140 research outputs found

    Public infrastructure provision and ethnic favouritism : evidence from South Africa

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    A previous version of this paper is an ERSA Working Paper, No. 787.Does coethnicity with the President affect public infrastructure provision in South Africa? Using municipal-level data for 52 district municipalities from 1996 to 2016, we find that municipalities coethnic with the President are associated with higher water infrastructure provision relative to non-coethnic municipalities. Taking into account various political considerations, results show that ethnic favouritism occurs due to ethnic altruism. Our findings remain robust to different specifications of coethnicity thresholds and are applicable to electricity infrastructure provision. Results suggest that in order to minimise ethnic favouritism, politically independent institutions should oversee the allocation of funding and provision of infrastructure.http://www.wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/ecot2024-03-22hj2023Economic

    Diretriz da SBC sobre Diagn√≥stico e Tratamento de Pacientes com Cardiomiopatia da Doen√ßa de Chagas ‚Äď 2023

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    Note: These guidelines are for information purposes and should not replace the clinical judgment of a physician, who must ultimately determine the appropriate treatment for each patient

    Molecular Interplay between Non-Host Resistance, Pathogens and Basal Immunity as a Background for Fatal Yellowing in Oil Palm (<i>Elaeis guineensis</i> Jacq.) Plants

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    An oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) bud rod disorder of unknown etiology, named Fatal Yellowing (FY) disease, is regarded as one of the top constraints with respect to the growth of the palm oil industry in Brazil. FY etiology has been a challenge embraced by several research groups in plant pathology throughout the last 50 years in Brazil, with no success in completing Koch‚Äôs postulates. Most recently, the hypothesis of having an abiotic stressor as the initial cause of FY has gained ground, and oxygen deficiency (hypoxia) damaging the root system has become a candidate for stress. Here, a comprehensive, large-scale, single- and multi-omics integration analysis of the metabolome and transcriptome profiles on the leaves of oil palm plants contrasting in terms of FY symptomatology‚ÄĒasymptomatic and symptomatic‚ÄĒand collected in two distinct seasons‚ÄĒdry and rainy‚ÄĒis reported. The changes observed in the physicochemical attributes of the soil and the chemical attributes and metabolome profiles of the leaves did not allow the discrimination of plants which were asymptomatic or symptomatic for this disease, not even in the rainy season, when the soil became waterlogged. However, the multi-omics integration analysis of enzymes and metabolites differentially expressed in asymptomatic and/or symptomatic plants in the rainy season compared to the dry season allowed the identification of the metabolic pathways most affected by the changes in the environment, opening an opportunity for additional characterization of the role of hypoxia in FY symptom intensification. Finally, the initial analysis of a set of 56 proteins/genes differentially expressed in symptomatic plants compared to the asymptomatic ones, independent of the season, has presented pieces of evidence suggesting that breaks in the non-host resistance to non-adapted pathogens and the basal immunity to adapted pathogens, caused by the anaerobic conditions experienced by the plants, might be linked to the onset of this disease. This set of genes might offer the opportunity to develop biomarkers for selecting oil palm plants resistant to this disease and to help pave the way to employing strategies to keep the safety barriers raised and strong

    NECESSIDADE DE ATUAÇÃO DOS TRIBUNAIS DE CONTAS PARA RECONHECIMENTO DE ATO DE IMPROBIDADE ADMINISTRATIVA NA OMISSÃO DE PRESTAÇÃO DE CONTAS

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    s Tribunais de Contas saŐÉo oŐĀrgaŐÉos que auxiliam o Poder Legislativo na fiscalizacŐßaŐÉo da utilizacŐßaŐÉo de recursos puŐĀblicos pela AdministracŐßaŐÉo, razaŐÉo pela qual eŐĀ importante estudar a necessidade de atuacŐßaŐÉo desses Tribunais para reconhecimento de ato de improbidade administrativa na omissaŐÉo de prestacŐßaŐÉo de contas. AteŐĀ porque, o uso de recursos puŐĀblicos sem a devida justificativa eŐĀ um fato juriŐĀdico que traz prejuiŐĀzos aŐÄ gestaŐÉo das financŐßas puŐĀblicas, principalmente no aspecto da transpareŐāncia. Diante disso, o objetivo do estudo eŐĀ discutir sobre o papel dos Tribunais de Contas no contexto da omissaŐÉo de prestacŐßaŐÉo de contas. A metodologia utilizada foi a pesquisa de tipo bibliograŐĀfico, sendo feita uma revisaŐÉo de literatura. Os resultados encontrados apontaram que cabe aos Tribunais de Contas representar aŐÄ autoridade administrativa competente quando constatada a omissaŐÉo de prestacŐßaŐÉo de contas. A conclusaŐÉo eŐĀ no sentido de que os Tribunais de Contas exercem papel fundamental no reconhecimento da falta de prestacŐßaŐÉo de contas como ato de improbidade administrativa

    Democracia, crescimento e o fator civismo

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    Este trabalho tem por objetivo avaliar a rela√ß√£o entre democracia e crescimento econ√īmico, incorporando o fator ‚Äúcivismo‚ÄĚ √† an√°lise. A partir de dois modelos, um de regress√£o log√≠stica ordenado e outro de dados em painel, busca-se identificar, primeiro, se o ‚Äún√≠vel de civismo‚ÄĚ aumenta a probabilidade de indiv√≠duos serem do tipo ‚Äúdemocr√°ticos‚ÄĚ; segundo, no recorte para pa√≠ses, se o ‚Äún√≠vel de civismo‚ÄĚ, associado √† vari√°vel representativa de democracia, est√£o ligadas ao crescimento econ√īmico. Os resultados revelam, para o recorte de indiv√≠duos, que a participa√ß√£o pol√≠tica, o interesse pol√≠tico e o interesse por assuntos comunit√°rios est√£o associados positivamente com a medida de democracia. Os resultados para o recorte de pa√≠ses indicam que: (i) a vari√°vel ‚Äúdemocracia‚ÄĚ isolada n√£o tem associa√ß√£o significativa com o produto interno bruto per capita; (i) quando a medida de democracia √© associada ao ‚Äún√≠vel de civismo‚ÄĚ, estas revelam-se positivamente associadas √† vari√°vel econ√īmica (PIB per capita). A import√Ęncia das institui√ß√Ķes informais para a efetividade das institui√ß√Ķes pol√≠ticas n√£o √© novidade na literatura e as an√°lises emp√≠ricas podem colaborar com as discuss√Ķes te√≥ricas. Assim, os resultados sugerem que o fator ‚Äúcivismo‚ÄĚ pode se constituir como valor importante para o debate sobre a rela√ß√£o entre a democracia e o crescimento econ√īmico

    O SANCIONAMENTO DAS SITUA√á√ēES DE CONFLITO DE INTERESSES COMO ATO DE IMPROBIDADE ADMINISTRATIVA

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    O presente artigo busca analisar em que medida a Lei n¬ļ 12.813/2013 pode sancionar todas as situa√ß√Ķes de conflito de interesses como improbidade administrativa, independentemente do disposto na nova reda√ß√£o da Lei n¬ļ 8.429/1992, que estabelece requisitos espec√≠ficos para a caracteriza√ß√£o do ato √≠mprobo. Diante disso, o objetivo √© analisar as situa√ß√Ķes definidas como conflito de interesses e aplica√ß√£o do art. 12 da LCI √† luz do sistema de responsabiliza√ß√£o por improbidade previsto na nova reda√ß√£o da LIA. A justificativa para a elabora√ß√£o do presente artigo consiste no fato de que o novo texto da Lei de Improbidade Administrativa modificou a caracteriza√ß√£o de atos √≠mprobos, impactando diretamente a responsabiliza√ß√£o por improbidade do agente em situa√ß√£o de conflito de interesses. A metodologia utilizada foi a pesquisa bibliogr√°fica, de cunho qualitativo, raz√£o pela qual foi feita uma revis√£o da literatura especializada. Os resultados encontrados apontaram que o agente p√ļblico federal, em situa√ß√£o de conflito de interesses, n√£o incorre automaticamente em improbidade administrativa, conforme se depreende da leitura do art. 12 da LCI. A conclus√£o alcan√ßada √© de que n√£o √© poss√≠vel sancionar todas as situa√ß√Ķes de conflito de interesses como ato √≠mprobo, pois √© necess√°rio levar em considera√ß√£o o regime jur√≠dico de responsabiliza√ß√£o imposto pela nova reda√ß√£o da Lei de Improbidade Administrativa

    Diretriz da Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia sobre Diagnóstico e Tratamento de Pacientes com Cardiomiopatia da Doença de Chagas

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    This guideline aimed to update the concepts and formulate the standards of conduct and scientific evidence that support them, regarding the diagnosis and treatment of the Cardiomyopathy of Chagas disease, with special emphasis on the rationality base that supported it.&nbsp; Chagas disease in the 21st century maintains an epidemiological pattern of endemicity in 21 Latin American countries. Researchers and managers from endemic and non-endemic countries point to the need to adopt comprehensive public health policies to effectively control the interhuman transmission of T. cruzi infection, and to obtain an optimized level of care for already infected individuals, focusing on diagnostic and therapeutic opportunistic opportunities. &nbsp; Pathogenic and pathophysiological mechanisms of the Cardiomyopathy of Chagas disease were revisited after in-depth updating and the notion that necrosis and fibrosis are stimulated by tissue parasitic persistence and adverse immune reaction, as fundamental mechanisms, assisted by autonomic and microvascular disorders, was well established. Some of them have recently formed potential targets of therapies.&nbsp; The natural history of the acute and chronic phases was reviewed, with enhancement for oral transmission, indeterminate form and chronic syndromes. Recent meta-analyses of observational studies have estimated the risk of evolution from acute and indeterminate forms and mortality after chronic cardiomyopathy. Therapeutic approaches applicable to individuals with Indeterminate form of Chagas disease were specifically addressed. All methods to detect structural and/or functional alterations with various cardiac imaging techniques were also reviewed, with recommendations for use in various clinical scenarios. Mortality risk stratification based on the Rassi score, with recent studies of its application, was complemented by methods that detect myocardial fibrosis.&nbsp; The current methodology for etiological diagnosis and the consequent implications of trypanonomic treatment deserved a comprehensive and in-depth approach. Also the treatment of patients at risk or with heart failure, arrhythmias and thromboembolic events, based on pharmacological and complementary resources, received special attention. Additional chapters supported the conducts applicable to several special contexts, including t. cruzi/HIV co-infection, risk during surgeries, in pregnant women, in the reactivation of infection after heart transplantation, and others.&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp; Finally, two chapters of great social significance, addressing the structuring of specialized services to care for individuals with the Cardiomyopathy of Chagas disease, and reviewing the concepts of severe heart disease and its medical-labor implications completed this guideline.Esta diretriz teve como objetivo principal atualizar os conceitos e formular as normas de conduta e evid√™ncias cient√≠ficas que as suportam, quanto ao diagn√≥stico e tratamento da CDC, com especial √™nfase na base de racionalidade que a embasou. A DC no s√©culo XXI mant√©m padr√£o epidemiol√≥gico de endemicidade em 21 pa√≠ses da Am√©rica Latina. Investigadores e gestores de pa√≠ses end√™micos e n√£o end√™micos indigitam a necessidade de se adotarem pol√≠ticas abrangentes, de sa√ļde p√ļblica, para controle eficaz da transmiss√£o inter-humanos da infec√ß√£o pelo T. cruzi, e obter-se n√≠vel otimizado de atendimento aos indiv√≠duos j√° infectados, com foco em oportuniza√ß√£o diagn√≥stica e terap√™utica. Mecanismos patog√™nicos e fisiopatol√≥gicos da CDC foram revisitados ap√≥s atualiza√ß√£o aprofundada e ficou bem consolidada a no√ß√£o de que necrose e fibrose sejam estimuladas pela persist√™ncia parasit√°ria tissular e rea√ß√£o imune adversa, como mecanismos fundamentais, coadjuvados por dist√ļrbios auton√īmicos e microvasculares. Alguns deles recentemente constitu√≠ram alvos potenciais de terap√™uticas. A hist√≥ria natural das fases aguda e cr√īnica foi revista, com realce para a transmiss√£o oral, a forma indeterminada e as s√≠ndromes cr√īnicas. Metan√°lises recentes de estudos observacionais estimaram o risco de evolu√ß√£o a partir das formas aguda e indeterminada e de mortalidade ap√≥s instala√ß√£o da cardiomiopatia cr√īnica. Condutas terap√™uticas aplic√°veis aos indiv√≠duos com a FIDC foram abordadas especificamente. Todos os m√©todos para detectar altera√ß√Ķes estruturais e/ou funcionais com variadas t√©cnicas de imageamento card√≠aco tamb√©m foram revisados, com recomenda√ß√Ķes de uso nos v√°rios cen√°rios cl√≠nicos. Estratifica√ß√£o de risco de mortalidade fundamentada no escore de Rassi, com estudos recentes de sua aplica√ß√£o, foi complementada por m√©todos que detectam fibrose mioc√°rdica. A metodologia atual para diagn√≥stico etiol√≥gico e as consequentes implica√ß√Ķes do tratamento tripanossomicida mereceram enfoque abrangente e aprofundado. Tamb√©m o tratamento de pacientes em risco ou com insufici√™ncia card√≠aca, arritmias e eventos tromboemb√≥licos, baseado em recursos farmacol√≥gicos e complementares, recebeu especial aten√ß√£o. Cap√≠tulos suplementares subsidiaram as condutas aplic√°veis a diversos contextos especiais, entre eles o da co-infec√ß√£o por T. cruzi/HIV, risco durante cirurgias, em gr√°vidas, na reativa√ß√£o da infec√ß√£o ap√≥s transplante card√≠acos, e outros.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Por fim, dois cap√≠tulos de grande significado social, abordando a estrutura√ß√£o de servi√ßos especializados para atendimento aos indiv√≠duos com a CDC, e revisando os conceitos de cardiopatia grave e suas implica√ß√Ķes m√©dico-trabalhistas completaram esta diretriz.&nbsp

    Socio-political instability and growth dynamics

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    We develop an overlapping generations (OLG) monetary endogenous growth model characterized by socio-political instability, with the latter being specified as a fraction of output lost due to strikes, riots and protests. We show that growth dynamics arise in this model when socio-political instability is a function of inflation. In particular, two distinct growth dynamics emerge, one convergent and the other divergent contingent on the strength of the response of socio-political instability to inflation. Since our theoretical results hinge on socio-political instability being a function of inflation, we test the prediction that inflation affects socio-political instability positively by using a panel of 156 countries for the 1980‚Äď2012 period, and allowing for country and time fixed effects. The results indicate that inflation relates positively with socio-political instability. Policy makers should be cognisant that it is crucial to maintain long-run price stability, as failure to do so may result in high inflation emanating from excessive money supply growth, leading to high (er) socio-political instability, and ultimately, the economy being on a divergent balanced growth path.http://www.elsevier.com/locate/ecosys2024-11-16hj2023Economic

    Insights from a Multi-Omics Integration (MOI) Study in Oil Palm (Elaeis gineensis Jacq.) Response to Abiotic Stresses: Part One?Salinity.

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    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is the number one source of consumed vegetable oil nowadays. It is cultivated in areas of tropical rainforest, where it meets its natural condition of high rainfall throughout the year. The palm oil industry faces criticism due to a series of practices that was considered not environmentally sustainable, and it finds itself under pressure to adopt new and innovative procedures to reverse this negative public perception. Cultivating this oilseed crop outside the rainforest zone is only possible using artificial irrigation. Close to 30% of the world?s irrigated agricultural lands also face problems due to salinity stress. Consequently, the research community must consider drought and salinity together when studying to empower breeding programs in order to develop superior genotypes adapted to those potential new areas for oil palm cultivation. Multi-Omics Integration (MOI) offers a new window of opportunity for the non-trivial challenge of unraveling the mechanisms behind multigenic traits, such as drought and salinity tolerance. The current study carried out a comprehensive, large-scale, single-omics analysis (SOA), and MOI study on the leaves of young oil palm plants submitted to very high salinity stress. Taken together, a total of 1239 proteins were positively regulated, and 1660 were negatively regulated in transcriptomics and proteomics analyses. Meanwhile, the metabolomics analysis revealed 37 metabolites that were upregulated and 92 that were downregulated. After performing SOA, 436 differentially expressed (DE) full-length transcripts, 74 DE proteins, and 19 DE metabolites ffected by this stress, with at least one DE molecule in all three omics platforms used. The Cysteine and methionine metabolism (map00270) and Glycolysis/Gluconeogenesis (map00010) pathways were the most affected ones, each one with 20 DE molecules
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