32 research outputs found

    Ulceration and a White Lesion of the Tongue in a Male HIV Positive Patient: A Journey on the Avenue of Differential Diagnoses in Search of a Solution

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    Oral lesions are early indicator of immunosuppression, leading to HIV new diagnoses. The type of oral lesions can reveal opportunistic diseases that are correlated with the severity of immune depletion. Highly active antiretroviral therapy decreases the incidence of opportunistic oral infections, whereas a large variety of lesions are frequently experienced in people with HIV. Overlapping pathogenic mechanisms and multiple contributing etiologies are related to unusual, atypical oral lesions that are challenging in the clinical practice. We present a rare case of eosinophilic granuloma of the tongue in an older male HIV patient with severe immunosuppression due to the failure of antiretroviral treatment. Differential diagnoses considered squamous carcinoma, lymphoma, viral, fungal or bacterial infections and autoimmune disorders, as well as the influence of HIV immune disfunctions or the influence of cannabidiol use. The histopathologic and immunohistochemistry examination clarified the inflammatory reactive benign substrate of the lesion, although future survey of the oral lesions is essential

    Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Pregnancy—Between Sensitivity and Resistance to Antimycotics

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    Vulvovaginitis with Candida spp. is the most common infection in women and the rate is increased during pregnancy. Antifungal prescription in pregnant women continues to present challenges and the decision must balance the risk of fetal toxicity with the benefits to the fetus and mother. Starting from the idea that clotrimazole is the most recommended antifungal in candidal vaginitis in pregnancy, we tested the sensitivity of different species of Candida spp. to other azoles, polyenes, and antimetabolites. This retrospective study (January to June 2019) assessed 663 pregnant women hospitalized for various pregnancy-related symptoms in which samples of phage secretion were taken. The laboratory results confirmed 21% of cases, indicating 140 positive mycologic samples. In this study, vaginal candidiasis was mostly related to the first trimester of pregnancy (53.57%,) and less related in the last trimester (17.14%). Candida albicans was the most frequent isolated strain in this study, accounting for 118 cases, followed by 16 strains of Candida glabrata and 6 cases of Candida krusei. The highest sensitivity for C. albicans was found in azoles, mostly in miconazole (93.2%), while C. krusei was completely resistant to polyene with low sensitivity in antimetabolites and even in some azoles, such as fluconazole. In our study, higher resistance rates to flucytosine were found, with C. glabrata and C. krusei exhibiting greater resistance than C. albicans

    Radiotherapy and Immunotherapy, Combined Treatment for Unresectable Mucosal Melanoma with Vaginal Origin

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    Gynecologic melanomas are uncommon and malignant mucosal melanomas with vaginal origin are extremely rare, treatment strategies are limited and extrapolated from those of cutaneous melanoma. A better understanding of the vulvovaginal melanoma’s biology and its risk factors is needed. Therapeutic strategies include surgery, systemic therapy and radiotherapy. For vulvovaginal melanoma, surgery is selected as the primary treatment. Immunotherapy and target treatment have recently enhanced the systemic therapy for cutaneous melanoma (CM). Immunotherapy and new target agents demonstrated a better survival of melanoma and might be considered as treatment of vulvovaginal melanoma. Radiotherapy is included in the therapeutic arsenal for mucosal melanoma and may be performed on selected patients who may receive concurrent checkpoints and inhibition neoadjuvant radiotherapy with the purpose of reducing morbidity and mortality

    Diagnostic and Treatment Challenges of Emergent COVID-Associated-Mucormycosis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

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    Mucormycosis is a rare fungal infection, with high mortality, commonly associated with diabetes, malignancies, immunosuppressive therapy, and other immunodeficiency conditions. The emergence of mucormycosis cases has been advanced by the COVID-19 pandemic. Clinical presentation is variable, from asymptomatic to persistent fever or localized infections. We present a case of a Romanian old man, without diabetes or other immunodepression, with COVID-19 who developed severe rhino-orbital mucormycosis and bacterial superinfections, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The late diagnostic and antifungal treatment was related to extensive lesions, bone and tissue loss, and required complex reconstruction procedures. We review the relationships between mucormycosis, COVID-19, and bacterial associated infections. The suspicion index of mucormycosis should be increased in medical practice. The diagnostic and treatment of COVID-19-Associated-Mucormycosis is currently challenging, calling for multidisciplinary collaboration

    Radiotherapy and Immunotherapy, Combined Treatment for Unresectable Mucosal Melanoma with Vaginal Origin

    No full text
    Gynecologic melanomas are uncommon and malignant mucosal melanomas with vaginal origin are extremely rare, treatment strategies are limited and extrapolated from those of cutaneous melanoma. A better understanding of the vulvovaginal melanoma’s biology and its risk factors is needed. Therapeutic strategies include surgery, systemic therapy and radiotherapy. For vulvovaginal melanoma, surgery is selected as the primary treatment. Immunotherapy and target treatment have recently enhanced the systemic therapy for cutaneous melanoma (CM). Immunotherapy and new target agents demonstrated a better survival of melanoma and might be considered as treatment of vulvovaginal melanoma. Radiotherapy is included in the therapeutic arsenal for mucosal melanoma and may be performed on selected patients who may receive concurrent checkpoints and inhibition neoadjuvant radiotherapy with the purpose of reducing morbidity and mortality

    Efficacy and Safety of Bepirovirsen in Chronic Hepatitis B Infection

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    Background Bepirovirsen is an antisense oligonucleotide that targets all hepatitis B virus (HBV) messenger RNAs and acts to decrease levels of viral proteins. Methods We conducted a phase 2b, randomized, investigator-unblinded trial involving participants with chronic HBV infection who were receiving or not receiving nucleoside or nucleotide analogue (NA) therapy. Participants were randomly assigned (in a 3:3:3:1 ratio) to receive weekly subcutaneous injections of bepirovirsen at a dose of 300 mg for 24 weeks (group 1), bepirovirsen at a dose of 300 mg for 12 weeks then 150 mg for 12 weeks (group 2), bepirovirsen at a dose of 300 mg for 12 weeks then placebo for 12 weeks (group 3), or placebo for 12 weeks then bepirovirsen at a dose of 300 mg for 12 weeks (group 4). Groups 1, 2, and 3 received loading doses of bepirovirsen. The composite primary outcome was a hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) level below the limit of detection and an HBV DNA level below the limit of quantification maintained for 24 weeks after the planned end of bepirovirsen treatment, without newly initiated antiviral medication. Results The intention-to-treat population comprised 457 participants (227 receiving NA therapy and 230 not receiving NA therapy). Among those receiving NA therapy, a primary-outcome event occurred in 6 participants (9%; 95% credible interval, 0 to 31) in group 1, in 6 (9%; 95% credible interval, 0 to 43) in group 2, in 2 (3%; 95% credible interval, 0 to 16) in group 3, and 0 (0%; post hoc credible interval, 0 to 8) in group 4. Among participants not receiving NA therapy, a primary-outcome event occurred in 7 participants (10%; 95% credible interval, 0 to 38), 4 (6%; 95% credible interval, 0 to 25), 1 (1%; post hoc credible interval, 0 to 6), and 0 (0%; post hoc credible interval, 0 to 8), respectively. During weeks 1 through 12, adverse events, including injection-site reactions, pyrexia, fatigue, and increased alanine aminotransferase levels, were more common with bepirovirsen (groups 1, 2, and 3) than with placebo (group 4). Conclusions In this phase 2b trial, bepirovirsen at a dose of 300 mg per week for 24 weeks resulted in sustained HBsAg and HBV DNA loss in 9 to 10% of participants with chronic HBV infection. Larger and longer trials are required to assess the efficacy and safety of bepirovirsen. (Funded by GSK; B-Clear ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04449029.

    Diagnostic and Treatment Challenges of Emergent COVID-Associated-Mucormycosis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    No full text
    Mucormycosis is a rare fungal infection, with high mortality, commonly associated with diabetes, malignancies, immunosuppressive therapy, and other immunodeficiency conditions. The emergence of mucormycosis cases has been advanced by the COVID-19 pandemic. Clinical presentation is variable, from asymptomatic to persistent fever or localized infections. We present a case of a Romanian old man, without diabetes or other immunodepression, with COVID-19 who developed severe rhino-orbital mucormycosis and bacterial superinfections, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The late diagnostic and antifungal treatment was related to extensive lesions, bone and tissue loss, and required complex reconstruction procedures. We review the relationships between mucormycosis, COVID-19, and bacterial associated infections. The suspicion index of mucormycosis should be increased in medical practice. The diagnostic and treatment of COVID-19-Associated-Mucormycosis is currently challenging, calling for multidisciplinary collaboration

    A Real-Life Action toward the End of HIV Pandemic: Surveillance of Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission in a Center from Southeast Romania

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    Preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission is a strategy to eliminate new infections to move toward a world free of HIV/AIDS. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of the perinatal infection prevention program in a single center from southeast Romania. Newborns of HIV-positive mothers from 2005 to 2020 were followed-up until the age of two in a retrospective study. The transmission rate from HIV-positive mothers to living children was zero, but neonatal mortality, preterm birth and birth defects were still high. The peculiarity of our study is the high proportion of mothers with a nosocomial pattern of HIV transmission. Intensifying the efforts for accurate implementing the interventions for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission, a long time follow-up for HIV-exposed uninfected children and new research on related HIV pregnancies are necessary to reach the objective of a new generation free of HIV

    Epidemiologic and Clinic Characteristics of the First Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Hospitalized Patients from Galați County

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    The first cases of COVID-19 were reported in Wuhan Province, in China, in December 2019, spreading rapidly around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared this pandemic at the beginning of March 2020 and, at the same time, the first patient in Galați County was confirmed. Both the global and the regional epidemiological evolutions have taken place with variations in incidence, which have been graphically recorded in several “waves”. We conducted a retrospective study on cases of COVID-19 infection, hospitalized between March and June 2020 in an infectious diseases clinic from Galati, in the south-east of Romania. The present paper describes the “first-wave” regional epidemiological and clinical-biological features and the evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic. A poor outcome was related to late presentation to hospital, old age, and over six comorbid conditions including Alzheimer’s disease. The high death rate among people from long-term care institutions is the consequence of the cumulative risk factors associated with immune senescence and inflammation, while COVID-19 is more likely a contributing factor to lower life expectancy

    AIDS Related Kaposi’s Sarcoma: A 20-Year Experience in a Clinic from the South-East of Romania

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    Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) was peculiarly described in the first notified cases of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome as an opportunistic condition. However, the medical progress and the development of active antiretroviral therapy allowed the control of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, although the features of KS have changed throughout the past decades. The purpose of our study is to assess the epidemiological and clinical features of AIDS related KS in Romanian patients. A retrospective follow-up study was achieved in a single infectious diseases’ clinic from Galati—Romania, between 2001 and 2021. Referring to 290 new HIV diagnosed cases from our clinic retained in care, the prevalence of KS was 3.4%. The main characteristics of patients with KS are a median age of 33, a predominance of males, prevalent severe systemic forms of diseases, frequent association of past or concomitant tuberculosis, and context of immune reconstruction syndrome. The mortality rate was 70%. KS has occurred in patients with delayed HIV diagnoses and inadequate adherence to therapy. Early recognition of both infections, the close monitoring of latent or symptomatic tuberculosis, improving the antiretroviral adherence and raising the access to oncologic procedures in Romanian HIV patients could improve their prognosis related to KS
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