2,344 research outputs found

    Dian Fossey`s controversial 'Active Conservation' proves useful in increasing Mountain Gorilla Awareness

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    As a researcher and advocate of the mountain gorilla, Dian Fossey dedicated her life career to understand, protect, and assist the mountain gorilla by bringing awareness to the complexity of this animal and to the habitat needs required to support it. This paper presents the approach that Fossey used to increase the mountain gorilla awareness: ‘Active Conservation’

    The Politics of Peer to Peer

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    Whereas Lessig's recent work engages with questions of culture and creativity in society, this paper looks at the role of culture and creativity in the law. The paper evaluates the Napster, DeCSS, Felten and Sklyarov litigation in terms of the new social, legal, economic and cultural relations being produced. This involves a deep discussion of law's economic relations, and the implications of this for litigation strategy. The paper concludes with a critique of recent attempts to define copyright law in terms of first amendment rights and communicative freedom

    Power Couples: Lawmakers, Lobbyists, and the State of Their Unions

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    Congress has ignored a phenomenon blossoming in its own backyard, the growing number of lawmakers married to lobbyists—unions that we call “power couples” for short. Criticizing government corruption, pundits had raised questions about power couples. One news story asked, “How can a member of Congress possibly share a bed and a bank account with a member of the persuasion industry without a life laced by conflicts of interest?” Frank Clemente, director of Public Citizen’s Congress Watch, ranked the legislator-lobbyist marriage “way up there on the unseemly scale.” Another news report on family lobbying called the phenomenon “an increasingly popular maneuver in the age-old game of influence-seeking in Washington” and observed that today “when a corporation or interest group wants support from a key member of Congress, it often hires a member of the lawmaker’s family.” These ethical issues, in turn, raise theoretical questions about our contemporary understanding of marriage—questions of family law at the heart of this essay. First, some ethics experts identify the problem raised by power couples, put in its most benign form, as one concerning appearances. Given the importance of appearances and a prevailing ethical standard that emphasizes the need to avoid even appearances of impropriety, perceptions of the activities and relationships of legislator-lobbyist spouses necessarily loom large. What does the response to such power couples say about how we conceptualize marriage today? Second, this Essay reveals the importance of taking a closer look at “the state of the unions” in question, specifically the variations among these marriages and the manner in which these couples exercise, use, and share the power colloquially attributed to them. Ultimately, we question the conventional wisdom that the rise of power couples necessarily manifests gender equality in the public sphere. Instead, we suspect that these couples often re-inscribe the traditional stereotype, in which the husband is the preeminent spouse and the wife plays the role of helpmate, and we urge consideration of this issue in any evaluation of the Senate’s action and other possible reforms

    Ionisation and discharge in cloud-forming atmospheres of brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets

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    Brown dwarfs and giant gas extrasolar planets have cold atmospheres with rich chemical compositions from which mineral cloud particles form. Their properties, like particle sizes and material composition, vary with height, and the mineral cloud particles are charged due to triboelectric processes in such dynamic atmospheres. The dynamics of the atmospheric gas is driven by the irradiating host star and/or by the rotation of the objects that changes during its lifetime. Thermal gas ionisation in these ultra-cool but dense atmospheres allows electrostatic interactions and magnetic coupling of a substantial atmosphere volume. Combined with a strong magnetic field , a chromosphere and aurorae might form as suggested by radio and x-ray observations of brown dwarfs. Non-equilibrium processes like cosmic ray ionisation and discharge processes in clouds will increase the local pool of free electrons in the gas. Cosmic rays and lighting discharges also alter the composition of the local atmospheric gas such that tracer molecules might be identified. Cosmic rays affect the atmosphere through air showers in a certain volume which was modelled with a 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer code to be able to visualise their spacial extent. Given a certain degree of thermal ionisation of the atmospheric gas, we suggest that electron attachment to charge mineral cloud particles is too inefficient to cause an electrostatic disruption of the cloud particles. Cloud particles will therefore not be destroyed by Coulomb explosion for the local temperature in the collisional dominated brown dwarf and giant gas planet atmospheres. However, the cloud particles are destroyed electrostatically in regions with strong gas ionisation. The potential size of such cloud holes would, however, be too small and might occur too far inside the cloud to mimic the effect of, e.g. magnetic field induced star spots

    Latest Permian chars may derive from wildfires, not coal combustion: REPLY

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    ArticleThis is the final version of the article. It was first published by the Geological Society of America via http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/G36804Y.1abstract not availabl

    Do sperm and lubricants gel well with each other?:A systematic review

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    Vaginal lubricants are commonly used to aid sexual pleasure and/or to help combat vaginal dryness and dyspareunia. Several studies have reported their impact on sperm function, however there are no published guidelines to help healthcare professionals and couples select a vaginal lubricant that is 'sperm-safe'. To address this, we conducted a literature search using both PubMed and Scopus to identify and appraise manuscripts that reported the impact of lubricants on sperm function. We did not restrict the literature search by year of publication, and we only included manuscripts that looked at the impact of vaginal lubricants on human sperm. The quality of the eligible studies was assessed using the Björndahl et al., (2016) checklist for semen analysis, as most of the studies reported the findings of a basic semen analysis. A total of 24 articles were eligible for analysis with a total of 35 vaginal lubricants (that were available to buy over the counter) being included, 2 of which studied the effect of vaginal lubricants on sperm function in vivo, and 22 being conducted in vitro. KY Jelly, PreSeed and Astroglide were most studied, with most manuscripts focussing on their impact on sperm motility. A paucity of data on most lubricants combined with methodological variations between studies and limited/no reporting on pregnancy outcomes means greater efforts are required before an evidence-based guideline can be published.</p

    Do sperm and lubricants gel well with each other?:A systematic review

    Get PDF
    Vaginal lubricants are commonly used to aid sexual pleasure and/or to help combat vaginal dryness and dyspareunia. Several studies have reported their impact on sperm function, however there are no published guidelines to help healthcare professionals and couples select a vaginal lubricant that is 'sperm-safe'. To address this, we conducted a literature search using both PubMed and Scopus to identify and appraise manuscripts that reported the impact of lubricants on sperm function. We did not restrict the literature search by year of publication, and we only included manuscripts that looked at the impact of vaginal lubricants on human sperm. The quality of the eligible studies was assessed using the Björndahl et al., (2016) checklist for semen analysis, as most of the studies reported the findings of a basic semen analysis. A total of 24 articles were eligible for analysis with a total of 35 vaginal lubricants (that were available to buy over the counter) being included, 2 of which studied the effect of vaginal lubricants on sperm function in vivo, and 22 being conducted in vitro. KY Jelly, PreSeed and Astroglide were most studied, with most manuscripts focussing on their impact on sperm motility. A paucity of data on most lubricants combined with methodological variations between studies and limited/no reporting on pregnancy outcomes means greater efforts are required before an evidence-based guideline can be published.</p

    Context-dependent use of visual cues in the shell selection behaviour of the hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus

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    Animals avoid predator attack in different ways; some carry defensive structures to reduce predation, with the classic example being hermit crabs and their use of a mollusc shell as a portable refugium. During shell selection, various shell characteristics are investigated by the crab to determine their suitability. Here we consider the role of visual cues. Previous research suggests that some hermit crabs are more likely to initially choose a conspicuous shell but also to move to backgrounds against which they are less conspicuous, suggesting a short-term/long-term trade-off. Across experiments in which we manipulated shell and background colour, we show initially that Pagurus bernhardus prefer black shells over white but this preference was lost in the absence of visual cues. We then show that the strength of preference was dependent on background colour. We repeated this last experiment with red and yellow shells against red or yellow backgrounds to investigate whether this preference extended to chromatic hues. A preference for darker (red) shells was expressed, but preference alteration with background was not observed. P. bernhardus therefore discriminate between shells in terms of shell and background colour, and discrimination may be rooted in a preference for darker shaded shells.PostprintPeer reviewe

    Organic Geochemical and Petrographic Analysis of Pure Macerals from the Ohio Shale

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    Recent advances now permit the separation of coal into constituent macerals of high purity using density gradient centrifugation (DGC). With the availability of pure macerals, the chemical structure of each can be investigated separately, without the interactive interference of the other macerals or mineral matter. The present study is a preliminary effort applying these methods to the study of oil shale kerogen. We have used a sample from the Huron Member of the Upper Devonian Ohio Shale from Logan County, Ohio. Whole rock petrographic examination revealed intact Tasmanites, telalginite of unknown derivation and a weakly fluorescing matrix. Pyrite is abundant, including framboidal and euhedral pyrite imbedded within macerals. The kerogen concentrate was subjected to DGC. The resulting profile shows a single, broad main peak, consisting of mixed telaginite, amorphinite and rare vitrinite. Variable amounts of entrapped minerals apparently account for the broad range of density within the peak, with the organic assemblage being fairly consistent. In future work, it is recommended that the kerogen be micronized prior to DOC to permit a cleaner separation. In order to investigate the chemistry of macerals, pyrolysis is preferred over simple extraction, since soluble native bitumen is mobile and may migrate from the maceral of origin into a neighboring one, acting as a natural contaminant. Pyrolysis techniques assure that the data reflect the nature of indigenous material only. The Ohio Shale kerogen and 4 DGC fractions were subjected to micro-scale, anhydrous, in vitro pyrolysis, followed by GCMS of the saturate and aromatic LC fractions of the pyrolyzate. The 4 DGC fractions are nearly identical in both their saturate and aromatic molecular distributions, consistent with the petrographic observations. To further demonstrate the efficacy of the method, a pure sporinite isolated from a coal in the Pennsylvanian Brazil Formation of Indiana was also analyzed. The sporinite pyrolyzate can readily be distinguished from that of the Ohio Shale alginite by the distributions of n-alkanes, isoprenoids, phyllocladane derivatives, extended tricyclic terpanes, hopanes, moretanes, steranes, alkylbenzenes and thiophene derivatives. Py-LC-GCMS is an effective and versatile characterization tool, as it provides a great number of molecular parameters
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