185 research outputs found

    A Practical Forward-Secure DualRing

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    Ring signature allows a signer to generate a signature on behalf of a set of public keys, while a verifier can verify the signature without identifying who the actual signer is. In Crypto 2021, Yuen et al. proposed a new type of ring signature scheme called DualRing. However, it lacks forward security. The security of DualRing cannot be guaranteed if the signer’s secret key is compromised. To address this problem, we introduce forward-secure DualRing, in which a signer can periodically update their secret key using a “split-and-combine” method. A practical instantiation of our scheme enjoys a logarithmic complexity in signature size and key size. Implementation and evaluation further validate the practicality of our proposed scheme

    Blockchain Based M+1st-Price Auction With Exponential Bid Upper Bound

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    An auction is commonly used to sell limited resources in modern society. M+1st-price auction sells M identical goods to B bidders. The top M winners can buy the goods at the M+1st-price. Each bidder sends their bids secretly as a bit-slice bidding vector to a trusted manager. Bit-slice is commonly used to compare secret values without revealing them. However, the bit-slice bidding vector also limits the upper bound of a bid as the length of the bidding vector. A binary format bidding vector was proposed to increase the bid upper bound to an exponential scale. For example, given a bidding vector with length 32, a binary format bidding vector can increase the bid upper bound from 32 to two to the power of 32. However, previous protocols that use binary format bidding vectors require a somewhat homomorphic encryption (SHE) and a trusted manager. To make sure no party except the bidder itself knows its bid, our protocol does not have any managers. Instead, each bidder interacts with the Smart Contract independently. We propose a zero-knowledge proof that allows our protocol only requires partially homomorphic encryption such as an ElGamal encryption. To our best knowledge, our protocol is the first secure M+1st-price auction protocol that can reach an exponential bid upper bound without a manager and SHE

    Use of the index of pulmonary vascular disease for predicting long-term outcome of pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease

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    AimsLimited data exist on risk factors for the long-term outcome of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) associated with congenital heart disease (CHD-PAH). We focused on the index of pulmonary vascular disease (IPVD), an assessment system for pulmonary artery pathology specimens. The IPVD classifies pulmonary vascular lesions into four categories based on severity: (1) no intimal thickening, (2) cellular thickening of the intima, (3) fibrous thickening of the intima, and (4) destruction of the tunica media, with the overall grade expressed as an additive mean of these scores. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between IPVD and the long-term outcome of CHD-PAH.MethodsThis retrospective study examined lung pathology images of 764 patients with CHD-PAH aged <20 years whose lung specimens were submitted to the Japanese Research Institute of Pulmonary Vasculature for pulmonary pathological review between 2001 and 2020. Clinical information was collected retrospectively by each attending physician. The primary endpoint was cardiovascular death.ResultsThe 5-year, 10-year, 15-year, and 20-year cardiovascular death-free survival rates for all patients were 92.0%, 90.4%, 87.3%, and 86.1%, respectively. The group with an IPVD of ≥2.0 had significantly poorer survival than the group with an IPVD <2.0 (P = .037). The Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for the presence of congenital anomaly syndromes associated with pulmonary hypertension, and age at lung biopsy showed similar results (hazard ratio 4.46; 95% confidence interval: 1.45–13.73; P = .009).ConclusionsThe IPVD scoring system is useful for predicting the long-term outcome of CHD-PAH. For patients with an IPVD of ≥2.0, treatment strategies, including choosing palliative procedures such as pulmonary artery banding to restrict pulmonary blood flow and postponement of intracardiac repair, should be more carefully considered

    Empagliflozin in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

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    Background The effects of empagliflozin in patients with chronic kidney disease who are at risk for disease progression are not well understood. The EMPA-KIDNEY trial was designed to assess the effects of treatment with empagliflozin in a broad range of such patients. Methods We enrolled patients with chronic kidney disease who had an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of at least 20 but less than 45 ml per minute per 1.73 m(2) of body-surface area, or who had an eGFR of at least 45 but less than 90 ml per minute per 1.73 m(2) with a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (with albumin measured in milligrams and creatinine measured in grams) of at least 200. Patients were randomly assigned to receive empagliflozin (10 mg once daily) or matching placebo. The primary outcome was a composite of progression of kidney disease (defined as end-stage kidney disease, a sustained decrease in eGFR to < 10 ml per minute per 1.73 m(2), a sustained decrease in eGFR of & GE;40% from baseline, or death from renal causes) or death from cardiovascular causes. Results A total of 6609 patients underwent randomization. During a median of 2.0 years of follow-up, progression of kidney disease or death from cardiovascular causes occurred in 432 of 3304 patients (13.1%) in the empagliflozin group and in 558 of 3305 patients (16.9%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64 to 0.82; P < 0.001). Results were consistent among patients with or without diabetes and across subgroups defined according to eGFR ranges. The rate of hospitalization from any cause was lower in the empagliflozin group than in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.78 to 0.95; P=0.003), but there were no significant between-group differences with respect to the composite outcome of hospitalization for heart failure or death from cardiovascular causes (which occurred in 4.0% in the empagliflozin group and 4.6% in the placebo group) or death from any cause (in 4.5% and 5.1%, respectively). The rates of serious adverse events were similar in the two groups. Conclusions Among a wide range of patients with chronic kidney disease who were at risk for disease progression, empagliflozin therapy led to a lower risk of progression of kidney disease or death from cardiovascular causes than placebo

    Phase III, international, multicentre, double-blind, dose increment, parallel-arm, randomised controlled trial of duloxetine versus pregabalin for opioid-unresponsive neuropathic cancer pain: A JORTC-PAL16 trial protocol

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    Introduction: Management of neuropathic cancer pain (NCP) refractory to regular opioids remains an important challenge. The efficacy of pregabalin for NCP except chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) has already been confirmed in two randomised controlled trials (RCTs) compared with placebo. Duloxetine offers the potential of analgesia in opioid refractory NCP. However, there are no RCT of duloxetine for the management of opioid-refractory NCP as a first line treatment. Both classes of drugs have the potential to reduce NCP, but there has been no head-to-head comparison for the efficacy and safety, especially given differing side effect profiles. Methods and analysis: An international, multicentre, double-blind, dose increment, parallel-arm, RCT is planned. Inclusion criteria include: adults with cancer experiencing NCP refractory to opioids; Brief Pain Inventory (BPI)-item 3 (worst pain) of ≥4; Neuropathic Pain on the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs Pain Scale of ≥12 despite of an adequate trial of regular opioid medication (≥60 mg/day oral morphine equivalent dose). Patients with CIPN are excluded. The study will recruit from palliative care teams (both inpatients and outpatients) in Japan and Australia. Participants will be randomised (1:1 allocation ratio) to duloxetine or pregabalin arm. Dose escalation is until day 14 and from day 14 to 21 is a dose de-escalation period to avoid withdrawal effects. The primary endpoint is defined as the mean difference in BPI item 3 for worst pain intensity over the previous 24 hours at day 14 between groups. A sample size of 160 patients will be enrolled between February 2020 and March 2023. Ethics and dissemination: Ethics approval was obtained at Osaka City University Hospital Certified Review Board and South Western Sydney Local Health District Human Research Ethics Committee. The results of this study will be submitted for publication in international journals and the key findings presented at international conferences. Trial registration numbers: jRCTs051190097, ACTRN12620000656932.</p

    Bidder Scalable M+1st-Price Auction with Public Verifiability

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    M + 1st-price auction, also called Vickrey auction, is a type of sealed-bid auction to sell M identical goods. B bidders secretly choose a price from P bidding points as their bid. The top M bidders can buy the goods at the M + 1st bidding price. A trusted manager is commonly used to compare these sealed-bids. In our research, trusted manager and trusted mix servers used by mix and match are removed. Instead of cooperating all managers or bidders to find out the winning bidders, winning bidders prove that they are a winner by themself. By further adopt a greedy strategy on searching the M+ 1st-price, the time complexity of each bidder can be reduced to O(P), which is the same as most previous researches. Thus, we construct a scheme that removed the manager without increasing bidders’ time complexity. The implementation shows that the gas usage reduced 87% from a manager architecture in a 3 bidder and 6 bidding price setting. The cost to participate in this auction is 12, 000, 000P gas or 600P US dollars at this moment, which is enough practical.2021 IEEE 20th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom) Date of Conference: 20-22 Oct. 2021 Conference Location: Shenyang, Chin

    PNB-focused Differential Cryptanalysis of ChaCha Stream Cipher

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    This study focuses on differential cryptanalysis of the ChaCha stream cipher. In the conventional approach, an adversary first searches for an input/output differential pair with the highest differential bias and then analyzes the probabilistic neutral bits (PNB) based on the obtained input/output differential pair. However, although the time and data complexities for the attack can be estimated by the differential bias and PNB obtained by this approach, the combination of the differential bias and PNB is not always optimal. In addition, the existing studies have not performed a comprehensive analysis of the PNB; thus, they have not provided an upper bound on the number of rounds required for a differential attack that uses a single-bit truncated differential to be successful. To address these limitations, we propose a PNB-focused differential attack on reduced-round ChaCha by first comprehensively analyzing the PNB for all possible single-bit truncated output differences and then searching for the input/output differential pair with the highest differential bias based on the obtained PNB. The best existing attack on ChaCha, proposed by Beierle et al. at CRYPTO 2020, works on up to 7 rounds, whereas the most extended attack we observed works on up to 7.25 rounds using the proposed PNB-focused approach. The time complexity, data complexity, and success probability of the proposed attack are 2255.622^{255.62}, 248.362^{48.36}, and 0.5, respectively. Although the proposed attack is less efficient than a brute force attack, it is the first dedicated attack on the target and provides both a baseline and useful components (i.e., differential bias and PNB) for improved attacks

    Phase III, international, multicentre, double-blind, dose increment, parallel-arm, randomised controlled trial of duloxetine versus pregabalin for opioid-unresponsive neuropathic cancer pain : A JORTC-PAL16 trial protocol

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    Introduction: Management of neuropathic cancer pain (NCP) refractory to regular opioids remains an important challenge. The efficacy of pregabalin for NCP except chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) has already been confirmed in two randomised controlled trials (RCTs) compared with placebo. Duloxetine offers the potential of analgesia in opioid refractory NCP. However, there are no RCT of duloxetine for the management of opioid-refractory NCP as a first line treatment. Both classes of drugs have the potential to reduce NCP, but there has been no head-to-head comparison for the efficacy and safety, especially given differing side effect profiles. Methods and analysis: An international, multicentre, double-blind, dose increment, parallel-arm, RCT is planned. Inclusion criteria include: adults with cancer experiencing NCP refractory to opioids; Brief Pain Inventory (BPI)-item 3 (worst pain) of ≥4; Neuropathic Pain on the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs Pain Scale of ≥12 despite of an adequate trial of regular opioid medication (≥60 mg/day oral morphine equivalent dose). Patients with CIPN are excluded. The study will recruit from palliative care teams (both inpatients and outpatients) in Japan and Australia. Participants will be randomised (1:1 allocation ratio) to duloxetine or pregabalin arm. Dose escalation is until day 14 and from day 14 to 21 is a dose de-escalation period to avoid withdrawal effects. The primary endpoint is defined as the mean difference in BPI item 3 for worst pain intensity over the previous 24 hours at day 14 between groups. A sample size of 160 patients will be enrolled between February 2020 and March 2023. Ethics and dissemination: Ethics approval was obtained at Osaka City University Hospital Certified Review Board and South Western Sydney Local Health District Human Research Ethics Committee. The results of this study will be submitted for publication in international journals and the key findings presented at international conferences. Trial registration numbers: jRCTs051190097, ACTRN12620000656932.</p

    Phase III, international, multicentre, double-blind, dose increment, parallel-arm, randomised controlled trial of duloxetine versus pregabalin for opioid-unresponsive neuropathic cancer pain: A JORTC-PAL16 trial protocol

    No full text
    Introduction Management of neuropathic cancer pain (NCP) refractory to regular opioids remains an important challenge. The efficacy of pregabalin for NCP except chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) has already been confirmed in two randomised controlled trials (RCTs) compared with placebo. Duloxetine offers the potential of analgesia in opioid refractory NCP. However, there are no RCT of duloxetine for the management of opioid-refractory NCP as a first line treatment. Both classes of drugs have the potential to reduce NCP, but there has been no head-to-head comparison for the efficacy and safety, especially given differing side effect profiles. Methods and analysis An international, multicentre, double-blind, dose increment, parallel-arm, RCT is planned. Inclusion criteria include: adults with cancer experiencing NCP refractory to opioids; Brief Pain Inventory (BPI)-item 3 (worst pain) of ≥4; Neuropathic Pain on the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs Pain Scale of ≥12 despite of an adequate trial of regular opioid medication (≥60 mg/day oral morphine equivalent dose). Patients with CIPN are excluded. The study will recruit from palliative care teams (both inpatients and outpatients) in Japan and Australia. Participants will be randomised (1:1 allocation ratio) to duloxetine or pregabalin arm. Dose escalation is until day 14 and from day 14 to 21 is a dose de-escalation period to avoid withdrawal effects. The primary endpoint is defined as the mean difference in BPI item 3 for worst pain intensity over the previous 24 hours at day 14 between groups. A sample size of 160 patients will be enrolled between February 2020 and March 2023. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval was obtained at Osaka City University Hospital Certified Review Board and South Western Sydney Local Health District Human Research Ethics Committee. The results of this study will be submitted for publication in international journals and the key findings presented at international conferences. Trial registration numbers jRCTs051190097, ACTRN12620000656932

    A lightweight multi-party authentication in insecure reader-server channel in RFID-based IoT

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    This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications. The final authenticated version is available online at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12083-020-01007-z
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