112 research outputs found

    The Extended Protection of Strong Trademarks

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    Economic investment in trademarks is not necessarily indicative of product quality, as trademark protection does not provide incentive for continuous product quality improvement. The authors begin their analysis by exploring the function of trademarks from the perspectives of traditional law and economics. Such an analysis points to a conflict between the legal and economic interpretation of the function of trademarks. Particularly, the authors suggest that the traditional economic perspective of trademarks fails to justify the legal existence of strong brands and their extensions. This argument is tested through the review of advertising, brand extension, and product quality literature. The authors conclude that a desire to protect high product quality does not explain an extended protection of strong trademarks, but extended protection can prevent welfare losses when product variety is considered important to consumers\u27 utility function

    Conformational variability of matrix metalloproteinases: beyond a single 3D structure

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    The structures of the catalytic domain of matrix metalloproteinase 12 in the presence of acetohydroxamic acid and N-isobutyl-N-[4-methoxyphenylsulfonyl]glycyl hydroxamic acid have been solved by x-ray diffraction in the crystalline state at 1.0 and 1.3-A resolution, respectively, and compared with the previously published x-ray structure at 1.2-A resolution of the adduct with batimastat. The structure of the N-isobutyl-N-[4-methoxyphenylsulfonyl]glycyl hydroxamic acid adduct has been solved by NMR in solution. The three x-ray structures and the solution structure are similar but not identical to one another, the differences being sizably higher in the loops. We propose that many of the loops show a dynamical behavior in solution on a variety of time scales. Different conformations of some flexible regions of the protein can be observed as 'frozen' in different crystalline environments. The mobility in solution studied by NMR reveals conformational equilibria in accessible time scales, i.e., from 10(-5) s to ms and more. Averaging of some residual dipolar couplings is consistent with further motions down to 10(-9) s. Finally, local thermal motions of each frozen conformation in the crystalline state at 100 K correlate well with local motions on the picosecond time scale. Flexibility/conformational heterogeneity in crucial parts of the catalytic domain is a rule rather than an exception in matrix metalloproteinases, and its extent may be underestimated by inspection of one x-ray structure. Backbone flexibility may play a role in the difficulties encountered in the design of selective inhibitors, whereas it may be a requisite for substrate binding and broad substrate specificity

    Improving child nutrition and development through community-based childcare centres in Malawi - The NEEP-IE study: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

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    Abstract Background The Nutrition Embedded Evaluation Programme Impact Evaluation (NEEP-IE) study is a cluster randomised controlled trial designed to evaluate the impact of a childcare centre-based integrated nutritional and agricultural intervention on the diets, nutrition and development of young children in Malawi. The intervention includes activities to improve nutritious food production and training/behaviour-change communication to improve food intake, care and hygiene practices. This paper presents the rationale and study design for this randomised control trial. Methods Sixty community-based childcare centres (CBCCs) in rural communities around Zomba district, Malawi, were randomised to either (1) a control group where children were attending CBCCs supported by Save the Children’s Early Childhood Health and Development (ECD) programme, or (2) an intervention group where nutritional and agricultural support activities were provided alongside the routine provision of the Save the Children’s ECD programme. Primary outcomes at child level include dietary intake (measured through 24-h recall), whilst secondary outcomes include child development (Malawi Development Assessment Tool (MDAT)) and nutritional status (anthropometric measurements). At household level, primary outcomes include smallholder farmer production output and crop-mix (recall of last production season). Intermediate outcomes along theorised agricultural and nutritional pathways were measured. During this trial, we will follow a mixed-methods approach and undertake child-, household-, CBCC- and market-level surveys and assessments as well as in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with project stakeholders. Discussion Assessing the simultaneous impact of preschool meals on diets, nutrition, child development and agriculture is a complex undertaking. This study is the first to explicitly examine, from a food systems perspective, the impact of a preschool meals programme on dietary choices, alongside outcomes in the nutritional, child development and agricultural domains. The findings of this evaluation will provide evidence to support policymakers in the scale-up of national programmes. Trial registration ISRCTN registry, ID: ISRCTN96497560 . Registered on 21 September 2016

    The Role of PIXE and XRF in Heritage Science: The INFN-CHNet LABEC Experience

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    Analytical techniques play a fundamental role in heritage science. Among them, Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) techniques are widely used in many laboratories for elemental composition analysis. Although they are well-established, a strong effort is put on their upgrade, making them suitable for more and more applications. Over the years, at the INFN-LABEC (the laboratory of nuclear techniques for the environment and cultural heritage of the Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics), the INFN-CHNet group, the network devoted to cultural heritage, has carried out many technological improvements to the PIXE and XRF set-ups for the analysis of works of art and archaeological finds. Among the many, we recall here the scanning external microbeam facility at the TANDEM accelerator and the MA-XRF scanner. The two instruments have shown complementary features: the former permits quantitative analysis of elements heavier than sodium, which is not possible with the latter in most of the case studies. On the contrary, the scanner has the undeniable advantage of portability, allowing it to work in situ. In this framework of technological developments in heritage science, INFN, CERN, and OPD are jointly carrying on the MACHINA (Movable Accelerator for Cultural Heritage In-situ Non-destructive Analysis) project for on-site Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) studies on cultural heritage

    El concepto de metalenguaje como metáfora del estilo boccheriniano

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    El grado de imprevisibilidad de las soluciones formales en la música de Boccherini es muy superior al de los clásicos vieneses. Este ensayo se propone poner de relieve esa cualidad recurriendo a la metáfora del metalenguaje, entendido en el sentido matemático de "lenguaje que tiene el cometido de describir otro lenguaje". Si tomamos la música de la época como lenguaje "descrito”, y las composiciones de Boccherini como lenguaje "descriptor", podemos poner de manifiesto más fácilmente la enorme variedad de soluciones formales concebidas por el luqués, que son, por tanto, el resultado de una adaptación de la forma del lenguaje “descriptor” a la forma del lenguaje "descrito"

    Boccherini, fuente de sí mismo (trad esp. di Jaime Tortella e Germán Labrador)

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    none1Si analizza il concetto di 'fonte', nelle sue molteplici accezioni, in relazione alla produzione musicale di Luigi Boccherini. Alla luce della teoria dell'intertestualità, in particolare secondo la classificazione di Genette, si propone un'interpretazione delle forme cicliche, nonché dei prestiti di materiale da sé e da altri, che caratterizzano lo stile boccheriniano.Il volume è presente, tra l'altro, nelle seguenti biblioteche internazionali: Bibliothéque Nationale de France, Library of Congress (Washington), Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, British LibrarynoneM. MANGANIMangani, Marc

    „Gli aversari de la vera fede”. Un’ipotesi sul Terzo libro dei madrigali a cinque voci di Marc’Antonio Ingegneri

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    Si formula un'ipotesi sul Terzo Libro de' madrigali a cinque voci di Marc'Antonio Ingegneri (1580), in base alla quale la silloge può essere considerata come l'unione di due diversi progetti, ognuno con il proprio contesto di committenza. Mentre la prima metà del libro si adatta bene alle richieste del suo dedicatario esplicito, Antonio Londonio, la seconda metà potrebbe esser stata destinata alla corte Farnese di Parma: il brano con cui si apre, ossia il madrigale politico-religioso "Santa Chiesa di Dio", parrebbe infatti riferirsi alla missione antiprotestante nelle Fiandre di Alessandro Farnese, figlio del duca Ottavio (al quale Ingegneri inviò una copia del Terzo Libro); sembra invece molto improbabile che nel 1580 "Santa Chiesa" potesse riferirsi (come recentemente affermato) alla battaglia di Lepanto, vinta nel 1571 da don Giovanni d'Austria (morto, oltretutto, nel 1578), dato il carattere propiziatorio del suo testo. Si ipotizza inoltre il ruolo di Margherita Farnese nella diffusione italiana del sonetto di Etienne de la Boétie "J'ai senti les deux maux", musicato da Ingegneri nello stile di una chanson francese alla fine del suo Terzo Libro. La lezione adottata da Ingegneri differisce da tutte le versioni stampate del testo di La Boétie, ma è identica a quella che sarebbe stata musicata in seguito da Claude Le Jeune mentre il compositore era al servizio del duca di Anjou
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