142 research outputs found

    从方法论的视角对系统综述进行综述

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    أدى التوسع السريع في المراجعات المنهجية في السنوات الأخيرة إلى ظهور نمو افتقر في كثير من الأحيان إلى السيطرة اللازمة. عمليا في جميع المجالات والمجالات الفرعية للمعرفة, تم إجراء العديد من المراجعات المنهجية, والتي تأثرت بحركة الممارسة القائمة على الأدلة وسهولة الوصول إلى مجموعة واسعة من المصادر الببليوغرافية. ومع ذلك, من الضروري نقلها من منظور منهجي, ولأسباب مختلفة, مثل التنبيه إلى الاستخدام غير الصحيح للمصطلحات والمفاهيم الإجرائية, وتحديد الأهداف والنهج من حيث الاستراتيجية, واقتراح هيكل مناسبتقديم مراجعات منهجية مع اتساع وعمق وامتداد مناسبين, وتقييم الجودة المنهجية للوثائق الأولية, والتي نوصي حاليًا بأبعادها من نهج طرق مختلطة يعتبر سلسلة متصلة, على عكس الاستقطاب السابق فيالجوانب النوعية والكمية.The rapid expansion of systematic reviews in recent years has led to growth that has often lacked the required oversight. A large number of systematic reviews have been performed in practically all contexts and sub-contexts of knowledge. This has influenced the movement towards evidence-based practice and ease of access to a wide array of bibliographic sources. Nonetheless, this also makes it necessary to reposition systematic reviews from a methodological perspective. Alongside this, for various reasons, such as being alert to the often-incorrect use of terminology and procedural concepts, it will be necessary to redefine their aims and approach regarding strategy, propose an appropriate structure, bestow them with optimal breadth, depth and coverage, and evaluate the methodological quality of the primary documents on which they are based. In the present context, it is urged to structure such reviews from a mixed methods approach, which offers a continuum between the qualitative at one end and the quantitative at the other.La veloz expansión de las revisiones sistemáticas en los últimos años ha dado lugar a un crecimiento que en muchas ocasiones ha adolecido del necesario control. Prácticamente en todos los ámbitos y subámbitos del conocimiento se han realizado multitud de revisiones sistemáticas, a lo cual ha influido el movimiento de la práctica basada en la evidencia y la facilidad de acceso a un amplio abanico de fuentes bibliográficas. Sin embargo, se hace necesario resituarlas desde una perspectiva metodológica, y por diversas razones, como estar alerta sobre un uso no siempre correcto de la terminología y los conceptos procedimentales, definir los objetivos y enfoque en cuanto a estrategia, plantear una estructura adecuada, dotar a las revisiones sistemáticas de una amplitud, profundidad y extensión idóneas, y evaluar la calidad metodológica de los documentos primarios, que en la actualidad recomendamos dimensionar desde un planteamiento mixed methods considerado como continuum, frente a la polarización anterior en las vertientes cualitativa y cuantitativa.A rápida expansão das revisões sistemáticas nos últimos anos levou a um crescimento que, muitas vezes, não teve o controlo necessário. Foram efetuadas inúmeras revisões sistemáticas em praticamente todos os domínios e subdomínios do conhecimento, influenciadas pelo movimento da prática baseada na evidência e na facilidade de acesso a um vasto leque de fontes bibliográficas. No entanto, é necessário reposicioná-las numa perspetiva metodológica, e por diversas razões, tais como estar atento ao uso nem sempre correto da terminologia e dos conceitos processuais, definir os objetivos e a abordagem em termos de estratégia, propor uma estrutura adequada, dar às revisões sistemáticas uma amplitude, profundidade e extensão ideais, e avaliar a qualidade metodológica dos documentos primários, que, atualmente, recomendamos dimensionar a partir de uma abordagem de mixed methods considerada como um continuum, em oposição à polarização anterior nas vertentes qualitativa e quantitativa.A rápida expansão das revisões sistemáticas nos últimos anos levou a um crescimento que, muitas vezes, não teve o controlo necessário. Foram efetuadas inúmeras revisões sistemáticas em praticamente todos os domínios e subdomínios do conhecimento, influenciadas pelo movimento da prática baseada na evidência e na facilidade de acesso a um vasto leque de fontes bibliográficas. No entanto, é necessário reposicioná-las numa perspetiva metodológica, e por diversas razões, tais como estar atento ao uso nem sempre correto da terminologia e dos conceitos processuais, definir os objetivos e a abordagem em termos de estratégia, propor uma estrutura adequada, dar às revisões sistemáticas uma amplitude, profundidade e extensão ideais, e avaliar a qualidade metodológica dos documentos primários, que, atualmente, recomendamos dimensionar a partir de uma abordagem de mixed methods considerada como um continuum, em oposição à polarização anterior nas vertentes qualitativa e quantitativa.近年来系统综述发展迅速,但很多情况下这样的快速增长背后缺乏必要的控制。几乎在所有的知识领域和子领域都已开展了数量众多的系统综述,这也积极地推动了循证实践的发展,为丰富的书目查阅和引用提供了极大的便利。然而,我们认为有必要从方法论的视角对系统综述重新定位。促使我们提出该建议的原因众多,如:术语及相关概念的用法不正确;在定义综述目的和方法中,策略和结构的选用并不合适;系统综述的广度、深度和拓展度并不理想;历史资料评估的方法学质量差强人意。因此,我们建议从连续统这样的混合方法的角度出发,解决前文提到的定量与定性两极分化的问题

    Relevancia de los diferentes momentos del juego y de las acciones a balón parado (ABP) en los rendimientos del FC Barcelona y Real Madrid durante la liga nacional de fútbol profesional 2011/12

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    El estudio se centra en la relevancia de las fases dinámicas y estáticas en los rendimientos del FC Barcelona y Real Madrid. Utilizamos la metodología observacional con el fin de tratar de asociar los diferentes Momentos o Fases del juego (MJ) y las Acciones a Balón Parado (ABP) con la obtención de cada uno de los goles. Para conseguirlo, hemos creado un instrumento de observación ad hoc (IOX) y hemos utilizado dos instrumentos de registro (LINCE y MOTS). Para el análisis de los datos del registro y la obtención de resultados, hemos utilizado las técnicas de comparación de proporciones con el software Statgraphics, habiendo encontrado, inicialmente, diferencias significativas entre los dos equipos únicamente en la fase defensiva

    Rellevància dels diferents moments del joc i de les accions a baló parat (abp) en els rendiments del FC Barcelona i Real Madrid durant la lliga nacional de futbol professional 2011/12

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    L’estudi se centra en la rellevància de les fases dinàmiques i estàtiques en els rendiments del FC Barcelona i Real Madrid. Utilitzem la metodologia observacional per tal de tractar d’associar els diferents Moments o Fases del joc (MJ) i les Accions a Baló Parat (ABP) amb l’obtenció de cadascun dels gols. Per aconseguir-ho, hem creat un instrument d’observació ad-hoc (IOX) i hem utilitzat dos instruments de registre (LINCE i MOTS). Per a l’anàlisi de les dades del registre i l’obtenció de resultats, hem utilitzat les tècniques de comparació de proporcions amb el programari Statgraphics, havent trobat, inicialment, diferències significatives entre els dos equips únicament en la fase defensiva

    大学说明性课程中参与式互动的规范。基于观察方法作为混合方法策略的共建训练建议

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    El objetivo de este artículo es compartir algunas consideraciones de fondo y procedimiento sobre la comunicación académica modelada por la interacción participativa en el marco de la formación co-constructiva del profesorado. A partir de un estudio de caso múltiple en aula universitaria se analiza el formato expositivo-magistral con actores motivados a sostener su posición dialógica de rol en la interacción comunicativa y facilitar los actos de ayuda recíproca, recursos discursivos e interactivos que cumplen una función estratégica porque son necesarios para la construcción intelectual y autónoma del aprendizaje. La investigación empírica se diseña como un estudio de observación sistemática con un propósito evaluativo y que implementa la integración de los análisis cualitativos y cuantitativos desde un enfoque mixed methods. La discusión de los resultados pone en valor la flexibilidad y la adecuación del método utilizado tanto en el plano de la descripción matizada del proceso de regulación de la interacción participativa intentada por los actores como en el plano de la evaluación formativa de los puntos fuertes y débiles observados.The objective of this article is to share some background and procedural considerations on academic communication modeled by participatory interaction in the co-constructive training framework for teachers. From a case study in a university classroom, the expository-lectures format is analyzed with actors motivated to sustain their dialogical position of role in communicative interaction and facilitate acts of reciprocal help as well as discursive and interactive resources that fulfill a strategic function because they are necessary for the intellectual and autonomous construction of learning. Empirical research is designed as a systematic observation study with an evaluative purpose and that implements the integration of qualitative and quantitative analysis from a «mixed methods» approach. The discussion of the results highlights the flexibility and suitability of the method used both in terms of the nuanced description of the participatory interaction process attempted by the actors and in terms of the formative assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of the expository-lectures observed.Цель данной статьи - поделиться некоторыми исходными данными и процедурными соображениями об академической коммуникации, моделируемой партисипативным взаимодействием в рамках ко-конструктивного обучения преподавателей. На примере университетской аудитории анализируется формат докладов-лекций с действующими лицами, мотивированными на поддержание своей диалогической роли в коммуникативном взаимодействии и содействие актам взаимной помощи, а также дискурсивные и интерактивные ресурсы, выполняющие стратегическую функцию, поскольку они необходимы для интеллектуального и автономного построения обучения. Эмпирическое исследование построено как систематическое наблюдательное исследование с оценочной целью, в котором реализована интеграция качественного и количественного анализа на основе подхода «смешанных методов». Обсуждение результатов подчеркивает гибкость и пригодность используемого метода как в плане детального описания процесса партисипативного взаимодействия, который пытались осуществить участники, так и в плане формативной оценки сильных и слабых сторон наблюдаемых докладов-лекций.本文的目的是在对教师的共建培训框架内分享以参与式互动为模型的学术交流的一些背景及其过程。我们从大学课堂的多个案例研究中分析了说明性-权威模式,其中参与者被鼓励坚持其在交流互动中的对话角色地位,并推动互惠帮助的行为和具有战略功能的话语和互动资源,因为它们是知识与自主学习建构所必需的。该实证研究被设计为具有评估目的的系统观察研究,从混合方法角度整合了定性和定量分析。对结果的讨论中从两方面强调了该方法的灵活性和充分性,一方面为对参与者尝试的参与式互动过程的细致描述方面,另一方面是在对所观察到的说明性讲座的优缺点的形成性评估方面

    Observational Studies in Male Elite Football: A Systematic Mixed Study Review

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    Objective: This systematic mixed study review, focuses on the use of observation methodology in elite men's football matches, which constitutes an innovative approach, that opens up a new panorama of useful and productive research. Method: The methods used in this study follow the recommendations for systematic reviews and meta-analysis guidelines (PRISMA). The search was carried out in five databases. Ninety-four articles out of 3,195 were selected and analyzed. In order to achieve a quality assessment, the guide was used to inform evaluations based on observation methodology (GREOM) (Portell et al., 2015), recognized by the EQUATOR network. Results: From the methodological review analysis, information obtained indicates that 97% of the researches used direct observation and 3% indirect observation. On the other hand, 56.5% of the articles explain the instrument used and 77% justify the applied observational design. A quantitative comparison of the proportions was made in several methodological aspects, which resulted in only 15.21% reviewing the quality of the data, and that 67.3% of the articles contributed to the mixed methods approach. The methodological review allowed us to establish procedural profiles. The results indicate that 67% of the articles have been published in English, and of these, 77% were published in journals that have an impact factor. The majority of the researchers, 53.26%, belong to Spanish entities. The most studied substantive aspects were goal (34%), possession of the ball (28%), and corner (27%). The most observed events were Leagues, World Cups, individual players and other events. Conclusions: The results obtained refer to both substantive and methodological aspects and allow us to configure a systematic review of mixed studies, in which we emphasize the aspects of a "systematic review" and a "mixed study," within an integrated perspective

    Movement Notation Revisited: Syntax of the Common Morphokinetic Alphabet (CMA) System

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    Advances in the study of non-verbal behavior and communication have generated a need for movement transcription systems capable of incorporating continuous developments in visual and computer technology. Our research team has been working on the construction of a common morphokinetic alphabet (CMA) for the systematic observation of daily life activities. The project, which was launched several years ago, was designed to create a system for describing and analyzing body motion expression, physical activity, and physical appearance. In this paper, we describe an idiosyncratic application of Noam Chomsky’s phrase marker grammar to the morphokinetic phrase, the objective being to establish the grammatical rules and basic order of the symbol string according to a relational tree formed by the breakdown of the syntactic components identified as structuring the visual description of movement. Criteria for using the CMA as a coding system and a free transcription system are proposed

    Adult intervention levels in young children’s free play: an observational study on how Pikler educators combine the instrumental and relational dimensions of their educational activity

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    Studies about child development emphasize the importance of play in children’s early years. However, there is an existing controversy about the role educators should have in young children’s free play. This research work studies the approach to early playful activity from Pikler-Lóczy education. A systematic observation was conducted to deepen in the educational activity of free play accompanying. We studied how an experienced educator combines the instrumental and relational dimensions of her educational activity while children are playing, and the intervention levels they accordingly shape: no intervention, indirect intervention and direct intervention. Two complementary techniques were used in order to discover the relational behaviors that modulate each instrumental action: lag sequential analysis and polar coordinate analysis. Results show that the educator’s focus of attention is adaptive to the instrumental action she is performing; that the relational dimension of her educational activity modulates the instrumental actions; and that specific kinetic behaviors announce the beginning, mediate the developing and mark the closing of each instrumental action. Therefore, we demonstrated that the educator masterly combines the instrumental and relational dimensions of her educational activity, thus, shaping three different intervention levels towards children’s free play. This positioning is beneficial to children’s development given its active attempt to promote their intrinsic motivation and will to autonomously discover and learn.The first author of the paper is a PhD candidate of the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU) and counts with a scholarship to develop her thesis (PIF 18/104).The third author acknowledges the support of a Spanish government subproject Integration ways between qualitative and quantitative data, multiple case development, and synthesis review as main axis for an innovative future in physical activity and sports research [PGC2018-098742-B-C31] (2019-2021) (Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades / Agencia Estatal de Investigación / Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional)

    A Systematic Observation of Early Childhood Educators Accompanying Young Children’s Free Play at Emmi Pikler Nursery School: Instrumental Behaviors and Their Relational Value

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    A significant number of literature documents young children's innate interest in discovering their surroundings and gradually developing more complex activities and thoughts. It has been demonstrated that when environments support young children's innate interest and progressive autonomy, they help children acquire a self-determined behavior. However, little is known about the application of this evidence in the daily practice of early childhood educational settings. This study examines Emmi Pikler Nursery School, a center that implements an autonomy-supportive educational approach. We conducted a systematic observation of two experienced Pikler educators while they accompanied young children's free play. Our objective was to assess: if educators' instrumental action follows a systematic behavioral sequence, if specific relational behaviors support each instrumental action, and if educators display differentiated intervention levels concerning children's free play through the adaptation of the relational dimension. We conducted a lag sequential analysis to find behavioral patterns and concurrences between the observed behaviors. Our findings indicate that educators perform systematic action sequences and that each of the instrumental actions of those sequences has a specific relational value. We conclude that educators display three differentiated intervention levels depending on the child and the circumstances of the moment, providing appropriate autonomy support and reinforcing children's self-determination.JS is a Ph.D. candidate from the University of the Basque Country and counts with a scholarship (PIF 18/104) to develop her research work. MTA thanks the Spanish Government grant (PGC2018-098742-B-C31) (2019-2021) (FEDER/Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion - Agencia Estatal de Investigacion, Programa Estatal de Generacion de Conocimiento y Fortalecimiento Cientifico y Tecnologico del Sistema I CD Ci)

    Using Systematic Observation and Polar Coordinates Analysis to Assess Gender-Based Differences in Park Use in Barcelona

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    This paper aims to assess gender differences in the usage of public open spaces (POS), as an everyday context. Forty POS in the city of Barcelona were studied over 3 months using systematic observation. To objectively measure park use, an observational instrument (EXOdES) was purposely designed combining a field format and several category systems. The instrument facilitated the record of configurations or co-occurrences of codes from different dimensions (i.g., time of day, age, race/ethnicity, activity setting, activity, and presence of vehicles), providing contextually rich data of more than 35,000 individuals and groups and the setting in which the activity occurs. Although a similar overall proportion of males and females were found using POS (55 vs. 45%), important differences by gender were found between people being alone (66 vs. 34%), and groups (53 vs. 47%). To identify regular patterns in the way that men and women use public parks, information on more than 18,000 groups of people was analyzed as a global data set. A multievent sequential analysis was performed considering gender composition as the given behaviors (i.e., groups of males, females, and gendered mixed). Thus, polar coordinates analysis was also performed, because it is a suitable reduction data technique in studies with a broad observational instrument and a large database. Results show important gendered and cultural differences in POS use. Women tend to reproduce traditional gender role, being often more engaged in care functions with children and elders rather than in any other activity or with people of their same age group. Of particular concern is the gap on park use observed in women of ethnic minority groups. Assessing specific group needs on park use is particularly relevant attending to their multiple health and social benefits

    Editorial

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