35,414 research outputs found

    Symmetry Breaking Using Value Precedence

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    We present a comprehensive study of the use of value precedence constraints to break value symmetry. We first give a simple encoding of value precedence into ternary constraints that is both efficient and effective at breaking symmetry. We then extend value precedence to deal with a number of generalizations like wreath value and partial interchangeability. We also show that value precedence is closely related to lexicographical ordering. Finally, we consider the interaction between value precedence and symmetry breaking constraints for variable symmetries.Comment: 17th European Conference on Artificial Intelligenc

    Quality determination of liquid-solid hydrogen mixtures

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    Quality determinations of liquid-solid hydrogen mixtures from mass fraction of vapor pumped off in freeze-thaw proces

    New Types of Thermodynamics from (1+1)(1+1)-Dimensional Black Holes

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    For normal thermodynamic systems superadditivity §\S, homogeneity \H and concavity \C of the entropy hold, whereas for (3+1)(3+1)-dimensional black holes the latter two properties are violated. We show that (1+1)(1+1)-dimensional black holes exhibit qualitatively new types of thermodynamic behaviour, discussed here for the first time, in which \C always holds, \H is always violated and §\S may or may not be violated, depending of the magnitude of the black hole mass. Hence it is now seen that neither superadditivity nor concavity encapsulate the meaning of the second law in all situations.Comment: WATPHYS-TH93/05, Latex, 10 pgs. 1 figure (available on request), to appear in Class. Quant. Gra

    Dynamical N-body Equlibrium in Circular Dilaton Gravity

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    We obtain a new exact equilibrium solution to the N-body problem in a one-dimensional relativistic self-gravitating system. It corresponds to an expanding/contracting spacetime of a circle with N bodies at equal proper separations from one another around the circle. Our methods are straightforwardly generalizable to other dilatonic theories of gravity, and provide a new class of solutions to further the study of (relativistic) one-dimensional self-gravitating systems.Comment: 4 pages, latex, reference added, minor changes in wordin

    Exact Solutions of Relativistic Two-Body Motion in Lineal Gravity

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    We develop the canonical formalism for a system of NN bodies in lineal gravity and obtain exact solutions to the equations of motion for N=2. The determining equation of the Hamiltonian is derived in the form of a transcendental equation, which leads to the exact Hamiltonian to infinite order of the gravitational coupling constant. In the equal mass case explicit expressions of the trajectories of the particles are given as the functions of the proper time, which show characteristic features of the motion depending on the strength of gravity (mass) and the magnitude and sign of the cosmological constant. As expected, we find that a positive cosmological constant has a repulsive effect on the motion, while a negative one has an attractive effect. However, some surprising features emerge that are absent for vanishing cosmological constant. For a certain range of the negative cosmological constant the motion shows a double maximum behavior as a combined result of an induced momentum-dependent cosmological potential and the gravitational attraction between the particles. For a positive cosmological constant, not only bounded motions but also unbounded ones are realized. The change of the metric along the movement of the particles is also exactly derived.Comment: 37 pages, Latex, 24 figure

    Quark-lepton symmetry and complementarity

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    We argue that the difference between the observed approximate quark-lepton complementarity and the theoretical prediction based on realistic quark-lepton symmetry within the seesaw mechanism may be adjusted by means of a triplet contribution in the seesaw formula.Comment: 7 pages, RevTex

    Systematic innovation and the underlying principles behind TRIZ and TOC

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    Innovative developments in the design of product and manufacturing systems are often marked by simplicity, at least in retrospect, that has previously been shrouded by restrictive mental models or limited knowledge transfer. These innovative developments are often associated with the breaking of long established trade-off compromises, as in the paradigm shift associated with JIT & TQM, or the resolution of design contradictions, as in the case of the dual cyclone vacuum cleaner. The rate of change in technology and the commercial environment suggests the opportunity for innovative developments is accelerating, but what systematic support is there to guide this innovation process. This paper brings together two parallel, but independent theories on inventive problem solving; one in mechanical engineering, namely the Russian Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) and the other originating in manufacturing management as the Theory of Constraints (TOC). The term systematic innovation is used to describe the use of common underlying principles within these two approaches. The paper focuses on the significance of trade-off contradictions to innovation in these two fields and explores their relationship with manufacturing strategy development
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