80 research outputs found

    <i>Per2</i><sup><i>m/m</i></sup> mice show a decrease in retinal thickness.

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    <p>(A) The OCT scans of the whole retina showing representative images from the WT and <i>Per2</i><sup><i>m/m</i></sup> mice. RNFL, retinal nerve fiber layer; GCL/IPL, Ganglion cell layer/inner plexiform layer; INL, Inner nuclear layer; OPL, Outer plexiform layer; ONL, Outer nuclear layer; ELM/IS/OS, external limiting membrane/inner segment of photoreceptors/outer segment of photoreceptors; RPE, Retinal pigment epithelial layer. (B) The measurements of retinal thickness were performed by placing the 2 calipers (C01 & C02) near the optic nerve; the bar chart shows a decrease in retinal thickness of <i>Per2</i><sup><i>m/m</i></sup>. n = 6, *p<0.05.</p

    <i>Per2</i>-silencing in HRECs results in an increase in β-catenin and CTGF.

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    <p>HRECs were treated with either scrambled control siRNA or <i>Per2</i> siRNA; bar graphs show mRNA expression of (A) <i>Per2</i>, (B) β-catenin and (C) CTGF, n = 4. (D) Western blots show a similar change in the protein expression of β-catenin and CTGF following a treatment with siRNA <i>Per2</i>. n = 3, * p<0.05.</p

    The increase in CTGF staining in <i>Per2</i><sup><i>m/m</i></sup> retinas.

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    <p>(A) Retinal sections were stained with CTGF antibodies. The photomicrographs show an increase in staining for CTGF (green) in the GCL (white arrows) and OPL (white arrows) in <i>Per2</i><sup>m/m</sup> mice; the bar-graph shows quantification of mean fluorescence intensity for (B) GCL and (C) OPL. (D) Retinal endothelial cells were stained with BS-isolectin (red) prior to euthanasia. The staining reveals an increase in CTGF expression in vessels co-stained with BS-1 isolectin. GCL, ganglion cell layer; IPL, inner plexiform layer; INL, Inner nuclear layer; OPL, outer plexiform layer; ONL, outer nuclear layer; PR, photoreceptors. n = 3.</p

    <i>Per2</i><sup><i>m/m</i></sup> mice exhibit decreased ERG amplitude.

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    <p>(A) Representative ERG trace for 15 db stimuli showing a decrease in ERG amplitude in <i>Per2</i><sup><i>m/m</i></sup> retinas (B) Line graph showing a similar decrease in ERG response for both 'a' and 'b' wave in <i>Per2</i><sup><i>m/m</i></sup> mice for a series of stimuli in the range of 45–15 db. n = 7, *p<0.05.</p

    β-catenin binds to TCF/LEF factors after treatment with siRNA <i>Per2</i>.

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    <p>The TOPflash assay was performed to study the nuclear binding of β-catenin after treatment with siRNA <i>Per2</i>. The bar chart showing a significant increase in luciferase signal following a treatment with siRNA <i>Per2</i> when compared to a control siRNA. n = 3, * p<0.05.</p

    Case Study of Selected Network Vulnerabilities

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    The main goal of this thesis is to deal with databases of vulnerable code bases and vulnerable applications, and to implement a tool for autonomous search and saving data from those databases to a local one. The thesis is divided into theoretical and practical parts. The theoretical part deals with my current knowledge of the main topic and creates a foundation for the implementation. Various kinds of vulnerabilities and network attacks are described in detail in this part. The practical part describes implementation of the tool and its real use

    Nuclear entry of β-catenin after treatment of HRECs with siRNA <i>Per2</i>.

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    <p><i>Per2</i> or control siRNA-treated HRECs were processed to separate nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. Representative western blots showed nuclear translocation of β-catenin after treatment with <i>Per2</i> siRNA. Histone H3 and α-tubulin were used as loading controls for nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions, respectively n = 3.</p

    Diabetes alters release of vascular reparative cells into circulation.

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    <p>(A) CACs as a percentage of total bone marrow cells, *** p<0.001 (B) CACs as a percentage of total splenocytes. (C) CACs as a percentage of total blood cells. CACs are gated as Lin<sup>-</sup> CD34<sup>+</sup> CD309<sup>+</sup> cells. Representative flow charts of GFP<sup>+</sup> CACs in control and diabetic BM, spleen and blood are shown below. * p<0.05, N = 4–8.</p

    Diabetes alters response of BM-derived cells and splenocytes to LPS stimulation.

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    <p>Increased secretion of cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α in (A) BM-derived dendritic cell-enriched population (B) splenocytes stimulated with LPS. N = 4–5, * p< 0.05.</p

    BM-derived cells in the retina of chimeric mice.

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    <p>(A) Number of BM-derived cells per mm<sup>2</sup> area of control or diabetic retina. Representative flow charts of GFP<sup>+</sup> cells in the retina shown below. (B) ~ 93% of GFP<sup>+</sup> cells detected in the retina are CD45<sup>-</sup> cells. Diabetes does not change the number of CD45<sup>-</sup> cells in the retina. Representative flow charts gated on GFP<sup>+</sup> cells of CD45<sup>-</sup> and CD45<sup>+</sup> cells shown below. N = 4.</p
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