66,805 research outputs found

    Postdigital epistemology

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    DHI 10 Year Strategy 2024 – 2033 : Transforming great ideas into real solutions

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    As Scotland's innovation centre for digital heath and care, DHI is a catalyst for change and a conduit for NHS reform, health and social care transformation. DHI occupies a unique and visible position at the heart of the innovation ecosystem for digital health and care in Scotland. It sits at the nexus of commercial, academic, health and social care sectors, combining extensive skills and experience to accelerate research and the adoption of innovation (R&I). DHI's impressive track record of delivery provides a strong foundation for the ambitions set out in this 10-year strategy

    Depression, anxiety, stress symptoms and their determinants among secondary students with vision impairment in rural Northwestern China during the COVID-19 pandemic

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    ObjectiveThe measures implemented to control the spread of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) could affect children’s mental and vision health. Youth particularly from minority and socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds were more likely to be impacted by these measures. This study aimed to examine the mental health of children with vision impairment and associated factors in North-western China during the COVID-19 pandemic.MethodsA cross-sectional study was conducted among 2,036 secondary school children living in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. Participants completed a survey on sociodemographic and lifestyle information and answered the Chinese version of the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21) questionnaire. Presenting visual acuity was measured by a trained enumerator. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify potential risk factors for mental health problems.ResultsResponses from 1,992 (97.8%) children were included in the analysis after excluding those with incomplete mental health outcome data. The prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms within the dataset were 28.9, 46.4, and 22.3%, respectively. The distribution of children with different stress levels differed significantly between those with and without vision impairment (p = 0.03). Multivariable logistic regression analyses revealed that depression symptoms decreased with higher parental education (OR, 0.76, 95% confidence intervals (CI):0.63–0.96), longer sleep duration (OR, 0.90, 95% CI: 0.81–0.97) and longer study time (OR, 0.82, 95% CI: 0.74–0.91), whereas they increased with higher recreational screen time (OR, 1.19, 95% CI: 1.08–1.32). Anxiety symptoms decreased with higher parental education (OR, 0.80, 95% CI: 0.66–0.96) and increased with higher recreational screen time (OR, 1.15, 95% CI: 1.04–1.27) and being a left-behind child (OR, 1.26, 95% CI: 1.04–1.54). In addition, stress symptoms decreased with longer sleep duration (OR, 0.92, 95%CI: 0.85–0.99) and increased with higher number of siblings (OR, 1.10, 95% CI: 1.01–1.19), higher recreational screen time (OR, 1.15, 95% CI: 1.04–1.28) and older age (OR,1.12, 95% CI: 1.004–1.24).ConclusionA considerable proportion of our sample experienced mental health problems during the pandemic. Healthcare planners in China should consider interventions such as reducing recreational screen time, ensuring sufficient sleep, and timely detection of mental health symptoms among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups

    Plumage microorganism communities of tidal marsh sparrows

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    Summary: Microorganism communities can shape host phenotype evolution but are often comprised of thousands of taxa with varied impact on hosts. Identification of taxa influencing host evolution relies on first describing microorganism communities and acquisition routes. Keratinolytic (keratin-degrading) microorganisms are hypothesized to be abundant in saltmarsh sediments and to contribute to plumage evolution in saltmarsh-adapted sparrows. Metabarcoding was used to describe plumage bacterial (16S rRNA) and fungal (ITS) communities in three sparrow species endemic to North America’s Atlantic coast saltmarshes. Results describe limited within-species variability and moderate host species-level patterns in microorganism diversity and community composition. A small percentage of overall microorganism diversity was comprised of potentially keratinolytic microorganisms, warranting further functional studies. Distinctions between plumage and saltmarsh sediment bacteria, but not fungal, communities were detected, suggesting multiple bacterial acquisition routes and/or vertebrate host specialization. This research lays groundwork for future testing of causal links between microorganisms and avian host evolution

    The life and works of Don W. Cruickshank (1942-2021)

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    This article discusses Don Cruickshank’s career and writings on Spain’s seventeenth-century theatre and culture—particularly on Calderón, and on Golden-Age printed plays. Cruickshank also collaborated in two international Projects dedicated to cataloguing thousands of comedias sueltas preserved in archives and libraries in Spain and the USA. Two books, written with Ann Mackenzie, and unfinished when Cruickshank died, are also commented upon. Their monograph on comedias sueltas printed in Seville will hopefully be published before long. Their annotated edition of Fajardo’s previously unprinted Índice de todas las comedias impresas (1717) is now published in the Bulletin of Spanish Studies

    p21 as a predictor and prognostic indicator of clinical outcome in rectal cancer patients

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    The cell cycle plays a key and complex role in the development of human cancers. p21 is a potent cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) involved in the promotion of cell cycle arrest and the regulation of cellular senescence. Altered p21 expression in rectal cancer cells may affect tumor cells’ behavior and resistance to neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy. Our study aimed to ascertain the relationship between the differential expression of p21 in rectal cancer and patient survival outcomes. Using tissue microarrays, 266 rectal cancer specimens were immunohistochemically stained for p21. The expression patterns were scored separately in cancer cells retrieved from the center and the periphery of the tumor; compared with clinicopathological data, tumor regression grade (TRG), disease-free, and overall survival. Negative p21 expression in tumor periphery cells was significantly associated with longer overall survival upon the univariate (p = 0.001) and multivariable analysis (p = 0.003, HR = 2.068). Negative p21 expression in tumor periphery cells was also associated with longer disease-free survival in the multivariable analysis (p = 0.040, HR = 1.769). Longer overall survival times also correlated with lower tumor grades (p= 0.011), the absence of vascular and perineural invasion (p = 0.001; p < 0.005), the absence of metastases (p < 0.005), and adjuvant treatment (p = 0.009). p21 expression is a potential predictive and prognostic biomarker for clinical outcomes in rectal cancer patients. Negative p21 expression in tumor periphery cells demonstrated significant association with longer overall survival and disease-free survival. Larger prospective studies are warranted to investigate the ability of p21 to identify rectal cancer patients who will benefit from neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy

    Understanding continent-wide variation in vulture ranging behavior to assess feasibility of Vulture Safe Zones in Africa:challenges and possibilities

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    Protected areas are intended as tools in reducing threats to wildlife and preserving habitat for their long-term population persistence. Studies on ranging behavior provide insight into the utility of protected areas. Vultures are one of the fastest declining groups of birds globally and are popular subjects for telemetry studies, but continent-wide studies are lacking. To address how vultures use space and identify the areas and location of possible vulture safe zones, we assess home range size and their overlap with protected areas by species, age, breeding status, season, and region using a large continent-wide telemetry datasets that includes 163 individuals of three species of threatened Gyps vulture. Immature vultures of all three species had larger home ranges and used a greater area outside of protected areas than breeding and non-breeding adults. Cape vultures had the smallest home range sizes and the lowest level of overlap with protected areas. Rüppell's vultures had larger home range sizes in the wet season, when poisoning may increase due to human-carnivore conflict. Overall, our study suggests challenges for the creation of Vulture Safe Zones to protect African vultures. At a minimum, areas of 24,000 km2 would be needed to protect the entire range of an adult African White-backed vulture and areas of more than 75,000 km2 for wider-ranging Rüppell's vultures. Vulture Safe Zones in Africa would generally need to be larger than existing protected areas, which would require widespread conservation activities outside of protected areas to be successful

    Multimodal Communication Support for Word Recognition and Literacy in Children With Language Delays

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    As the definition of being literate transforms from being able to read and write to being able to decipher a variety of mediums (e.g., music, text emojis, and more!), it is necessary that curriculum is adapted to reflect these changes. This paper discusses 11 preschoolers aged 4 to 6 years with language delays and their ability to recognize one-syllable words. Two different interventions assessed word recognition. One intervention paired gestures with five words. The second intervention had participants create self-interpreted drawings for each of the remaining five words. To determine whether or not gestures and drawing were effective literacy strategies, participants’ word recognition scores pre and post intervention were analyzed. Assessments featured a visual field of three printed words and analyzed participants’ printed word recognition by asking them to point to the orally presented word. The correct responses connected to gestures versus drawing were compared. This study was inspired by the Stage to Page program, a collaboration between Ballet Vero Beach, The Learning Alliance, and the School District of Indian River County that worked to connect the art of dance and literacy in elementary-aged students (The Learning Alliance, 2021, 0:00). The program aimed to combat illiteracy and reach the community’s goal of 90% of students reading at grade-level by the end of third grade. Curriculum combined dance and literacy, ended in a culminating post-performance workshop, and identified that integrating the arts is a unique way to provide students access to text and support other areas of learning, such as literacy and reading

    3D Printing Solar Power Plants

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    Every two minutes, the Earth receives enough energy from the sun to power all human activity for an entire year. However, most of the energy produced today isn’t from the sun. Over this past summer, I investigated concentrating solar power generation, specifically researching how to make it more efficient and cost-effective. Introducing the disk above: this is a test sample made from a ceramic metal mixture. What is so amazing about this sample, is that it is recyclable and produced by a 3D printer. In the future, we hope to 3D print entire sections of concentrating solar power plants. This production method saves tax-payer dollars, and this formulation of materials allows for the system to reach higher operating temperatures. When this technology is implemented, energy will be cheaper and more environmentally conscious to produce.https://ir.library.illinoisstate.edu/ior2024/1021/thumbnail.jp

    Infection of Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) by the parasite Hematodinium sp.: insights from 30 years of field observations

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    The Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus, is an important representative of the benthos and also supports valuable fisheries across Europe. Nephrops are susceptible to infection by Hematodinium sp., an endoparasitic dinoflagellate that causes morbidity and mortality. From an epizootiological perspective, the Clyde Sea Area (CSA; west of Scotland) is the best-studied Hematodinium–Nephrops pathosystem, with historical data available between 1988 and 2008. We have revisited this pathosystem by curating and updating prevalence values, differentiating host traits associated with disease exposure and progression, and comparing Hematodinium sp. disease dynamics in the CSA to other locations and to other decapod hosts (Cancer pagurus, Carcinus maenas). Prevalence from a 2018/2019 survey (involving 1739 lobsters) revealed Hematodinium sp. still mounts a synchronized patent infection in the CSA; hence this pathogen can be considered as enzootic in this location. We highlight for the first time that Nephrops size is associated with high severity infection, while females are more exposed to Hematodinium sp. More generally, regardless of the host (Norway lobster, brown and shore crabs) or the geographical area (Ireland, Wales, Scotland), Hematodinium sp. patent infections peak in spring/summer and reach their nadir during autumn. We contend that Hematodinium must be considered one of the most important pathogens of decapod crustaceans in temperate waters
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