87 research outputs found

    Insights on the Multifaceted Roles of Wild-Type and Mutated Superoxide Dismutase 1 in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Pathogenesis

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    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive motor neurodegenerative disease. Cell damage in ALS is the result of many different, largely unknown, pathogenetic mechanisms. Astrocytes and microglial cells play a critical role also for their ability to enhance a deranged inflammatory response. Excitotoxicity, due to excessive glutamate levels and increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration, has also been proposed to play a key role in ALS pathogenesis/progression. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) behave as key second messengers for multiple receptor/ligand interactions. ROS-dependent regulatory networks are usually mediated by peroxides. Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1) physiologically mediates intracellular peroxide generation. About 10% of ALS subjects show a familial disease associated with different gain-of-function SOD1 mutations. The occurrence of sporadic ALS, not clearly associated with SOD1 defects, has been also described. SOD1-dependent pathways have been involved in neuron functional network as well as in immune-response regulation. Both, neuron depolarization and antigen-dependent T-cell activation mediate SOD1 exocytosis, inducing increased interaction of the enzyme with a complex molecular network involved in the regulation of neuron functional activity and immune response. Here, alteration of SOD1-dependent pathways mediating increased intracellular Ca2+ levels, altered mitochondria functions and defective inflammatory process regulation have been proposed to be relevant for ALS pathogenesis/progression

    Superoxide Dismutase-1 intracellular content in T lymphocytes associates with increased Regulatory T Cell level in Multiple Sclerosis subjects undergoing immune-modulating treatment.

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    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) participate in the T-cell activation processes. ROS-dependent regulatory networks are usually mediated by peroxides, which are more stable and able to freely migrate inside cells. Superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1 represents the major physiological intracellular source of peroxides. We found that antigen-dependent activation represents a triggering element for SOD-1 production and secretion by human T lymphocytes. A deranged T-cell proinflammatory response characterizes the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). We previously observed a decreased SOD-1 intracellular content in leukocytes of MS individuals at diagnosis, with increasing amounts of such enzyme after interferon (IFN)-b 1b treatment. Here, we analyzed in depth SOD-1 intracellular content in T cells in a cohort of MS individuals undergoing immune-modulating treatment. Higher amounts of the enzyme were associated with increased availability of regulatory T cells (Treg) preferentially expressing Foxp3-exon 2 (Foxp3-E2), as described for effective Treg. In vitro administration of recombinant human SOD-1 to activated T cells, significantly increased their IL-17 production, while SOD-1 molecules lacking dismutase activity were unable to interfere with cytokine production by activated T cells in vitro. Furthermore, hydrogen peroxide addition was observed to mimic, in vitro, the SOD-1 effect on IL-17 production. These data add SOD-1 to the molecules involved in the molecular pathways contributing to re-shaping the T-cell cytokine profile and Treg differentiation

    The Effects of Angiotensin II or Angiotensin 1-7 on Rat Pial Microcirculation during Hypoperfusion and Reperfusion Injury: Role of Redox Stress

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    Renin-angiotensin systems produce angiotensin II (Ang II) and angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7), which are able to induce opposite effects on circulation. This study in vivo assessed the effects induced by Ang II or Ang 1-7 on rat pial microcirculation during hypoperfusion-reperfusion, clarifying the mechanisms causing the imbalance between Ang II and Ang 1-7. The fluorescence microscopy was used to quantify the microvascular parameters. Hypoperfusion and reperfusion caused vasoconstriction, disruption of blood-brain barrier, reduction of capillary perfusion and an increase in reactive oxygen species production. Rats treated with Ang II showed exacerbated microvascular damage with stronger vasoconstriction compared to hypoperfused rats, a further increase in leakage, higher decrease in capillary perfusion and marker oxidative stress. Candesartan cilexetil (specific Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) antagonist) administration prior to Ang II prevented the effects induced by Ang II, blunting the hypoperfusion-reperfusion injury. Ang 1-7 or ACE2 activator administration, preserved the pial microcirculation from hypoperfusion-reperfusion damage. These effects of Ang 1-7 were blunted by a Mas (Mas oncogene-encoded protein) receptor antagonist, while Ang II type 2 receptor antagonists did not affect Ang 1-7-induced changes. In conclusion, Ang II and Ang 1-7 triggered different mechanisms through AT1R or MAS receptors able to affect cerebral microvascular injury

    Human miR-26a-5p regulates the glutamate transporter SLC1A1 (EAAT3) expression. Relevance in multiple sclerosis

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    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, characterized by chronic inflammation, demyelination and scarring as well as a broad spectrum of signs and symptoms. MicroRNA plays pivotal roles in cellular and developmental processes by regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Increasing evidence suggests the involvement of microRNAs in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including MS. We have already found that the expression of a specific miRNA, hsa-mir-26a-5p (miR-26a), changed during INF-β treatment in responder Relapsing-Remitting MS patients. Functional annotations of mir-26a targets revealed that a number of genes were implicated in Glutamate Receptor Signaling pathway, which is notoriously altered in neurodegenerative diseases as MS. In this study, the different potential targets were subjected to a validation test based on luciferase reporter constructs transfected in an oligodendroglial cell line. In this functional screening, miR-26a was able to interact with SLC1A1 3′ UTR suppressing the reporter activity. Transfection of a miR-26a mimic was then shown to decrease the endogenous SLC1A1 mRNA. Afterward, we have evaluated in blood platelets from interferon-β treated Multiple Sclerosis patients the expression of miR-26a and SLC1A1, finding not only their converse expression, but also a responsiveness to interferon-β therapy. Overall, these data suggest that mir-26a and SLC1A1 may play a role in the MS pathogenesis, and may be potential targets for the development of new biomarkers and/or therapeutic tools

    Effect of mutated Cu, Zn Superoxide dismutase (SOD1G93A) on modulation of transductional pathway mediated by M1 muscarinic receptor in SK-N-BE and NSC-34 cells

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    The constitutive secretion of antioxidant Cu-Zn Superoxide dismutase (SOD1) has been widely demonstrated in many cellular lines. In addition, we showed that as well as the basal SOD1 secretion, this enzyme is also exported through depolarization of excitable cells by high extracellular K concentration. Recent data showed that SOD1 was able to activate muscarinic M1 receptor producing the activation, via phospholipase C, of ERK1-2 and AKT pathways. It is also known that about 20% of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS) is due to mutations in the gene coding for SOD1. The aim of the present research is to evaluate whether, analogously to wild type SOD1 (SOD1wt), the mutated form of SOD1G93A is able to activate ERK1-2 and AKT through muscarinic M1 receptor in SK-N-BE as well as in motoneuron like NSC-34. Our results demonstrated that in NSC-34 and SK-N-BE cells mutated SOD1G93A carried out a more evident activation of ERK1-2 and AKT and a stronger increase of intracellular calcium levels compared to SOD1WT; we also demonstrated that these effects are mediated by the M1 receptor as shown using pirenzepine, a specific M1 inhibitor and the calcium chelator BAPTA. Of note, M1 receptor pathway activation by SOD1G93A, but not by SOD1WT, is associated with both an increase of reactive oxygen species and a cytotoxic effect

    The Cu,Zn Superoxide Dismutase: not only a dismutase enzyme

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    The Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is an ubiquitary cytosolic dimeric carbohydrate free molecule, belonging to a family of isoenzymes involved in the scavenger of superoxide anions. This effect certainly represents the main and well known function ascribed to this enzyme. Here we highlight new aspects of SOD1 physiology that point out some inedited effects of this enzyme in addition to the canonic role of oxygen radical enzymatic dismutation. In the last two decades our research group produced many data obtained in in vitro studies performed in many cellular lines, mainly neuroblastoma SK-N-BE cells, indicating that this enzyme is secreted either constitutively or after depolarization induced by high extracellular K+ concentration. In addition, we gave many experimental evidences showing that SOD1 is able to stimulate, through muscarinic M1 receptor, pathways involving ERK1/2, and AKT activation. These effects are accompanied with an intracellular calcium increase. In the last part of this review we describe researches that link deficient extracellular secretion of mutant SOD1G93A to its intracellular accumulation and toxicity in NSC-34 cells. Alternatively, SOD1G93A toxicity has been attributed to a decrease of Km for H2O2 with consequent OH radical formation. Interestingly, this last inedited effect of SOD1G93A could represent a gain of function that could be involved in the pathogenesis of familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (fALS)

    Reactive oxygen species derived from NOX3 and NOX5 drive differentiation of human oligodendrocytes

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    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are signaling molecules that mediate stress response, apoptosis, DNA damage, gene expression and differentiation. We report here that differentiation of oligodendrocytes (OLs), the myelin forming cells in the CNS, is driven by ROS. To dissect the OL differentiation pathway, we used the cell line MO3-13, which display the molecular and cellular features of OL precursors. These cells exposed 1–4 days to low levels of H2O2 or to the protein kinase C (PKC) activator, phorbol-12-Myristate-13-Acetate (PMA) increased the expression of specific OL differentiation markers: the specific nuclear factor Olig-2, and Myelin Basic Protein (MBP), which was processed and accumulated selectively in membranes. The induction of differentiation genes was associated with the activation of ERK1-2 and phosphorylation of the nuclear cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB). PKC mediates ROS-induced differentiation because PKC depletion or bis-indolyl-maleimide (BIM), a PKC inhibitor, reversed the induction of differentiation markers by H2O2. H2O2 and PMA increased the expression of membrane-bound NADPH oxidases, NOX3 and NOX5. Selective depletion of these proteins inhibited differentiation induced by PMA. Furthermore, NOX5 silencing down regulated NOX3 mRNA levels, suggesting that ROS produced by NOX5 up-regulate NOX3 expression. These data unravel an elaborate network of ROS-generating enzymes (NOX5 to NOX3) activated by PKC and necessary for differentiation of OLs. Furthermore, NOX3 and NOX5, as inducers of OL differentiation, represent novel targets for therapies of demyelinating diseases, including multiple sclerosis, associated with impairment of OL differentiation

    NOX signaling in molecular cardiovascular mechanisms involved in the blood pressure homeostasis

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    Blood pressure homeostasis is maintained by several mechanisms regulating cardiac output, vascular resistances, and blood volume. At cellular levels, reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling is involved in multiple molecular mechanisms controlling blood pressure. Among ROS producing systems, NADPH oxidases (NOXs), expressed in different cells of the cardiovascular system, are the most important enzymes clearly linked to the development of hypertension. NOXs exert a central role in cardiac mechanosensing, endothelium-dependent relaxation, and Angiotensin-II (Ang-II) redox signaling regulating vascular tone. The central role of NOXs in redox-dependent cardiovascular cell functions renders these enzymes a promising pharmacological target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension. The aim of the present review is to focus on the physiological role of the cardiovascular NOX-generating ROS in the molecular and cellular mechanisms affecting blood pressure

    The IFN-β 1b effect on Cu Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) in peripheral mononuclear blood cells of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients and in neuroblastoma SK-N-BE cells.

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    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease leading to axonal injury. Even if the etiology of MS is still unknown the disease begins with inflammation involving autoreactive T lymphocytes activation in genetically susceptible subjects. Interferon beta-1b (IFN β 1b) is one of the most used drug in the MS therapy. The results obtained in this study show that the concentration of SOD1 in CSF of relapsing-remitting MS (RR-MS) patients, evaluated by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), is decreased compared to pathological controls. Moreover, the Western blotting analysis demonstrated that SOD1 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in heathy controls was significantly higher compared to MS subjects before starting DMT therapy. In addition IFN β 1b therapy causes an increase of intracellular SOD1 protein as well as mRNA levels in PBMC. Moreover, the treatment of neuroblastoma SK-N-BE cells with IFN β 1b increased SOD1 protein and mRNA levels; these data also suggest that neuroprotective effect of this physiological molecule is, at least in part, carried out through its effect on SOD1. This study demonstrate that DMT therapy is able to increase SOD1 expression in PBMC of RR-MS patients. Therefore, the effectiveness of DMT therapy can be ascribed, at least in part, to an increased levels of this antioxidant enzyme as further confirmed by in vitro studies in SK-N-BE cells

    Effects of berberine and red yeast on proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-alpha in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of human subjects

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    Background and Aims: Obesity is a condition associated with chronic or acute inflammatory response characterized by an increase of proinflammatory cytokine levels. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) migrate in adipose tissue inducing synthesis and secretion of adipocytokines as IL-6 and TNF-α. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of berberine (a natural alkaloid) and red yeast (a natural antioxidant) on IL-6 and TNF-α cytokines release and gene expression, in circulating lipopolisaccarides (LPS) stimulated PBMCs. Methods and Results: PBMCs isolated from whole blood of healthy donors were stimulated with LPS to induce cytokines production; simultaneously cells were treated with increasing doses of berberine and red yeast. The substances were administered alone or in association. IL-6 and TNF-α protein levels in the culture medium and their mRNA levels were assessed by ELISA and real time PCR, respectively. Berberine and red yeast treatment prevented the LPS induction of IL-6 release in the culture medium of PBMCs. In addition, berberine plus red yeast treatment showed a synergic inhibitory effect on IL-6 release at low concentration. Berberine and red yeast showed an inhibitory effect also on LPS induction of TNF-α release exerting a synergic effect mainly at high concentrations. On the contrary, berberine and red yeast did not significantly affect IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA levels induced by LPS. In this case, only concomitant treatment of PBMCs with high doses of berberine and red yeast inhibits LPS induced IL-6 or TNF-α mRNA levels. Conclusions: The results of our study show that both berberine and red yeast were able to carry out anti-inflammatory action through an inhibition of proinflammatory IL-6 and TNF-α protein release. Moreover, when given in combination these substances were able to inhibit IL-6 and TNF-α gene expression in PBMCs activated by LPS. Therefore, these substances could represent a useful pharmacological treatment to reduce the proinflammatory status accompanied with obesity
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