8 research outputs found

    Memory for contingent versus noncontingent events

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    Twenty-four 7.5- to 8-month old infants were presented with two manipulanda and given either behavior-contingent or noncontingent experience with an object. Infants in the contingent group learned and remembered the controlling action for up to 1 week (t(11)=2.83,

    Vicarious reinforcement is a result of earlier learning

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    The term vicarious reinforcement has been used by social-learning theorists to denote imitation that results from the observed reinforcement of behavior performed by a model. This conceptualization is incompatible with that of behavior analysis because it ignores the effect of prior learning on the observer\u27s behavior and violates the definition of reinforcement. Experiment 1 replicated prior findings. Preschool children (N=32) imitated a model\u27s reinforced choice responses, in the absence of direct experience with contingencies. In Experiment 2 (N=48), subjects failed to imitate reinforced modeled behavior when observed behavior contingencies were \u27incongruent\u27 with those experienced. The results were interpreted as consistent with the behavior-analytic position that observed reinforcement of a model\u27s behavior functions as a discriminative cue (SD), not reinforcement, for the observer\u27s imitative responses

    Touch Among Children at Nursery School

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    Naturalistic observations of touching behaviors were conducted among 33 preschool children, ranging from 3 to 64 months of age. Touch was coded for direction (received/initiated), type, body area touched, responses to touch, and purpose. Infants received significantly more touch than older children. Preschool children engaged in touching behaviors similar to those observed among adults. Touch involved "vulnerable body parts" more often among toddlers than among preschoolers. 'Negative' responses to being touched occurred more often among toddlers than among preschoolers, and task-related touch occurred less often in the preschool than in the toddler and infant classes