80 research outputs found

    Cancer patients requiring interruption of long-term warfarin because of surgery or chemotherapy induced thrombocytopenia: the use of fixed sub-therapeutic doses of low-molecular weight heparin.

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    No data are available regarding the management of cancer patients requiring interruption of long-term vitamin-K antagonist (VKA) therapy. For this purpose, we tested the efficacy and safety of fixed doses of low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) in substitution of VKA because of invasive procedures or chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia. In cancer patients on VKA, therapy was discontinued 5 ¬Ī 1 days before surgery or chemotherapy. Heparin was given at prophylactic dosage in patients at low risk and at fixed subtherapeutic doses (3,800 or 4,000 UI anti-FXa, b.i.d.) in those at high-risk for thrombosis. LMWH was reinitiated 12 hr after surgery and VKA the day after. In patients receiving chemotherapy, LMWH was reinitiated 12/24 hr after obtaining a stable platelet count ‚Č• 30,000 mmc(3) and VKA after a stable platelet count ‚Č• 50,000 mmc(3) . Thromboembolism and major bleeding events were recorded from the time of VKA suspension to 30 ¬Ī 2 days postprocedure or until the next chemotherapy. Overall, 156 patients (56.4% at low risk and 43.5% at high risk for thrombosis) were enrolled; 34.6% underwent major surgery, 40.4% nonmajor surgery, and 25% chemotherapy. Thrombotic events occurred in five patients [3.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.41-7.27], four belonging to the high-risk and one to the low-risk group. Major bleeding occurred in five patients (3.2%, 95 CI: 1.41-7.27), all belonging to the high-risk group (three during major surgery and two during chemotherapy). In conclusion, LMWH given at fixed subtherapeutic is a feasible and relatively safe approach for bridging therapy in cancer patients on long-term VK

    Splenectomy in Myelofibrosis: Indications, Efficacy, and Complications

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    Splenomegaly, which may range from a few centimeters below the left costal border to massive dimensions, is one of the most characteristic features in patients with advanced myelofibrosis (MF). Splenectomy may offer an effective therapeutic option for treating massive splenomegaly in patients with MF, and especially in cases of disease refractory to conventional drugs, but it is associated with a number of complications as well as substantial morbidity and mortality. Whether splenectomy should be performed before allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation is also controversial, and there is a lack of prospective randomized clinical trials that assess the role of splenectomy before hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation in patients with MF. Although splenectomy is not routinely performed before transplantation, it may be appropriate in patients with massive splenomegaly and related symptoms, so long as the higher risk of graft failure in such cases is taken into account. This review aims to describe the efficacy, indications, and complications of splenectomy in patients with MF; and to evaluate the long-term impact of splenectomy on patient survival and risk of disease transformation

    Ultrasonography-guided central venous catheterisation in haematological patients with severe thrombocytopenia

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    BACKGROUND: Cannulation of the internal jugular vein (CVC) is a blind surface landmark-guided technique that could be potentially dangerous in patients with very low platelet counts. In such patients, ultrasonography (US)-guided CVC may be a valid approach. There is a lack of published data on the efficacy and safety of urgent US-guided CVC performed in haematological patients with severe thrombocytopenia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively studied the safety of urgent CVC procedures in haematological patients including those with severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count <30√ó10(9)/L). From January 1999 to June 2009, 431 CVC insertional procedures in 431 consecutive patients were evaluated. Patients were included in the study if they had a haematological disorder and required urgent CVC insertion. Patients were placed in Trendelenburg's position, an 18-gauge needle and guide-wire were advanced under real-time US guidance into the last part of the internal jugular vein; central venous cannulation of the internal jugular vein was performed using the Seldinger technique in all the procedures. Major and minor procedure-related complications were recorded. RESULTS: All 431 patients studied had haematological disorders: 39 had severe thrombocytopenia, refractory to platelet transfusion (group 1), while 392 did not have severe thrombocytopenia (group 2). The general characteristics of the patients in the two groups differed only for platelet count. The average time taken to perform the procedure was 4 minutes. Success rates were 97.4% and 97.9% in group 1 and group 2, respectively. No major complications occurred in either group. DISCUSSION: US-guided CVC is a safe and effective approach in haematological patients with severe thrombocytopenia requiring urgent cannulation for life support, plasma-exchange, chemotherapy and transfusio

    Deferral of assessment of pulmonary embolism

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    We evaluated a simplified algorithm for safely postponing diagnostic imaging for pulmonary embolism (PE). At the index visit, patients were identified as being at high or low risk of PE; the former received full dosage low molecular weight heparin while the latter were left untreated until performance of diagnostic imaging (max 72 hours). During this period, no thromboembolic events occurred in low-risk patients (0/211, 0.% [upper 95% CI 0.9%]); only one event occurred in those at high-risk (1/125, 0.8% [upper 95% CI, 1.2]). Our study demonstrates that diagnostic imaging for PE can be safely deferred for up to 3 days

    Health-related quality of life in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia receiving first-line therapy with nilotinib

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    BACKGROUND: Although a wealth of efficacy and safety data is available for many tyrosine kinase inhibitors used in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), there is a dearth of information on their impact on patients' health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The primary objective of this study was to evaluate HRQOL and fatigue outcomes in patients with CML receiving first-line therapy with nilotinib. METHODS: This was a multicenter, prospective study enrolling 130 patients with chronic-phase CML. HRQOL and fatigue were evaluated with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and its validated Fatigue module at the baseline and then at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. The primary prespecified HRQOL endpoints defined in the study protocol for longitudinal analysis were the Physical Functioning, Social Functioning, Role Functioning, and Fatigue scales. The remaining scales were investigated on an exploratory basis. RESULTS: The rate of baseline compliance with the HRQOL assessment was 95.4% (124 of 130), and the rate of overall compliance with HRQOL forms was 91%. Among the 4 prespecified primary HRQOL endpoints, statistically significant improvements over time were found for Physical Functioning (P =.013), Role Functioning (P =.004), and Fatigue (P <.001). Clinically meaningful improvements were found already 3 months after the treatment start. The baseline patient self-reported fatigue severity was an independent predictive factor for the achievement of a major molecular response with an odds ratio of 0.960 (95% confidence interval, 0.934-0.988; P =.005). CONCLUSIONS: For most patients, HRQOL improvements with nilotinib occur during the early phase of therapy and are maintained over time. Also, a more systematic HRQOL evaluation during the diagnostic workup of CML may help to predict clinical outcomes. Cancer 2018;124:2228-37. © 2018 American Cancer Society

    Determinants of frontline tyrosine kinase inhibitor choice for patients with chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia: A study from the Registro Italiano LMC and Campus CML

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    Background: Imatinib, dasatinib, and nilotinib are tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) approved in Italy for frontline treatment of chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CP-CML). The choice of TKI is based on a combined evaluation of the patient's and the disease characteristics. The aim of this study was to analyze the use of frontline TKI therapy in an unselected cohort of Italian patients with CP-CML to correlate the choice with the patient's features. Methods: A total of 1967 patients with CP-CML diagnosed between 2012 and 2019 at 36 centers throughout Italy were retrospectively evaluated; 1089 patients (55.4%) received imatinib and 878 patients (44.6%) received a second-generation (2G) TKI. Results: Second-generation TKIs were chosen for most patients aged &lt;45 years (69.2%), whereas imatinib was used in 76.7% of patients aged &gt;65 years (p&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;.001). There was a predominant use of imatinib in intermediate/high European long-term survival risk patients (60.0%/66.0% vs. 49.7% in low-risk patients) and a limited use of 2G-TKIs in patients with comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, previous neoplasms, ischemic heart disease, or stroke and in those with &gt;3 concomitant drugs. We observed a greater use of imatinib (61.1%) in patients diagnosed in 2018-2019 compared to 2012-2017 (53.2%; p&nbsp;=&nbsp;.002). In multivariable analysis, factors correlated with imatinib use were age &gt; 65 years, spleen size, the presence of comorbidities, and ‚Č•3 concomitant medications. Conclusions: This observational study of almost 2000 cases of CML shows that imatinib is the frontline drug of choice in 55% of Italian patients with CP-CML, with 2G-TKIs prevalently used in younger patients and in those with no concomitant clinical conditions. Introduction of the generic formulation in 2018 seems to have fostered imatinib use
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