34 research outputs found

    Adverse Reactions after Booster SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination Have Less Impact on Antibody Response than after Basic Vaccination Scheme

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    Background: It is known that adverse reactions following SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations show a positive correlation with the subsequent antibody titer. However, it is not clear how the adverse reactions following the booster vaccination are related to the antibody levels that can be measured after a 3rd dose. The primary goal of this study was to investigate whether the adverse reactions following the booster vaccination show a correlation with subsequent antibody levels. Methods: Adverse reactions occurring within 7 days after the 3rd vaccination were recorded and the anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein immunoglobulin (Ig) level in the venous blood was measured on post-vaccination 14th, 60th and 120th days. Results: A total of 218 volunteers were included in the study. Main findings: (i) The adverse reactions that appeared after the booster dose did not show a positive correlation with the subsequent antibody level, except a correlation in the case of fever; (ii) there were more symptomatic patients in the group receiving heterologous booster vaccine, (iii) fever after the 2nd dose was independently associated with a reduction in the likelihood of COVID-19 positivity after the booster dose. Conclusion: No adverse reactions, but fever showed a correlation with the antibody level after the booster SARS-CoV-2 vaccine

    Rare and complex urology : clinical overview of ERN eUROGEN

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    Background: In 2017, the European Commission launched 24 European Reference Networks (ERNs). ERN eUROGEN is the network for urorectogenital diseases and complex conditions, and started with 29 full member healthcare providers (HCPs) in 11 countries. It then covered 19 different disease areas distributed over three work -streams (WSs). Objective: To provide an overview and identify challenges in data collection at European level of the ERN eUROGEN patient population treated by HCPs in the network. Design, setting, and participants: A retrospective cohort study was conducted of the 29 HCPs who were full members between 2013 and 2019. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Data were extracted from the original HCP applications and the ERN continuous monitoring system. Patient volumes, new patient numbers, and procedures were compared between different WSs, countries, and HCPs. Discrepancies between monitoring and application data were identified. Results and limitations: Between 2013 and 2019, 122 040 patients required long-term care within the 29 HCPs. The volume of patients treated and procedures undertaken per year increased over time. Large discrepancies were found between patient numbers contained in the application forms and those reported in the continuous monitoring system (0-1357% deviation). Conclusions: Patient numbers and procedures increased across ERN eUROGEN HCPs. Reliable data extraction appeared challenging, illustrated by the patient volume dis-crepancies between application forms and the continuous monitoring data. Improved disease definitions, re-evaluation of affiliated HCPs, and valid data extraction are needed for future improvements. Patient summary: We analysed the patient population with rare urorectogenital dis-eases or complex conditions within the ERN eUROGEN network between 2013 and 2019. Clinical activity was found to increase, but differences in patient numbers were evident between healthcare providers. In order to acquire valid patient numbers, both improved definitions of diagnostic codes and greater insight into the data-gathering process are required. (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of European Association of Urology. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons. org/licenses/by/4.0/)

    Fever after Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 with mRNA-Based Vaccine Associated with Higher Antibody Levels during 6 Months Follow-Up

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    Background: The effect of post-vaccination adverse events on immunogenicity is unknown. We aimed to explore relationship between post-vaccination adverse reactions and antibody levels during 6-month follow-up. Methods: Blood was serially drawn from healthcare workers after the second dose of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine (Day 12, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180) and anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG (S-IgG) levels were measured. Following each vaccine dose, volunteers completed a questionnaire regarding adverse reactions (symptomatic vs. asymptomatic groups). Results: A total of 395 subjects received the second dose of the vaccine. The main results were as follows: (i) fever after the 2nd dose was independently associated with the median S-IgG level at all follow-up time points; (ii) significantly higher S-IgG levels were observed in the symptomatic group of patients without prior COVID-19 infection throughout the entire follow-up period; (iii) prior COVID-19 positivity resulted in higher S-IgG levels only in the asymptomatic group from Day 90 of the follow-up period; (iv) both prior COVID-19 disease with asymptomatic status and symptomatic status without prior COVID-19 infection resulted in similar S-IgG antibody levels; (v) significantly lower serum S-IgG levels were observed in smokers. Conclusion: Fever may play an important role in the post-vaccination immune response in the long term

    Novel Predictors of Future Vascular Events in Post-stroke Patients—A Pilot Study

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    Introduction: A modified platelet function test (mPFT) was recently found to be superior compared to impedance aggregometry for selection of post-stroke patients with high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR). We aimed to explore some peripheral blood cell characteristics as predictors of recurrent ischemic episodes. The predictive value of mPFT was also assessed in a cohort followed up to 36 months regarding recurrent ischemic vascular events.Methods: As a novelty, not only whole blood (WB), but after 1-h gravity sedimentation the separated upper (UB) and lower half blood (LB) samples were analyzed including neutrophil antisedimentation rate (NAR) in 52 post-stroke patients taking clopidogrel. Area under the curve (AUC, AUCupper and AUClower, respectively) was separately measured by Multiplate in the WB, UB and LB samples to characterize ex vivo platelet aggregation in the presence of ADP. Next, the occurrence of vascular events (stroke, acute coronary syndrome, ACS) were evaluated during 36-month follow-up.Results: A total of 11 vascular events (stroke n = 5, ACS n = 6) occurred during the follow-up period. The AUCupper was significantly higher in patients with recurrent stroke compared to those with uneventful follow-up (p = 0.03). The AUCupper with a cut-off value ≥70 based on the mPFT, was able to predict all stroke events (p = 0.01), while the total vascular events were independently predicted by NAR with a sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 88%.Conclusions: A combination of NAR reflecting the inflammatory state and AUCupper indicating HTPR may provide a better prediction of recurrent ischemic events suggesting a better selection of patients at risk, thus providing an individually tailored vascular therapy

    Severe Fatigue and Memory Impairment Are Associated with Lower Serum Level of Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies in Patients with Post-COVID Symptoms

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    Background: Post-COVID manifestation is defined as persistent symptoms or long-term complications beyond 4 weeks from disease onset. Fatigue and memory impairment are common post-COVID symptoms. We aimed to explore associations between the timeline and severity of post-COVID fatigue and anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Methods: Fatigue and memory impairment were assessed in a total of 101 post-COVID subjects using the Chalder fatigue scale (CFQ-11) and a visual analogue scale. Using the bimodal scoring system generated from CFQ-11, a score ≥4 was defined as severe fatigue. Serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike (anti-S-Ig) and nucleocapsid (anti-NC-Ig) antibodies were examined at two time points: 4–12 weeks after onset of symptoms, and beyond 12 weeks. Results: The serum level of anti-S-Ig was significantly higher in patients with non-severe fatigue compared to those with severe fatigue at 4–12 weeks (p = 0.006) and beyond 12 weeks (p = 0.016). The serum level of anti-NC-Ig remained high in patients with non-severe fatigue at both time points. In contrast, anti-NC-Ig decreased significantly in severe fatigue cases regardless of the elapsed time (4–12 weeks: p = 0.024; beyond 12 weeks: p = 0.005). The incidence of memory impairment was significantly correlated with lower anti-S-Ig levels (−0.359, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The systemic immune response reflected by antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 is strongly correlated with the severity of post-COVID fatigue

    Effect of SGLT2 Inhibitors on Stroke and Atrial Fibrillation in Diabetic Kidney Disease: Results From the CREDENCE Trial and Meta-Analysis

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    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chronic kidney disease with reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate or elevated albuminuria increases risk for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. This study assessed the effects of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) on stroke and atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF/AFL) from CREDENCE (Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes With Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation) and a meta-analysis of large cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs) of SGLT2i in type 2 diabetes mellitus.METHODS: CREDENCE randomized 4401 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease to canagliflozin or placebo. Post hoc, we estimated effects on fatal or nonfatal stroke, stroke subtypes, and intermediate markers of stroke risk including AF/AFL. Stroke and AF/AFL data from 3 other completed large CVOTs and CREDENCE were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis.RESULTS: In CREDENCE, 142 participants experienced a stroke during follow-up (10.9/1000 patient-years with canagliflozin, 14.2/1000 patient-years with placebo; hazard ratio [HR], 0.77 [95% CI, 0.55-1.08]). Effects by stroke subtypes were: ischemic (HR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.61-1.28]; n=111), hemorrhagic (HR, 0.50 [95% CI, 0.19-1.32]; n=18), and undetermined (HR, 0.54 [95% CI, 0.20-1.46]; n=17). There was no clear effect on AF/AFL (HR, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.53-1.10]; n=115). The overall effects in the 4 CVOTs combined were: total stroke (HRpooled, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.82-1.12]), ischemic stroke (HRpooled, 1.01 [95% CI, 0.89-1.14]), hemorrhagic stroke (HRpooled, 0.50 [95% CI, 0.30-0.83]), undetermined stroke (HRpooled, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.49-1.51]), and AF/AFL (HRpooled, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.71-0.93]). There was evidence that SGLT2i effects on total stroke varied by baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (P=0.01), with protection in the lowest estimated glomerular filtration rate (<45 mL/min/1.73 m2]) subgroup (HRpooled, 0.50 [95% CI, 0.31-0.79]).CONCLUSIONS: Although we found no clear effect of SGLT2i on total stroke in CREDENCE or across trials combined, there was some evidence of benefit in preventing hemorrhagic stroke and AF/AFL, as well as total stroke for those with lowest estimated glomerular filtration rate. Future research should focus on confirming these data and exploring potential mechanisms. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02065791

    Worldwide trends in hypertension prevalence and progress in treatment and control from 1990 to 2019: a pooled analysis of 1201 population-representative studies with 104 million participants

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    International audienceBACKGROUND - Hypertension can be detected at the primary health-care level and low-cost treatments can effectively control hypertension. We aimed to measure the prevalence of hypertension and progress in its detection, treatment, and control from 1990 to 2019 for 200 countries and territories. METHODS - We used data from 1990 to 2019 on people aged 30–79 years from population-representative studies with measurement of blood pressure and data on blood pressure treatment. We defined hypertension as having systolic blood pressure 140 mm Hg or greater, diastolic blood pressure 90 mm Hg or greater, or taking medication for hypertension. We applied a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate the prevalence of hypertension and the proportion of people with hypertension who had a previous diagnosis (detection), who were taking medication for hypertension (treatment), and whose hypertension was controlled to below 140/90 mm Hg (control). The model allowed for trends over time to be non-linear and to vary by age. FINDINGS - The number of people aged 30–79 years with hypertension doubled from 1990 to 2019, from 331 (95% credible interval 306–359) million women and 317 (292–344) million men in 1990 to 626 (584–668) million women and 652 (604–698) million men in 2019, despite stable global age-standardised prevalence. In 2019, age-standardised hypertension prevalence was lowest in Canada and Peru for both men and women; in Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, and some countries in western Europe including Switzerland, Spain, and the UK for women; and in several low-income and middle-income countries such as Eritrea, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, and Solomon Islands for men. Hypertension prevalence surpassed 50% for women in two countries and men in nine countries, in central and eastern Europe, central Asia, Oceania, and Latin America. Globally, 59% (55–62) of women and 49% (46–52) of men with hypertension reported a previous diagnosis of hypertension in 2019, and 47% (43–51) of women and 38% (35–41) of men were treated. Control rates among people with hypertension in 2019 were 23% (20–27) for women and 18% (16–21) for men. In 2019, treatment and control rates were highest in South Korea, Canada, and Iceland (treatment >70%; control >50%), followed by the USA, Costa Rica, Germany, Portugal, and Taiwan. Treatment rates were less than 25% for women and less than 20% for men in Nepal, Indonesia, and some countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Oceania. Control rates were below 10% for women and men in these countries and for men in some countries in north Africa, central and south Asia, and eastern Europe. Treatment and control rates have improved in most countries since 1990, but we found little change in most countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Oceania. Improvements were largest in high-income countries, central Europe, and some upper-middle-income and recently high-income countries including Costa Rica, Taiwan, Kazakhstan, South Africa, Brazil, Chile, Turkey, and Iran. INTERPRETATION - Improvements in the detection, treatment, and control of hypertension have varied substantially across countries, with some middle-income countries now outperforming most high-income nations. The dual approach of reducing hypertension prevalence through primary prevention and enhancing its treatment and control is achievable not only in high-income countries but also in low-income and middle-income settings

    Worldwide trends in hypertension prevalence and progress in treatment and control from 1990 to 2019: a pooled analysis of 1201 population-representative studies with 104 million participants.

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    BACKGROUND: Hypertension can be detected at the primary health-care level and low-cost treatments can effectively control hypertension. We aimed to measure the prevalence of hypertension and progress in its detection, treatment, and control from 1990 to 2019 for 200 countries and territories. METHODS: We used data from 1990 to 2019 on people aged 30-79 years from population-representative studies with measurement of blood pressure and data on blood pressure treatment. We defined hypertension as having systolic blood pressure 140 mm Hg or greater, diastolic blood pressure 90 mm Hg or greater, or taking medication for hypertension. We applied a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate the prevalence of hypertension and the proportion of people with hypertension who had a previous diagnosis (detection), who were taking medication for hypertension (treatment), and whose hypertension was controlled to below 140/90 mm Hg (control). The model allowed for trends over time to be non-linear and to vary by age. FINDINGS: The number of people aged 30-79 years with hypertension doubled from 1990 to 2019, from 331 (95% credible interval 306-359) million women and 317 (292-344) million men in 1990 to 626 (584-668) million women and 652 (604-698) million men in 2019, despite stable global age-standardised prevalence. In 2019, age-standardised hypertension prevalence was lowest in Canada and Peru for both men and women; in Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, and some countries in western Europe including Switzerland, Spain, and the UK for women; and in several low-income and middle-income countries such as Eritrea, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, and Solomon Islands for men. Hypertension prevalence surpassed 50% for women in two countries and men in nine countries, in central and eastern Europe, central Asia, Oceania, and Latin America. Globally, 59% (55-62) of women and 49% (46-52) of men with hypertension reported a previous diagnosis of hypertension in 2019, and 47% (43-51) of women and 38% (35-41) of men were treated. Control rates among people with hypertension in 2019 were 23% (20-27) for women and 18% (16-21) for men. In 2019, treatment and control rates were highest in South Korea, Canada, and Iceland (treatment >70%; control >50%), followed by the USA, Costa Rica, Germany, Portugal, and Taiwan. Treatment rates were less than 25% for women and less than 20% for men in Nepal, Indonesia, and some countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Oceania. Control rates were below 10% for women and men in these countries and for men in some countries in north Africa, central and south Asia, and eastern Europe. Treatment and control rates have improved in most countries since 1990, but we found little change in most countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Oceania. Improvements were largest in high-income countries, central Europe, and some upper-middle-income and recently high-income countries including Costa Rica, Taiwan, Kazakhstan, South Africa, Brazil, Chile, Turkey, and Iran. INTERPRETATION: Improvements in the detection, treatment, and control of hypertension have varied substantially across countries, with some middle-income countries now outperforming most high-income nations. The dual approach of reducing hypertension prevalence through primary prevention and enhancing its treatment and control is achievable not only in high-income countries but also in low-income and middle-income settings. FUNDING: WHO

    Worldwide trends in hypertension prevalence and progress in treatment and control from 1990 to 2019: a pooled analysis of 1201 population-representative studies with 104 million participants