21 research outputs found

    All-cause mortality in the cohorts of the Spanish AIDS Research Network (RIS) compared with the general population: 1997Ł2010

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    Abstract Background: Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has produced significant changes in mortality of HIVinfected persons. Our objective was to estimate mortality rates, standardized mortality ratios and excess mortality rates of cohorts of the AIDS Research Network (RIS) (CoRIS-MD and CoRIS) compared to the general population. Methods: We analysed data of CoRIS-MD and CoRIS cohorts from 1997 to 2010. We calculated: (i) all-cause mortality rates, (ii) standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and (iii) excess mortality rates for both cohort for 100 personyears (py) of follow-up, comparing all-cause mortality with that of the general population of similar age and gender. Results: Between 1997 and 2010, 8,214 HIV positive subjects were included, 2,453 (29.9%) in CoRIS-MD and 5,761 (70.1%) in CoRIS and 294 deaths were registered. All-cause mortality rate was 1.02 (95% CI 0.91-1.15) per 100 py, SMR was 6.8 (95% CI 5.9-7.9) and excess mortality rate was 0.8 (95% CI 0.7-0.9) per 100 py. Mortality was higher in patients with AIDS, hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection, and those from CoRIS-MD cohort (1997. Conclusion: Mortality among HIV-positive persons remains higher than that of the general population of similar age and sex, with significant differences depending on the history of AIDS or HCV coinfection

    Rendimiento, composición química, y propiedades funcionales de aceites esenciales de Mentha spicata (Lamiaceae) en Santiago del Estero, Argentina

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    Introduction: Mentha spicata, commonly known as spearmint, is the most common and popular cultivated mint, and is used in food, perfumes and pharmaceutical products. Objective: To determine the yield, composition and properties of essential oil from M. spicata grown in Santiago del Estero, Argentina. Methods: We used steam distillation, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry to determine chemical composition, antioxidant activity and acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Results: Essential oil yield ranged from 0.8 to 1.3 mL·100 g-1 DM. The main essential components were carvone (60,72-68,09%), limonene (14,23-16,41%), α-pinene (0,12-3,14%), β-myrcene (0,35-2,33%), 1,8-cineole (1,69-2,73%), cis-dihydrocarvone (1,82-2,31%), trans-craveol (1,09-1,19%), β-bourbonene (2,44-3,17%) and β-Caryophyllene (1,42-1,82%). The oil had high antioxidant activity, with IC50 values among 7,5-12,06 µg/mL (DPPH method) and 26,94-38,14 µg/mL (β-carotene/linoleic acid method). It had good inhibition of acetylcholisterenase, with enzyme inhibition zones of 0,4-0,9 cm. Conclusion: The yield, quality and properties of the essential oil from M. spicata grown in Santiago del Estero meet market requirements.Introducción: Mentha spicata, comúnmente conocida como “hierbabuena”, es la menta más común y popular para cultivo, y se utiliza en la industria alimenticia, perfumería y farmacéutica. Objetivo: Determinar el rendimiento, composición y propiedades de los aceites esenciales de Mentha spicata, cultivada en Santiago del Estero, Argentina. Métodos: Usamos destilación a vapor, cromatogafía de gas y espectrometría de masa para determinar biomasa, rendimiento, composición química, actividad antioxidante y la inhibición de acetilcolinesterasa. Resultados: El rendimiento de aceites esenciales varió entre 0,8 y 1,3 mL·100 g-1 MS. Los principales aceites esenciales fueron: carvona (60,72-68,09%), limoneno (14,23-16,41%), α-pineno (0,12-3,14%), β-mirceno (0,35-2,33%), 1,8-cineol (1,69-2,73%), cis-dihidrocarvona (1,82-2,31%), trans-craveol (1,09-1,19%), β-bourboneno (2,44-3,17%) y β-cariofileno (1,42-1,82%). El aceite presentó alta capacidad antioxidante, con valores de IC50 entre 7,5-12,06 µg/mL (método DPPH) y 26,94-38,14 µg/mL (método β-caroteno/ácido linoleico). Mostró una buena inhibición de la acetilcolinesterasa, con zonas de inhibición de la enzima de 0,4-0,9 cm. Conclusión: El rendimiento, calidad y propiedades del aceite esencial de M. spicata cultivada en Santiago del Estero, Argentina cumple con los requisitos del mercado

    Antifungal Effect of Essential Oils

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    Essential oils are employed in agriculture, medicine and food industries among others, due to their antimicrobial, antiviral, insecticidal and antifungal properties. In this chapter, we will focus on the control of fungal plant pathogens with essential oils. Fungal diseases in agricultural crops and forestry alter the physiology of plants, disrupting their normal functioning, reducing their yield and sometimes causing their death. Recent studies show antifungal effects of many essential oils against plant pathogenic fungi, which make them candidates for the development of new fungicidal agents. This chapter presents a review of the most recent advances in this area, as well as the future trends in this field

    The Effect of the Apprenticeships on the UK Higher Education

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    The UK Higher Education arena is changing; apprenticeships are currently experiencing a revival through the Apprenticeship levy Scheme launch. Behind the introduction of the levy lies the UK government’s belief that apprenticeships offer a solution to the skills gaps that are holding the economy back, and a new way for individuals to access higher level skills. The introduction of Higher Education Apprenticeships and work experience/real world interactions built into HE courses are establishing synergies between the two elements of the skills/education system and will allow the apprentices to plot their career through the skills levels up to the Masters level under the scheme. The knowledge economy is driving up the demand for higher level skills and concurrent with this is the notion that, in today's competitive labour market, experience is vital. The new Degree Apprentice will have an effect yet to be determined. The Degree Apprenticeship will provide for the first a formal structured route for learners who are on the apprentice scheme and provide them with some control over their study programme. The new study programme will have the opportunity to tap into a plethora of new skills and assessment standards which have been developed by various industries and approved by the Apprenticeship Council which needs to be addressed by the learning and teaching fraternity, both public and private providers. This paper will look at these points from the HE perspective and see what level of the student body will now be looking down the apprentice route and not looking at the traditional full time study to achieve their degree. The paper will also look at how ready the Universities are to provide this different form of learning and explore issues around the apprenticeships curriculum support

    Estimation of water erosion rates using RUSLE3D in Alicante province (Spain)

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    The purpose of this study was the estimation of current and potential water erosion rates in Alicante Province using RUSLE3D (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation-3D) model with Geographical Information System (GIS) support by request from the Valencia Waste Energy Use. RUSLE3D uses a new methodology for topographic factor estimation (LS factor) based on the impact of flow convergence allowing better assessment of sediment distribution detached by water erosion. In RUSLE3D equation, the effect that vegetation cover has on soil erosion rate is reflected by the C factor. Potential erosion indicates soil erosion rate without considering C factor in RUSLE3D equation. The results showed that 70% of estimated current erosion does not exceed 10 Mg ha-1 y-1 (low erosion). In the case of potential erosion rates, 16% of the area of Alicante Province does not exceed 10 Mg ha-1 y-1 but 33% exceed 200 Mg ha-1 y-1. Based on these results, the current vegetation cover of Alicante Province is adequate but needs to be conserved to avoid an increase in the current soil erosion rates as shown by potential erosion rates

    Understanding and Enhancing Ecotourism Opportunities through Education

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    A new fast growing trend in tourism is ecotourism, in which tourists visit natural ecosystems under low impact, nonconsumptive and locally oriented activities. Through these activities species and habitats are maintained and typically, underdeveloped regions are emphasized. Ecotourism provides a great alternative, especially for rural and undeveloped area. At the same time, despite its many benefits, it also poses many risks for the naturally protected areas

    Challenges for future of Natural Spaces of Canary Islands, Spain

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    The preservation of biodiversity is a fundamental objective of a ll policies related to a more sustainable development in any modern society. The rain forest and pine forests are two unique Canarian ecosystems with high importance to global biodiversity, holding a large number of endemic species and subspecies that is a priority to preserve. In this work the challenges that will face the natural areas of the Canary Islands are studied, as well as their fundamental value for economic and environmental development of the islands

    Biomass and essential oil yields of cornmint (Mentha arvensis L.) grown in the irrigation area of Río Dulce, Santiago del Estero, Argentina.

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    The aim of this study is to determine the yield and composition of the essential oil of cornmint (Mentha arvensis L.) grown in the irrigation area of Santiago del Estero, Argentina. Field tests were carried out under irrigation conditions, harvesting when 70% flowering was reached (in the summer and at the end of the winter seasons). Essential oil yields were 2% in the first cut and 1.6% in the second cut, respectively, the major constituents of the essential oil being menthol, menthone, isomenthone and menthofuran. In both cases, a high concentration of menthol was obtained, although during the winter the content decreased, increasing the concentration of menthofuran. It is concluded that during the summer a higher yield and better quality of essential oil are produced

    Analysis and Potential of Use of Biomass Energy in Canary Islands, Spain

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    Biomass has always been associated with the development of the population in the Canary Islands as the first source of elemental energy that was in the archipelago and the main cause of deforestation of forests, which over the years has been replaced by forest fossil fuels. The Canary Islands store a large amount of energy in the form of biomass. This may be important on a small scale for the design of small power plants with similar fuels from agricultural activities, and these plants could supply rural areas that could have self-sufficiency energy. The problem with the Canary Islands for a boost in this achievement is to ensure the supply to the consumer centers or power plants for greater efficiency that must operate continuously, allowing them to have a resource with regularity, quality and at an acceptable cost. In the Canary Islands converge also a unique topography with a very rugged terrain that makes it greater difficult to use and significantly more expensive. In this work all these aspects are studied, giving conclusions, action paths and theoretical potentials

    Climate Change and Restoration of Degraded Land

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    The United Nations Climate Change Conference, Durban 2011, delivered a breakthrough on the international community's response to climate change. In the second largest meeting of its kind, the negotiations advanced, in a balanced fashion, the implementation of the Convention and the Kyoto Protocol, the Bali Action Plan, and the Cancun Agreements. The outcomes included a decision by Parties to adopt a universal legal agreement on climate change as soon as possible, and no later than 2015. One of the decisions adopted by COP 17 and CMP 7 regard to the land use, land-use change and forestry, and invites the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to review and, if necessary, update supplementary methodologies for estimating anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions by sources and removals by sinks resulting from land use, land-use change and forestry activities under Article 3, paragraphs 3 and 4, of the Kyoto Protocol. Land degradation is a human-induced or natural process which negatively affects the productivity of land within an ecosystem. The direct causes of land degradation are geographically specific. Climate change, including changes in short-term variation, as well as long-term gradual changes in temperature and precipitation, is expected to be an additional stress on rates of land degradation. Book Topics: • Introduction to Climate Change and Land Degradation • Change Mitigation • Climate Change and Waste Land Restoration • Water Management and Planning • Erosion and Hydrological Restoration • Forest Fire Land Restoration • Polluted Soils Restoration • Combating Climate Change by Restoration of Degraded Land • Research Matters – Climate Change Governance • Advanced Statistics Climate Change and Restoration of Degraded Land is of interests to academics, engineers, consultans, designers and professionals involved in restoration of degraded lands projects