598 research outputs found

    Can the Green Economy deliver it all? Experiences of renewable energy policies with socio-economic objectives

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    The Green Economy (GE) paradigm aims to reconcile environmental and socio-economic objectives. Policies to deploy renewable energy (RE) are widely perceived as a way to tap the potential synergies of these objectives. It is, however, still largely unclear whether the potential of simultaneously achieving both environmental and socio-economic objectives can be fully realized, and whether and how multiple objectives influence policy design, implementation, and evaluation. We aim to contribute to this aspect of GE research by looking at selected country experiences of renewable energy deployment with respect to the socio-economic goals of job creation or energy access. Across the cases examined, we find the following implications of relevance for the GE framework: First, we confirm the important role of governmental action for GE, with the specific need to state objectives clearly and build monitoring capacity. Second, consistent with the “strong” green growth variant of GE, some of the cases suggest that while renewable deployment may indeed lead to short-term socio-economic benefits, these benefits may not last. Third, we underline the urgent need for new methodologies to analyze and better understand multiple-objective policies, which are at the heart of the GE paradigm

    Sex Selection and Technology In the United States: Is It Playing GOD?

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    Preferences for selecting male firstborn children have been well established through research in countries such as India, China, and the Middle East. The effects of this phenomenon have been devastating to these populations’ sex ratios and have led to a number of violent crimes against women. The number of participants who indicated a willingness to use sex selection technology (8%) was too small to calculate any relationship between potential users and firstborn sex preference.https://engagedscholarship.csuohio.edu/u_poster_2012/1033/thumbnail.jp

    Airborne hydromapping area-wide surveying of shallow water areas

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    River engineeringInnovative field and laboratory instrumentatio

    Comparison of continuous in situ CO2 observations at Jungfraujoch using two different measurement techniques

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    Since 2004, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is being measured at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch by the division of Climate and Environmental Physics at the University of Bern (KUP) using a nondispersive infrared gas analyzer (NDIR) in combination with a paramagnetic O2 analyzer. In January 2010, CO2 measurements based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) as part of the Swiss National Air Pollution Monitoring Network were added by the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (Empa). To ensure a smooth transition – a prerequisite when merging two data sets, e.g., for trend determinations – the two measurement systems run in parallel for several years. Such a long-term intercomparison also allows the identification of potential offsets between the two data sets and the collection of information about the compatibility of the two systems on different time scales. A good agreement of the seasonality, short-term variations and, to a lesser extent mainly due to the short common period, trend calculations is observed. However, the comparison reveals some issues related to the stability of the calibration gases of the KUP system and their assigned CO2 mole fraction. It is possible to adapt an improved calibration strategy based on standard gas determinations, which leads to better agreement between the two data sets. By excluding periods with technical problems and bad calibration gas cylinders, the average hourly difference (CRDS – NDIR) of the two systems is −0.03 ppm ± 0.25 ppm. Although the difference of the two data sets is in line with the compatibility goal of ±0.1 ppm of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the standard deviation is still too high. A significant part of this uncertainty originates from the necessity to switch the KUP system frequently (every 12 min) for 6 min from ambient air to a working gas in order to correct short-term variations of the O2 measurement system. Allowing additional time for signal stabilization after switching the sample, an effective data coverage of only one-sixth for the KUP system is achieved while the Empa system has a nearly complete data coverage. Additionally, different internal volumes and flow rates may affect observed differences

    Processes controlling the concentration of hydroperoxides at Jungfraujoch Observatory, Switzerland

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    International audienceAn automated, ground-based instrument was used to measure gas-phase hydroperoxides at the Jungfraujoch High Altitude Research Station as part of the Free Tropospheric EXperiment (FREETEX) during February/March 2003. A nebulising reflux concentrator sampled ambient air twice hourly, prior to on-site analysis by HPLC speciation, coupled with post-column peroxidase derivatisation and fluorescence detection. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations reached up to 1420 pptv over the 13-day period with a mean of 206±261 pptv (± one standard deviation). Methyl hydroperoxide (CH3OOH) reached up to 921 pptv with a mean of 76±96 pptv. No other organic hydroperoxides were detected. The lack of an explicit diurnal cycle suggests that hydroperoxide concentrations are chiefly influenced by transport processes rather than local photochemistry at this mountainous site. We find elevated concentrations of H2O2 in air masses originating from the south-west indicative of higher concentrations of HOx due to more active photochemistry. Air which has been recently polluted exhibits low H2O2 concentration due to a combination of suppression of HO2 by NOx and deposition. We also conclude that despite being at a high alpine site, the vast majority of the air observed was extensively influence by the boundary layer during our campaign (diagnosed from high CO concentrations and the high NOx to NOy ratio) resulting in deposition of H2O2 to the surface and hence reduced H2O2 concentrations. The concentrations of H2O2 sampled here are consistent with previous box modelling studies of hydroperoxides which invoked a depositional sink

    Continuous isotopic composition measurements of tropospheric CO<sub>2</sub> at Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l.), Switzerland: real-time observation of regional pollution events

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    A quantum cascade laser based absorption spectrometer (QCLAS) is applied for the first time to perform in situ, continuous and high precision isotope ratio measurements of CO<sub>2</sub> in the free troposphere. Time series of the three main CO<sub>2</sub> isotopologue mixing ratios (<sup>12</sup>C<sup>16</sup>CO<sub>2</sub>, <sup>13</sup>C<sup>16</sup>CO<sub>2</sub> and <sup>12</sup>C<sup>18</sup>O<sup>16</sup>O) have simultaneously been measured at one second time resolution over two years (from August 2008 to present) at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l., Switzerland). This work focuses on periods in February 2009 only, when sudden and pronounced enhancements in the tropospheric CO<sub>2</sub> were observed. These short-term changes were closely correlated with variations in CO mixing ratios measured at the same site, indicating combustion related emissions as potential source. The analytical precision of 0.046&permil; (at 50 s integration time) for both &delta;<sup>13</sup>C and &delta;<sup>18</sup>O and the high temporal resolution allowed the application of the Keeling plot method for source signature identification. The spatial origin of these CO<sub>2</sub> emission sources was then determined by backward Lagrangian particle dispersion simulations

    Volatile Organic Compounds in the Po Basin. Part A: Anthropogenic VOCs

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    Measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were performed in the Po Basin, northern Italy in early summer 1998 within the PIPAPO project as well as in summer 2002 and autumn 2003 within the FORMAT project. During the three campaigns, trace gases and meteorological parameters were measured at a semi-rural station, around 35 km north of the city center of Milan. Low toluene and benzene concentrations and lower toluene to benzene ratios on weekends, on Sundays, and in August enabled the identification of a ‘weekend' and a ‘vacation' effect when anthropogenic emissions were lower due to less traffic and reduced industrial activities, respectively. Recurrent nighttime cyclohexane peaks suggested a periodical short-term release of cyclohexane close to the semi-rural sampling site. A multivariate receptor model analysis resulted in the distinction of different characteristic concentration profiles attributed to natural gas, biogenic impact, vehicle exhaust, industrial activities, and a single cyclohexane sourc

    Using radon-222 to distinguish between vertical transport processes at Jungfraujoch

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    Trace gases measured at Jungfrajoch, a key baseline monitoring station in the Swiss Alps, are tranported from the surface to the alpine ridge by several different processes. On clear days with weak synoptic forcing, thermally-driven upslope mountain winds (anabatic winds) are prevalent. Using hourly radon–222 observations, which are often used to identify air of terrestrial origin, we used the shape of the diurnal cycle to sort days according to the strength of anabatic winds. Radon is ideal as an airmass tracer because it is emitted from soil at a relatively constant rate, it is chemically inert, and decays with a half-life of 3.8 days. Because of its short half-life, radon concentrations are much lower in the free troposphere than in boundary-layer air over land. For comparable radon concentrations, anabatic wind days at Jungfraujoch are different from non-anabatic days in terms of the average wind speed, humidity, air temperature anomalies, and trace species. As a consequence, future studies could be devised which focus on a subset of days, e.g. by excluding anabatic days, with the intention of choosing a set of days which can be more accurately simulated by a transport model. © Author(s) 2014

    Volatile Organic Compounds in the Po Basin. Part B: Biogenic VOCs

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    Measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were performed in the Po Basin, northern Italy in early summer 1998, summer 2002, and autumn 2003. During the three campaigns, trace gases and meteorological parameters were measured at a semi-rural station, around 35 km north of the city center of Milan. Bimodal diurnal cycles of isoprene with highest concentrations in the morning and evening were found and could be explained by the interaction of emissions, chemical reactions, and vertical mixing. The diurnal cycle could be qualitatively reproduced by a three-dimensional Eulerian model. The nighttime decay of isoprene could be attributed mostly to reactions with NO3, while the decay of the isoprene oxidation products could not be explained with the considered chemical reactions. Methanol reached very high mixing ratios, up to 150 ppb. High concentrations with considerable variability occurred during nights with high relative humidities and low wind speeds. The origin of these nighttime methanol concentrations is most likely local and biogenic but the specific source could not be identifie
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