odsoljavanja na kalo prŇ°uta (p=0,140). Nisu utvrńĎene statistińćki znańćajne razlike izmeńĎu srednjih vrijednosti pH neodsoljavanih i odsoljavanih prŇ°uta kako na pońćetku preradbenog procesa, tako i kod zrelog prŇ°uta.The legs of slaughtered hogs (Swedish Landrace breed), bred in a wet fattening system to a final body weight of 190 to 200 kg, were processed in the traditional Istrian manner with the aitch bone and without the rind or subcutaneous adipose tissue. In this experiment, 26 raw hams weighting 12 to 15 kg taken from 13 hogs were used. The technological handling process of the raw hams was conducted according to the traditional Istrian technology. After salting and pressing, the raw hams were divided into two groups, of which one was desalted (O) and the other was not (N). The leg desalting (O) was conducted by soaking the leg in a cold water for 24 hours in order to reduce its salt content and to determine the effect of desalting and reducing of salt content on the weight loss and pH of the Istrian dry-cured ham. Following salting and pressing, the second group of legs (N) was subjected to continued processing, without the desalting phase. A comparison of mean salt content in non-desalted (6.83%) and desalted (5.33%) dry-cured hams showed a strongly significant difference (p<0.001). An Analysis of Variance with repeated measurements did not establish a statistical difference in the effect of desalting on the ham weight loss (p=0.140). There is no statistically significant difference between the mean pH of N and O dry-cured hams at the beginning of processing or with the mature dry-cured hams

    Dry-cured ham production in the world and in Croatia

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    Proizvodnja prŇ°uta tradicionalno je vezana za mediteranske zemlje, osobito Italiju, ҆panjolsku, Francusku, Portugal i Hrvatsku, odakle potjeńće najveńái broj razlińćitih vrsta prŇ°uta. Osobine svakog od njih zavise od velikog broja ńćimbenika kao Ň°to su: genetska osnova i nańćin uzgoja, dob i tjelesna masa te prehrana svinja, klimatski uvjeti, kakvońáa buta, tehnologija prerade itd. Italija je danas najveńái proizvońĎańć prŇ°uta, kako industrijskih tako i brojnih vrsta zaŇ°tińáenog imena. Najpoznatiji su: u Italiji - Prosciutto di Parma, Prosciutto di San Daniele, Prosciutto di Modena, Prosciutto di Carpagena, Prosciutto Toscano i Prosciutto Venetto Berico-Euganeo; u ҆panjolskoj - iberijski Guijuelo i Teruel prŇ°ut, te Serrano prŇ°ut; te u Francuskoj - Jambon de Bayonne, koji su upisani u registre proizvoda Europske komisije (PDO, PGI i TSG) ńćime je standardizirana njihova tehnologija i zaŇ°tińáen naziv, Ň°to je uvelike doprinijelo ońćuvanju tradicionalne tehnologije i visoke kakvońáe te postignuta odgovarajuńáa visoka trŇĺiŇ°na vrijednost proizvoda. NaŇ°i tradicionalni dalmatinski i istarski prŇ°ut po kakvońái ni malo ne zaostaju za gore navedenim vrstama prŇ°uta. Tradicija njihove proizvodnje je neupitna, kao i njihova specifińćnost koja ih razlikuje od svih ostalih vrsta mediteranskih prŇ°uta. Stoga je neophodno, s ciljem ońćuvanja tradicije i visoke kakvońáe ove naŇ°e dvije vrste prŇ°uta, pristupiti zaŇ°titi njihovog naziva na nivou EU, odnosno upisu u Registre proizvoda Europske komisije.The production of dry-cured ham is traditionally tied to Mediterranean countries, especially Italy, Spain, France, Portugal and Croatia, where numerous, different dry-cured ham types and the most famous types as well come from. The properties of dry-cured ham types depend on numerous factors such as: genotype and breeding technology, age and final body weight of hogs, as well as climatic conditions, row ham quality, processing differences etc. The most famous dry-cured ham types are: Italy - Prosciutto di Parma, Prosciutto di San Daniele, Prosciutto di Modena, Prosciutto di Carpagena, Prosciutto Toscano and Prosciutto Venetto Berico-Euganeo; Spain - Iberian Guijuelo and Teruel dry-cured ham and Serrano dry-cured ham; France - Jambon de Bayonne, which are items entered in the European Commission registers of certain products (PDO, PGI and TSG). Thus, the processing technology of these products is standardized and their names are protected, so this was a large contribution to protecting traditional technology and products high quality as well as proper high market price of products. Croatian traditional dry-cured ham types, Dalmatian and Istrian dry-cured ham is high quality products as well as dry-cured ham types above. The tradition in their production is not doubtful nor is their particular properties which make them different from all other Mediterranean dry-cured ham types. So, it is necessary to protect their names on the EU level, respectively entered them on European Commission registers of certain products (PDO, PGI and TSG)

    Componentes volátiles del tocino de Dalmacia producido en diferentes condiciones tecnológicas

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    Cilj ovog istraŇĺivanja bio je utvrditi u kojoj mjeri razlike u nańćinu soljenja (sa ili bez aditiva, utroŇ°ak soli/salamure, duljina faze soljenja), nańćinu dimljenja (loŇĺiŇ°te unutar ili izvan objekta i temperatura dima) te duljina suŇ°enja i zrenja, utjeńću na sastav hlapivih spojeva arome dalmatinske pancete. U navedenu svrhu uzeta su po 2 uzorka dalmatinske pancete iz dva razlińćita preradbena objekta na podruńćju Dalmacije, u kojima je panceta proizvedena na sljedeńái nańćin: objekt A ‚Äď salamurenje smjesom nitritne soli, antioksidansa i zańćina u trajanju od 10 dana uz utroŇ°ak salamure po kg sirove pancete od 8,61%, dimljenje - vanjsko loŇĺiŇ°te i dimovod uz temperaturu dima <18¬įC, faza suŇ°enja/ zrenja trajala je 80 dana; objekt B ‚Äď soljenje ńćistom morskom soli u trajanju od 4 dana uz utroŇ°ak soli od 4,77%, dimljenje - unutarnje loŇĺi- Ň°te uz temperaturu dima <22¬įC, faza suŇ°enja/zrenja trajala je 63 dana. Analizom hlapivih spojeva arome dalmatinske pancete (metoda mikroekstrakcije na ńćvrstoj fazi, HS-SPME; analiza hlapivih spojeva plinskom kromatografijom-masenom spektrometrijom, GC-MS) identificirana su 122 razlińćita kemijska spoja, od kojih 10 alkohola, 5 aldehida, 19 ketona (od kojih 2 u strukturi sadrŇĺe PAH-antracen), 6 estera, 6 kiselina i amida (4 kiseline, 1 propionamid, 1 anhidrid karboksilne kiseline), 18 ugljikovodika (alifatski, ciklińćki i heterociklińćki), 18 aromatskih ugljikovodika, 5 policiklińćkih aromatskih ugljikovodika (PAH), 5 terpena i terpenoida, 7 furana, pirazina, pirimidina, pirolidina, 16 fenola i 7 organosulfurnih spojeva. U panceti iz objekta A detektirano je 90, a iz objekta B 100 razlińćitih hlapivih spojeva. Panceta iz objekta A sadrŇĺavala je veńáe udjele kiselina i amida (P<0,01), terpena i terpenoida (P<0,001) te organosulfurnih spojeva (P<0,001), dok je panceta iz objekta B sadrŇĺavala veńáe udjele alkohola (P<0,05), ketona (P<0,001), estera (P<0,05), ugljikovodika (P<0,05), aromatskih ugljikovodika (P<0,001) te PAH (P<0,001). Znatno veńái broj i udjeli spojeva podrijetlom iz dima, a osobito policiklińćkih aromatskih ugljikovodika (PAH) te aromatskih ugljikovodika i nekih fenola (bis-fenola) utvrńĎenih u panceti iz objekta B, upuńáuju na negativan uńćinak dimljenja proizvoda primjenom otvorenog loŇĺiŇ°ta unutar objekta. Veńái udio estera u panceti iz objekta B, nastalih najvjerojatnije mikrobnom aktivnoŇ°ńáu, mogli bi se pripisati soljenju morskom solju, manjem utroŇ°ku soli i krańáoj fazi soljenja. Znatno veńáa zastupljenosti terpena u objektu A vjerojatno je rezultat uporabe zańćina u salamuri. Razlike u tehnologiji prerade dalmatinske pancete, uz moguńái utjecaj klimatskih odlika uŇĺeg podruńćja, vjerojatno bitno utjeńću na sastav hlapivih spojeva arome, a time i na kvalitetu i konańćne odlike dalmatinske pancete.The aim of this study was to determine how the differences in method of salting (with or without additives, salt consumption, the length of the salting phase), method of smoking (the firebox inside or outside the facility) and the smoke temperature, as well as length of drying and ripening faze, affect the composition of volatile aroma compounds of Dalmatian dry-cured bacon. For this purpose, two samples of Dalmatian bacon from each of two different facilities in the area of Dalmatia were taken, in which the bacon was processed as follows: facility A - salting for 10 days with a mixture of nitrite salt, antioxidants and spices, salt consumption per kg of raw bacon was 8.61%, smoking - firebox inside the facility with flue pipes, smoke temperature <18¬įC, length of drying/ripening phase was 80 days; facility B - salting for 4 days with pure sea salt, salt consumption was 4.77%, smoking - firebox inside the facility, smoke temperature <22¬įC, length of drying/ripening was 63 days. The analysis of volatile aroma compounds of the Dalmatian dry-cured bacon (Solid-phase microstructure method, HS-SPME; Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, GC-MS) revealed 122 different chemical compounds, of which 10 alcohols, 5 aldehydes, 19 ketones (2 of which contain PAH anthracene), 6 esters, 4 acids, 1 propionamide, 1 carboxylic acid anhydride, 18 hydrocarbons (aliphatic, cyclic and heterocyclic), 18 aromatic hydrocarbons, 5 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 5 terpenes and terpenoids, 7 furans, pyrazines, pyrimidines, 16 phenols and 7 organosulfur compounds. 90 volatile compounds in the bacon from the facility A, and 100 in the bacon from the facility B, were detected. The Dalmatian bacon from the facility A contained larger percentage of acids and amides (P<0.01), terpenes and terpenoids (P<0.001) and organosulfur compounds (P<0.001), while the bacon from the facility B contained higher percentage of alcohols (P<0.05), hydrocarbons (P<0.05), aromatic hydrocarbons (P<0.001) and PAHs (P<0.001). Significantly higher numbers of smoke-based compounds, particularly PAHs and aromatic hydrocarbons and some phenols (bis-phenoles) in the bacon from facility B were found. This indicate a negative effect of smoking products by using an open firebox inside the facility. A greater share of esters in the bacon from the facility B, which are most likely products of microbial activity, could be due to application of pure sea salt, lower salt consumption and shorter salting phase. Significantly higher prevalence of terpenes in the bacon from the facility A is probably due to spices. Differences in the technology of processing the Dalmatian dry-cured bacon, with the possible influence of the climatic characteristics of the narrower area, probably have a significant influence on the composition of the volatile aroma compounds and thus on the overall quality and the final characteristics of Dalmatian dry-cured bacon.Ziel dieser Untersuchung war es festzulegen, in welchem Umfang sich die Unterschiede beim P√∂keln (mit oder ohne Zusatzstoffe, Verbrauch von Salz/P√∂kellake, P√∂keldauer), die Art des R√§ucherns (R√§ucherofen innerhalb oder au√üerhalb des Betriebs und Rauchtemperatur) sowie die Dauer des R√§ucherns und Reifens auf die Zusammensetzung der fl√ľchtigen aromatischen Verbindungen beim Dalmatinischen Bauchspeck auswirken. Zu diesem Zweck wurden je zwei Proben des Dalmatinischen Bauchspecks aus zwei unterschiedlichen Verarbeitungsbetrieben in Dalmatien entnommen, in welchen der Bauchspeck auf folgende Weise hergestellt wurde: Betrieb A ‚Äď P√∂keln mit einer Mischung von Nitritsalz, Antioxidantien und Gew√ľrzen in Dauer von 10 Tagen bei einem Verbrauch der P√∂kellake pro kg rohen Bauchspeck von 8,61%, R√§uchern ‚Äď externer R√§ucherofen und Rachkanal bei einer Rauchtemperatur von <18¬įC, die Trocknungs-/Reifungsphase dauerte 80 Tage; Betrieb B ‚Äď P√∂keln mit reinem Meersalz in Dauer von 4 Tagen bei einem Salzverbrauch von 4,77%, R√§uchern ‚Äď innerer R√§ucherofen bei einer Rauchtemperatur von <22¬įC, die Trocknungs-/Reifungsphase dauerte 63 Tage. Anhand einer Analyse der fl√ľchtigen aromatischen Verbindungen beim Dalmatinischen Bauchspeck (Methode der Festphasenmikroextraktion, HS-SPME; Analyse der fl√ľchtigen aromatischen Verbindungen anhand der Gaschromatographie und Massenspektrometrie, GC-MS) wurden 122 unterschiedliche Verbindungen identifiziert, davon 10 Alkohole, 5 Aldehyde, 19 Ketone (zwei davon enthalten in der Struktur PAH-Anthrazen), 6 Ester, 6 S√§uren und Amide (4 S√§uren, 1 Propionamid, 1 Carbons√§ureanhydrid), 18 Kohlenwasserstoffe (aliphatische, zyklische und heterozyklische), 18 aromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe, 5 polyzyklische aromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe (PAH), 5 Terpene und Terpenoide, 7 Furane, Pyrazine, Pyrimidine, Pyrrolidine, 16 Phenole und 7 Organoschwefelverbindungen. Im Bauchspeck aus dem Betrieb A wurden 90 und aus dem Objekt B 100 diverse fl√ľchtige Verbindungen identifiziert. Der Bauchspeck aus dem Objekt A wies einen gr√∂√üeren Anteil an S√§uren und Amiden (P<0,01), Terpenen und Terpenoiden (P<0,001) sowie Organoschwefelverbindungen (P<0,001) auf, w√§hrend der Bauschspeck aus dem Objekt B einen h√∂heren Gehalt von Alkohol (P<0,05), Ketonen (P<0,001), Ester (P<0,05), Kohlenwasserstoffen (P<0,05), aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (P<0,001) sowie PAH (P<0,001) enthielt. Die bedeutend h√∂here Zahl und der Anteil an Verbindungen, die aus dem Rauch stammen, insbesondere der polyzyklischen Kohlenwasserstoffe (PAH) und der aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffe sowie einiger Phenole (Bisphenol), die im Bauchspeck aus dem Objekt B stammen, weisen auf eine negative Auswirkung des R√§ucherns von Produkten mit einem offenen R√§ucherofen innerhalb des Betriebs hin. Der gr√∂√üere Estergehalt im Bauchspeck aus dem Betrieb B, am wahrscheinlichsten verursacht durch eine Aktivit√§t der Mikrobe, k√∂nnte mit dem P√∂keln mit Meersalz, dem geringeren Salzverbrauch und der k√ľrzeren P√∂keldauer in Verbindung gebracht werden. Eine h√§ufigere Anwesenheit von Terpenen im Betrieb A ergibt sich wahrscheinlich aus dem Gebrauch von Kr√§utern f√ľr die P√∂kellake. Die Unterschiede bei der Verarbeitungstechnologie des Dalmatinischen Bauschspecks, bei einer m√∂glichen Auswirkung der klimatischen Merkmale eines engeren Bereichs, haben wahrscheinlich einen bedeutenden Einfluss auf die Zusammensetzung der fl√ľchtigen aromatischen Verbindungen, somit auch auf die Qualit√§t und die endg√ľltigen Eigenschaften des Dalmatinischen Bauchspecks.Obiettivo di questo studio √® stato quello di stabilire in che misura le differenze nelle metodiche di salatura (salatura con o senza additivi, resa del sale/della salamoia, latenza o durata della fase di salatura), nelle metodiche di affumicatura (focolare interno o esterno e temperatura del fumo) e di durata dei processi di asciugatura e stagionatura incidono sulla composizione dei composti volatili dell‚Äôaroma della pancetta dalmata. A tal fine, sono stati prelevati 2 campioni di pancetta dalmata da due differenti stabilimenti di produzione nel territorio della Dalmazia, nei quali la pancetta viene prodotta secondo metodiche differenti. Stabilimento A ‚Äď salatura con miscela di salnitro, antiossidanti e spezie con latenza di 10 giorni; resa della salamoia per ogni kg di pancetta cruda pari all‚Äô8,61%; affumicatura ‚Äď focolare esterno canalizzato e temperatura del fumo <18¬įC; durata della fase di asciugatura/stagionatura: 80 giorni. Stabilimento B ‚Äď salatura con sale marino puro con latenza di 4 giorni e resa del sale pari al 4,77%; affumicatura ‚Äď focolare interno e temperatura del fumo <22¬įC; durata della fase di asciugatura/stagionatura: 63 giorni. Grazie all‚Äôanalisi dei composti volatili dell‚Äôaroma della pancetta dalmata (con il metodo della microestrazione nella fase solida, HS-SPME; analisi dei composti volatili con la gascromatografia ‚Äď spettrometria di massa, GC-MS) sono stati identificati 122 differenti composti chimici di cui 10 alcoli, 5 aldeidi, 19 chetoni (di cui 2 nella loro struttura contengono idrocarburi aromatici policiclici/IPA ‚Äď antracene), 6 esteri, 6 tra acidi e amidi (4 acidi, 1 propionammide, 1 anidride dell‚Äôacido carbossilico), 18 idrocarburi (alifatici, ciclici e eterociclici), 18 idrocarburi aromatici, 5 idrocarburi aromatici policiclici (IPA), 5 tra terpeni e terpenoidi, 7 tra furani, pirazine, pirimidine, pirrolidine, 16 fenoli e 7 composti organici sulfurei. Nella pancetta prodotta nello stabilimento A sono stati individuati 90 composti volatili differenti, nello stabilimento B ne sono stati individuati 100. La pancetta dello stabilimento A presentava una maggiore percentuale di acidi e amidi (P<0,01), terpeni e terpenoidi (P<0,001) e composti organici sulfurei (P<0,001), mentre la pancetta prodotta nello stabilimento B conteneva una maggiore percentuale di alcoli (P<0,05), chetoni (P<0,001), esteri (P<0,05), idrocarburi (P<0,05), idrocarburi aromatici (P<0,001) e idrocarburi aromatici policiclici/IPA (P<0,001). Un numero e una percentuale molto maggiore di composti derivanti dal fumo, in particolare d‚Äôidrocarburi aromatici policiclici/IPA, di idrocarburi aromatici e di alcuni fenoli (bis-fenoli), la cui presenza √® stata accertata nella pancetta prodotta nello stabilimento B, rimandano ad un effetto negativo sul prodotto causato dall‚Äôuso del focolare aperto interno allo stabilimento. La maggior percentuale di esteri accertata nella pancetta prodotta nello stabilimento B, derivanti molto probabilmente dall‚Äôattivit√† microbica, potrebbero ascriversi alla salatura con il sale marino, all‚Äôinferiore resa del sale e alla pi√Ļ breve latenza. La maggior presenza di terpeni nello stabilimento A √® probabilmente il risultato dell‚Äôuso di spezie nella salamoia. Le differenze nella tecnologia di lavorazione della pancetta dalmata, oltre alla possibile influenza delle caratteristiche microclimatiche, incidono probabilmente in misura rilevante sulla composizione dei composti volatili dell‚Äôaroma e, quindi, sulla qualit√† e sulle peculiarit√† definitive della pancetta dalmata.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el grado en que las diferencias en curaci√≥n (con o sin aditivos, la cantidad de sal / salmuera, la duraci√≥n de la fase de curaci√≥n), la forma de ahumado (horno dentro o fuera del edificio y la temperatura del humo) y el tiempo de secado y maduraci√≥n, afectan a la composici√≥n de compuestos vol√°tiles en el aroma del tocino de Dalmacia. Para este prop√≥sito se tomaron 2 muestras de tocino de Dalmacia de cada una de las dos diferentes f√°bricas de procesado en la zona, donde el tocino se produce como sigue: centro A - curado en una mezcla de sal de nitrito, antioxidantes y condimentos durante 10 d√≠as con el uso de salmuera del 8,61%, por kg de tocino crudo, ahumado - horno al aire libre y conducto de humo con temperatura de humo <18 ¬į C, fase de secado/maduraci√≥n de duraci√≥n de 80 d√≠as; centro B - curaci√≥n con sal marina durante 4 d√≠as con un consumo de sal de 4,77%, ahumado ‚Äď horno interior con temperatura de humo <22 ¬į C, fase de secado/maduraci√≥n de 63 d√≠as de duraci√≥n. El an√°lisis de compuestos vol√°tiles del aroma del tocino de Dalmacia (microextracci√≥n m√©todo en fase s√≥lida, HS-SPME; el an√°lisis de compuestos vol√°tiles por cromatograf√≠a de gases -espectrometr√≠a de masas, GC-MS) ha identificado 122 compuestos qu√≠micos diferentes, de los cuales 10 son alcoholes, 5 aldeh√≠dos, 19 cetonas (de los cuales 2 incluyen PAH-antraceno en su estructura), 6 √©steres, 6 √°cidos y amidas (4 √°cidos, 1 propionamida, un anh√≠drido de √°cido carbox√≠lico), 18 hidrocarburos (alif√°ticos, c√≠clicos y heteroc√≠clicos), 18 hidrocarburos arom√°ticos, 5 hidrocarburos arom√°ticos polic√≠clicos (PAH), 5 terpenos y terpenoides, 7 furanos, pirazinas, pirimidinas, pirrolidines, 16 fenoles y 7 compuestos organosulf√ļricos. En el tocino del centro A se detectaron 90, y en el centro B se detectaron 100 diversos compuestos vol√°tiles. El tocino del centro A conten√≠a una mayor proporci√≥n de √°cidos y amidas (P <0,01), terpenos y terpenoides (P <0,001), y los compuestos organosulf√ļricos (P <0,001), mientras que el tocino del centro B conten√≠a un mayor contenido de alcoholes (P<0,05), cetonas (P<0,001), √©steres (P<0,05), hidrocarburos (P <0,05), hidrocarburos arom√°ticos (P <0,001) y PAH (P <0,001). Un n√ļmero significativamente mayor de los compuestos originarios del humo y su proporci√≥n, y los hidrocarburos arom√°ticos polic√≠clicos (PAH), y algunos de los fenoles (bis-fenol) determinados en el tocino del centro B, indican los efectos negativos de ahumado utilizando el horno abierto dentro del edificio. Una mayor proporci√≥n de √©steres en el tocino del centro B, se debe probablemente a la actividad microbiana, y podr√≠a atribuirse a la salmuera de sal marina, menor cantidad de sal y la fase de curaci√≥n m√°s corta. La prevalencia significante de terpenos en el centro A probablemente resulta del uso de especias en el curado. Las diferencias en la tecnolog√≠a de procesamiento del tocino de Dalmacia, con el posible impacto de caracter√≠sticas clim√°ticas locales, probablemente afectan significativamente a la composici√≥n de los compuestos arom√°ticos vol√°tiles, y por consiguiente la calidad y las caracter√≠sticas finales del tocino de Dalmacia

    Opinione dei consumatori croati circa la tradizionale carne d\u27agnello Dalmata nel processo di ottenimento del marchio DOP

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    The protection of Dalmatian lamb ("Dalmatinska janjetina") with a protected designation of origin label (PDO) is based on the specific quality of meat of Dalmatian pramenka lamb and the traditional lamb breeding method in the geographic area that coincides with the breeding area of Dalmatian pramenka (indigenous Croatian sheep breed). Under the name of "Dalmatinska janjetina", only the meat of lambs of Dalmatian pramenka, bred exclusively in Dalmatia, can be placed on the market. In the process of obtaining a PDO label, which has recently been completed at the Croatian national level and is currently in the process at the EU level, a survey among Croatian consumers (a sample of 1,034 consumers from all over Croatia) was conducted to determine the recognition of this product on the Croatian market, as well as consumer preferences considering similar products from other Croatian regions. The research has shown that Croatian consumers recognize Dalmatian lamb as a traditional, high-quality product. Thus, almost 75 % of the respondents recognize it as a particular type of lamb of better quality than others on the Croatian market. Almost 85 % of the respondents use lamb regardless of type in their diet, but more than 58 % always on special occasions (folk festivals and family celebrations), especially if prepared in the traditional way (lamb on a spit) by which Dalmatia as a region is recognized by more than 85 % of the respondents. The market reputation and connection with the geographic production area are why Croatian consumers rather buy Dalmatian lamb over others.ZaŇ°tita "Dalmatinske janjetine‚ÄĚ zaŇ°tińáenom oznakom izvornosti (ZOI) temelji se na specifińćnoj kvaliteti mesa i tradicionalnom nańćinu uzgoja janjadi dalmatinske pramenke na geografskom podruńćju koje se poklapa s uzgojnim podruńćjem izvorne hrvatske pasmine ovaca, Dalmatinske pramenke. Pod nazivom "Dalmatinska janjetina" na trŇĺiŇ°te se moŇĺe staviti samo meso janjadi dalmatinske pramenke, uzgojene iskljuńćivo u Dalmaciji. U zakonskom postupku registracije zaŇ°tińáene oznake ZOI, koji je nedavno zavrŇ°en na hrvatskoj nacionalnoj razini, a trenutno je u tijeku postupak na razini EU-a, provedeno je istraŇĺivanje meńĎu hrvatskim potroŇ°ańćima na uzorku od 1.034 potroŇ°ańća s podruńćja ńćitave Hrvatske, kako bi se utvrdila prepoznatljivost ovog proizvoda na hrvatskom trŇĺiŇ°tu, kao i preferencije potroŇ°ańća s obzirom na slińćne proizvode iz drugih hrvatskih regija. IstraŇĺivanje je pokazalo da hrvatski potroŇ°ańći prepoznaju ‚ÄěDalmatinsku janjetinu‚Äú kao tradicionalni, visokokvalitetni proizvod. Gotovo 75 % ispitanika ‚ÄúDalmatinsku janjetinu‚ÄĚ prepoznaje kao posebnu vrstu janjetine kvalitetniju od ostalih vrsta janjetine na hrvatskom trŇĺiŇ°tu. Gotovo 85 % ispitanika koristi janjetinu u prehrani, ali viŇ°e od 58 % samo u posebnim prilikama (narodne svetkovine i obiteljska slavlja), osobito ako se priprema peńćenjem na raŇĺnju. Navedeni tradicionalni nańćin pripreme janjetine peńćenjem na raŇĺnju viŇ°e od 85 % ispitanika povezuje s Dalmacijom kao regijom. Ugled na trŇĺiŇ°tu i povezanost s geografskim podruńćjem proizvodnje (Dalmacija) razlozi su zbog kojih hrvatski potroŇ°ańći radije kupuju dalmatinsku janjetinu nego druge vrste janjetine.Der Schutz von ‚ÄěDalmatinischem Lamm‚Äú mit dem Herkunftsschutzzeichen (kroat. Abk. ZOI) beruht auf der spezifischen Fleischqualit√§t und der traditionellen Art der Zucht von L√§mmern des dalmatinischen Schafs Pramenka auf dem geographischen Gebiet, das mit dem Zuchtgebiet der originellen kroatischen Schafsrasse, Dalmatinischer Pramenka, √ľberlappt. Unter der Bezeichnung ‚ÄěDalmatinisches Lamm‚Äú kann man lediglich das Lammfleisch der Dalmatinischen Schafsrasse Pramenka auf den Markt bringen, die ausschlie√ülich in Dalmatien gez√ľchtet wurde. Im gesetzlichen Verfahren zur Registrierung des Herkunftsschutzzeichens (ZOI), das auf der kroatischen Nationalebene vor kurzem abgeschlossen wurde, wobei das Verfahren zurzeit auf der EU-Ebene anh√§ngig ist, wurde eine Forschung unter den kroatischen Herstellern an einem Muster von 1.034 Verbrauchern aus ganz Kroatien durchgef√ľhrt, um die Erkennbarkeit dieses Produkts auf dem kroatischen Markt sowie die Pr√§ferenzen der Verbraucher unter Ber√ľcksichtigung √§hnlicher Produkte aus anderen kroatischen Gebieten festzustellen. Diese Forschung ergab, dass die kroatischen Verbraucher das ‚ÄěDalmatinische Lamm‚Äú als traditionelles, qualitativ hochwertiges Produkt erkennen. Beinahe 75 % der Befragten erkennen das ‚ÄěDalmatinische Lamm‚Äú als eine besondere Art von Lamm, die im Vergleich zu den anderen auf dem kroatischen Markt vorhandenen Arten von Lamm weitaus qualitativ hochwertiger ist. Beinahe 85 % der Befragten nutzt das Lammfleisch in der Ern√§hrung, aber mehr als 58 % nutzt es lediglich zu besonderen Zwecken (bei Volksfesten und Familienfeiern), insbesondere, wenn man es als ein ganzes Lamm am Spie√ü nutzt. Die soeben erw√§hnte traditionelle Art der Zubereitung von Lamm durch Braten des ganzen Lamms am Spie√ü verbindet mehr als 85 % der Befragten mit Dalmatien als Gebiet. Das Marktimage und die Verbindung mit dem geographischen Gebiet der Lammzucht (Dalmatien) stellen Gr√ľnde dar, wegen derer die kroatischen Verbraucher lieber dalmatinisches Lammfleisch als andere Arten von Lamm bevorzugen.La protecci√≥n de la carne de cordero de Dalmacia con la Denominaci√≥n de Origen Protegida (DOP) est√° basada en la calidad espec√≠fica de la carne y la forma tradicional de criar corderos de la raza pramenka de Dalmacia en una zona geogr√°fica que coincide con la zona de cr√≠a de la raza ovina originaria de Croacia: pramenka de Dalmacia. Bajo el nombre de carne de cordero de Dalmacia, s√≥lo se puede comercializar la carne de cordero de pramenka de Dalmacia, criado exclusivamente en Dalmacia. En el proceso de solicitud de la marca protegida DOP, completado recientemente a nivel nacional croata y que actualmente est√° en proceso a nivel de la UE, fue realizada la encuesta de opini√≥n del consumidores croatas sobre una muestra de 1034 consumidores de toda Croacia, para determinar si este producto est√° reconocible en el mercado Croata, as√≠ como las preferencias de los consumidores con respecto a productos similares de otras regiones croatas. La investigaci√≥n mostr√≥ que los consumidores croatas reconocen la carne de cordero de Dalmacia como un producto tradicional de alta calidad. Casi el 75 % de los encuestados reconoce la carne de cordero de Dalmacia como un tipo especial de carne de cordero de mejor calidad que otros tipos de cordero en el mercado croata. Casi el 85 % de los encuestados usa la carne de cordero en su dieta, pero m√°s del 58 % solo en ocasiones especiales (festivales folcl√≥ricos y celebraciones familiares), especialmente si se prepara a la parrilla. M√°s del 85 % de los encuestados asocian esta forma tradicional de preparar la carne de cordero con asado a la parrilla con Dalmacia como regi√≥n. La reputaci√≥n en el mercado y la conexi√≥n con la zona geogr√°fica de producci√≥n (Dalmacia) son las razones por las que los consumidores croatas prefieren comprar la carne de cordero de Dalmacia que otros tipos de carne de cordero.La tutela della carne d‚Äôagnello dalmata (‚ÄúDalmatinska janjetina‚ÄĚ) con il marchio DOP (denominazione di origine protetta) si basa sulla specifica qualit√† della carne e sulle modalit√† dell‚Äôallevamento tradizionale degli agnelli di razza pramenka dalmata sull‚Äôarea geografica che coincide con la regione d‚Äôallevamento della razza ovina autoctona croata della pramenka dalmata. Con la denominazione di ‚ÄúDalmatinska janjetina‚ÄĚ, cio√®, pu√≤ essere commercializzata sul mercato soltanto la carne degli agnelli di razza pramenka dalmata allevati esclusivamente in Dalmazia. In seno alla procedura legislativa di registrazione del marchio protetto DOP, recentemente conclusosi in Croazia a livello nazionale, e che √® attualmente in corso a livello dell‚ÄôUE, √® stato condotto un sondaggio d‚Äôopinione tra i consumatori croati su un campione di 1.034 soggetti originari di ogni parte della Croazia, al fine di accertare la riconoscibilit√† di questo prodotto sul mercato domestico, oltre alle preferenze dei consumatori rispetto a prodotti simili provenienti da altre regioni croate. Il sondaggio ha evidenziato che i consumatori croati riconoscono la carne d‚Äôagnello dalmata (‚ÄúDalmatinska janjetina‚ÄĚ) come prodotto tradizionale e di gran qualit√†. Quasi il 75 % degli intervistati ha riconosciuto la ‚ÄúDalmatinska janjetina‚ÄĚ come un particolare tipo di carne d‚Äôagnello, migliore dal punto di vista qualitativo rispetto agli altri tipi di carne d‚Äôagnello presenti sul mercato croato. Quasi l‚Äô85 % degli intervistati fa uso della carne d‚Äôagnello nella propria alimentazione, ma poco pi√Ļ del 58 % soltanto in speciali occasioni (festivit√† nazionali e celebrazioni in ambiente familiare), in particolare se arrostita allo spiedo. Questa tradizionale tecnica di cottura allo spiedo √® associata da oltre l‚Äô85 % degli intervistati alla Dalmazia come entit√† regionale. L‚Äôimmagine sul mercato ed il collegamento con l‚Äôarea geografica di produzione (Dalmazia) sono le ragioni per cui i consumatori croati acquistano pi√Ļ volentieri la carne d‚Äôagnello originaria della Dalmazia rispetto a ogni altro tipo di carne d‚Äôagnello

    Current state and trends in production of sheep meat in EU and Croatia

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    SaŇĺetak Proizvodnja mesa kao grana ovńćje proizvodnje intenzivnije se razvija pońćetkom 19. stoljeńáa u zemljama zapadne Europe i na istoku SAD-a zbog porasta broja stanovniŇ°tva i razvoja industrije. U ovńćarstvu, viŇ°e nego u drugim granama stońćarstva, unutar Europske unije postoje znatne razlike u tehnologiji proizvodnje, Ň°to dovodi do lokalnih razlika u karakteristikama mesa. Sustav ovńćarske proizvodnje se moŇĺe podijeliti na ekstenzivni koji prevladava u zemljama Sredozemlja, u kojem se kolje sisajuńáa janjad male tjelesne teŇĺine i intenzivni u zemljama Sjeverne Europe u kojima je na cijeni janjad veńáe tjelesne teŇĺine. Posljednjih godina proizvodnja i potroŇ°nja ovńćjeg mesa je u padu, najveńáim dijelom zbog pojave zarazne Ň°epavosti ovaca, te zbog reforme ZPP-a (zajednińćka poljoprivredna politika) i velikog uvoza ovaca i ovńćjeg mesa iz Novog Zelanda i Australije. Iz istih je razloga u padu proizvodnja i potroŇ°nja ovńćjeg mesa u Hrvatskoj, a dijelom i zbog Domovinskog rata u kojem je broj ovaca prepolovljen. Prema statistińćkim podacima iz 2009. godine joŇ° uvijek nije postignut broj ovaca iz 1991. godine. Kao i u ostalim sredozemnim zemljama, i u Hrvatskoj se kolje sisajuńáa janjad koja se konzumira u komadu ili rasjeńćena u 2-4 komada. Dva najpoznatija tradicionalna suhomesnata proizvoda od ovńćjeg mesa su kaŇ°tradina i stelja od kojih niti jedan nije zaŇ°tińáen.Production of meat as a segment of sheep production developed at the beginning of the 19th century in intensive agriculture of western Europe and in the eastern part of the USA because of the increase in population and development of industry. In sheep breeding, more than in other branches of livestock-breeding, there are significant differences in production technology within the EU, which brings to local differences in meat characteristics. Production systems may be divided to extensive and intensive ones.Extensive prevails in Mediterranean countries, where small suckling lambs of small body weight are slaughtered. Intensive system is spread in northern European countries where lambs of larger body weight are appreciated. In recent years the production and consumption of sheep meat has been in decline, mostly because of foot root disease, and because of CAP (Common Agriculutral Policy) reform and large import of sheep and sheep meat from New Zealand and Australia. Production and consumption of sheep meat in Croatia have also been in decline mostly because of the Homeland war in which the number of sheep was cut by half. According to statistical data from 2009, the number of sheep from 1991 has still not been reached. As well as in other Mediterranean countries, in Croatia it is also popular to slaughter suckling lambs which are consumed in one peace or chopped in 2-4 pieces. Two best known traditional cured sheep meat are kastradina andstelja, none of which is protected
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