2,480 research outputs found

    EUSO-SPB1 mission and science

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    International audienceThe Extreme Universe Space Observatory on a Super Pressure Balloon 1 (EUSO-SPB1) was launched in 2017 April from Wanaka, New Zealand. The plan of this mission of opportunity on a NASA super pressure balloon test flight was to circle the southern hemisphere. The primary scientific goal was to make the first observations of ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray extensive air showers (EASs) by looking down on the atmosphere with an ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence telescope from suborbital altitude (33 km). After 12 days and 4 h aloft, the flight was terminated prematurely in the Pacific Ocean. Before the flight, the instrument was tested extensively in the West Desert of Utah, USA, with UV point sources and lasers. The test results indicated that the instrument had sensitivity to EASs of ⪆3 EeV. Simulations of the telescope system, telescope on time, and realized flight trajectory predicted an observation of about 1 event assuming clear sky conditions. The effects of high clouds were estimated to reduce this value by approximately a factor of 2. A manual search and a machine-learning-based search did not find any EAS signals in these data. Here we review the EUSO-SPB1 instrument and flight and the EAS search

    EuroBarley:control of leaf diseases in barley across Europe

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    Barley crops are at risk of being attacked by several leaf diseases. Net blotch, brown rust, Rhynchosporium and Ramularia leaf spot are among the most widespread and can cause severe attack and yield losses. Two trial protocols targeting Ramularia and net blotch, respectively, have been tested in several countries in 2021 and 2022. Ramularia trials were situated in Germany, Ireland, Scotland, and Denmark. The net blotch trials were placed in Denmark, Belgium, the UK, Germany, Finland, and France. In the two protocols, 12‚Äď13 different fungicide solutions including co-formulations of DMIs, SDHIs, QoIs, and multi-site inhibitors have been tested to compare efficacy and yield responses. Against Ramularia leaf spot, the fungicides were applied at GS 47‚Äď51 and against net blotch at GS 37‚Äď45. In six trials, the efficacy against Ramularia leaf spot was scored. The results showed a superior control from the co-formulation fluxapyroxad + metyltetraprole (78‚Äď100% control), but also solo mefentrifluconazole and the mixtures fluxapyroxad + mefentrifluconazole performed well (average 74‚Äď76% control). The mixture fluxapyroxad + metyltetraprole provided the best yield increase followed by Ascra Xpro. Folpet as a solo solution was inferior. Following the net blotch protocol, only three trials developed enough disease to rank the different fungicides; however, in five trials ranking against brown rust was also possible. Most treatments gave very good control of net blotch, and brown rust (&gt; 80% control). The mixture fluxapyroxad + metyltetraprole delivered the best control against all diseases overall. Average yield responses from eight trials showed very similar increases from the tested fungicides.</p

    EuroBarley:control of leaf diseases in barley across Europe

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    Barley crops are at risk of being attacked by several leaf diseases. Net blotch, brown rust, Rhynchosporium and Ramularia leaf spot are among the most widespread and can cause severe attack and yield losses. Two trial protocols targeting Ramularia and net blotch, respectively, have been tested in several countries in 2021 and 2022. Ramularia trials were situated in Germany, Ireland, Scotland, and Denmark. The net blotch trials were placed in Denmark, Belgium, the UK, Germany, Finland, and France. In the two protocols, 12‚Äď13 different fungicide solutions including co-formulations of DMIs, SDHIs, QoIs, and multi-site inhibitors have been tested to compare efficacy and yield responses. Against Ramularia leaf spot, the fungicides were applied at GS 47‚Äď51 and against net blotch at GS 37‚Äď45. In six trials, the efficacy against Ramularia leaf spot was scored. The results showed a superior control from the co-formulation fluxapyroxad + metyltetraprole (78‚Äď100% control), but also solo mefentrifluconazole and the mixtures fluxapyroxad + mefentrifluconazole performed well (average 74‚Äď76% control). The mixture fluxapyroxad + metyltetraprole provided the best yield increase followed by Ascra Xpro. Folpet as a solo solution was inferior. Following the net blotch protocol, only three trials developed enough disease to rank the different fungicides; however, in five trials ranking against brown rust was also possible. Most treatments gave very good control of net blotch, and brown rust (&gt; 80% control). The mixture fluxapyroxad + metyltetraprole delivered the best control against all diseases overall. Average yield responses from eight trials showed very similar increases from the tested fungicides.</p

    Simulation studies for the Mini-EUSO detector

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    Mini-EUSO is a mission of the JEM-EUSO program flying onboard the International Space Station since August 2019. Since the first data acquisition in October 2019, more than 35 sessions have been performed for a total of 52 hours of observations. The detector has been observing Earth at night-time in the UV range and detected a wide variety of transient sources all of which have been modelled through Monte Carlo simulations. Mini-EUSO is also capable of detecting meteors and potentially space debris and we performed simulations for such events to estimate their impact on future missions for cosmic ray science from space. We show here examples of the simulation work done in this framework to analyse the Mini-EUSO data. The expected response of Mini-EUSO with respect to ultra high energy cosmic ray showers has been studied. The efficiency curve of Mini-EUSO as a function of primary energy has been estimated and the energy threshold for Cosmic Rays has been placed to be above 1021^{21} eV. We compared the morphology of several transient events detected during the mission with cosmic ray simulations and excluded that they can be due to cosmic ray showers. To validate the energy threshold of the detector, a system of ground based flashers is being used for end-to-end calibration purposes. We therefore implemented a parameterisation of such flashers into the JEM-EUSO simulation framework and studied the response of the detector with respect to such sources

    Priorities for research on neuromodulatory subcortical systems in Alzheimer's disease: Position paper from the NSS PIA of ISTAART

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    The neuromodulatory subcortical system (NSS) nuclei are critical hubs for survival, hedonic tone, and homeostasis. Tau-associated NSS degeneration occurs early in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, long before the emergence of pathognomonic memory dysfunction and cortical lesions. Accumulating evidence supports the role of NSS dysfunction and degeneration in the behavioral and neuropsychiatric manifestations featured early in AD. Experimental studies even suggest that AD-associated NSS degeneration drives brain neuroinflammatory status and contributes to disease progression, including the exacerbation of cortical lesions. Given the important pathophysiologic and etiologic roles that involve the NSS in early AD stages, there is an urgent need to expand our understanding of the mechanisms underlying NSS vulnerability and more precisely detail the clinical progression of NSS changes in AD. Here, the NSS Professional Interest Area of the International Society to Advance Alzheimer's Research and Treatment highlights knowledge gaps about NSS within AD and provides recommendations for priorities specific to clinical research, biomarker development, modeling, and intervention. HIGHLIGHTS: Neuromodulatory nuclei degenerate in early Alzheimer's disease pathological stages. Alzheimer's pathophysiology is exacerbated by neuromodulatory nuclei degeneration. Neuromodulatory nuclei degeneration drives neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia. Biomarkers of neuromodulatory integrity would be value-creating for dementia care. Neuromodulatory nuclei present strategic prospects for disease-modifying therapies

    179^{179}Ta(n, ő≥) cross-section measurement and the astrophysical origin of the 180^{180}Ta isotope

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    180m^{180m}Ta is nature\u27s rarest (quasi) stable isotope and its astrophysical origin is an open question. A possible production site of this isotope is the slow neutron capture process in asymptotic giant branch stars, where it can be produced via neutron capture reactions on unstable 179^{179}Ta. We report a new measurement of the 179^{179}Ta(n,ő≥) 180^{180}Ta cross section at thermal-neutron energies via the activation technique. Our results for the thermal and resonance-integral cross sections are 952¬Ī57 and 2013¬Ī148 b, respectively. The thermal cross section is in good agreement with the only previous measurement [Phys. Rev. C 60, 025802 (1999)], while the resonance integral is different by a factor of ‚Čą1.7. While neutron energies in this work are smaller than the energies in a stellar environment, our results may lead to improvements in theoretical predictions of the stellar cross section

    179Ta(n,ő≥) cross-section measurement and the astrophysical origin of the 180Ta isotope

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    Tantalum-180m is nature's rarest (quasi) stable isotope and its astrophysical origin is an open question. A possible production site of this isotope is the slow neutron capture process in Asymptotic Giant Branch stars, where it can be produced via neutron capture reactions on unstable 179^{179}Ta. We report a new measurement of the 179^{179}Ta(n,ő≥n,\gamma)180^{180}Ta cross section at thermal neutron energies via the activation technique. Our results for the thermal and resonance-integral cross-sections are 952 ¬Ī\pm 57 b and 2013 ¬Ī\pm 148 b, respectively. The thermal cross section is in good agreement with the only previous measurement (Phys. Rev C {\bf 60} 025802, 1999), while the resonance integral is different by a factor of ‚Čą\approx1.7. While neutron energies in this work are smaller than the energies in a stellar environment, our results may lead to improvements in theoretical predictions of the stellar cross section

    Increased Enzymatic Activity of Acetylcholinesterase Indicates the Severity of the Sterile Inflammation and Predicts Patient Outcome following Traumatic Injury

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    Traumatic injury induces sterile inflammation, an immune response often associated with severe organ dysfunction. The cholinergic system acts as an anti-inflammatory in injured patients. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of acetylcholine, plays an essential role in controlling cholinergic activity. We hypothesized that a change in the AChE activity might indicate the severity of the traumatic injury. This study included 82 injured patients with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 4 or above and 40 individuals without injuries. Bedside-measured AChE was obtained on hospital arrival, followed by a second measurement 4&ndash;12 h later. C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell count (WBCC), and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score were simultaneously collected. Injured patients showed an early and sustained increase in AChE activity. CRP remained unaffected at hospital admission and increased subsequently. Initially elevated WBCC recovered 4&ndash;12 h later. AChE activity directly correlated with the ISS and SOFA scores and predicted the length of ICU stay when measured at hospital admission. An early and sustained increase in AChE activity correlated with the injury severity and could predict the length of ICU stay in injured patients, rendering this assay a complementary diagnostic and prognostic tool at the hand of the attending clinician in the emergency unit

    Widespread infection, diversification and old host associations of Nosema Microsporidia in European freshwater gammarids (Amphipoda).

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    The microsporidian genus Nosema is primarily known to infect insects of economic importance stimulating high research interest, while other hosts remain understudied. Nosema granulosis is one of the formally described Nosema species infecting amphipod crustaceans, being known to infect only two host species. Our first aim was to characterize Nosema spp. infections in different amphipod species from various European localities using the small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU) marker. Second, we aimed to assess the phylogenetic diversity, host specificity and to explore the evolutionary history that may explain the diversity of gammarid-infecting Nosema lineages by performing a phylogenetic reconstruction based on RNA polymerase II subunit B1 (RPB1) gene sequences. For the host species Gammarus balcanicus, we also analyzed whether parasites were in excess in females to test for sex ratio distortion in relation with Nosema infection. We identified Nosema spp. in 316 individuals from nine amphipod species being widespread in Europe. The RPB1-based phylogenetic reconstruction using newly reported sequences and available data from other invertebrates identified 39 haplogroups being associated with amphipods. These haplogroups clustered into five clades (A-E) that did not form a single amphipod-infecting monophyletic group. Closely related sister clades C and D correspond to Nosema granulosis. Clades A, B and E might represent unknown Nosema species infecting amphipods. Host specificity seemed to be variable with some clades being restricted to single hosts, and some that could be found in several host species. We show that Nosema parasite richness in gammarid hosts is much higher than expected, illustrating the advantage of the use of RPB1 marker over SSU. Finally, we found no hint of sex ratio distortion in Nosema clade A infecting G. balcanicus. This study shows that Nosema spp. are abundant, widespread and diverse in European gammarids. Thus, Nosema is as diverse in aquatic as in terrestrial hosts

    An overview of the JEM-EUSO program and results

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    The field of UHECRs (Ultra-High energy cosmic Rays) and the understanding of particle acceleration in the cosmos, as a key ingredient to the behaviour of the most powerful sources in the universe, is of outmost importance for astroparticle physics as well as for fundamental physics and will improve our general understanding of the universe. The current main goals are to identify sources of UHECRs and their composition. For this, increased statistics is required. A space-based detector for UHECR research has the advantage of a very large exposure and a uniform coverage of the celestial sphere. The aim of the JEM-EUSO program is to bring the study of UHECRs to space. The principle of observation is based on the detection of UV light emitted by isotropic Ô¨āuorescence of atmospheric nitrogen excited by the Extensive Air Showers (EAS) in the Earth‚Äôs atmosphere and forward-beamed Cherenkov radiation reÔ¨āected from the Earth‚Äôs surface or dense cloud tops. In addition to the prime objective of UHECR studies, JEM-EUSO will do several secondary studies due to the instruments\u27 unique capacity of detecting very weak UV-signals with extreme time-resolution around 1 microsecond: meteors, Transient Luminous Events (TLE), bioluminescence, maps of human generated UV-light, searches for Strange Quark Matter (SQM) and high-energy neutrinos, and more. The JEM-EUSO program includes several missions from ground (EUSO-TA), from stratospheric balloons (EUSO-Balloon, EUSO-SPB1, EUSO-SPB2), and from space (TUS, Mini-EUSO) employing fluorescence detectors to demonstrate the UHECR observation from space and prepare the large size missions K-EUSO and POEMMA. A review of the current status of the program, the key results obtained so far by the different projects, and the perspectives for the near future are presented
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