3,481 research outputs found

    Effects of Personalized Lighting on Subjective Ratings, Cognitive Performance, and Physiological Stress Response in a Simulated Office Environment

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    LEDs simplify the personalization of lighting. However, research on the effects of personalizable lighting is in its infancy. The present study investigates the impact of personalizable workplace lighting on subjective parameters, cognition, and physiological stress while performing cognitive tests. In a cross-over design, 22 participants were randomly assigned to standard workplace lighting and lighting with adjustable illuminance and color temperature for two hours on two separate days. Subjective outcome measures were sleepiness, affect, and asthenopic complaints. We further assessed vigilance and three cognitive domains (task switching, working memory, and information processing) and derived heart rate variability parameters from an electrocardiogram. Some beneficial effects of personalizable lighting on cognitive performance were observed, although the overall results remain inconclusive. Standard and personalizable lighting did not differ in subjective ratings and physiological stress responses. Exploratory analysis of personalizable lighting revealed significant variation in self-selected workplace illuminances and limited variation in self-selected correlated color temperatures. Despite the preference for increased workplace illuminance under personalizable lighting, no visual impairment was observed compared to standard lighting. Personalizable workplace lighting is a promising new design feature to support individual visual and nonvisual lighting needs in daylight-deprived environments.</p

    Fairness in Participatory Budgeting via Equality of Resources

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    We introduce a family of normative principles to assess fairness in the context of participatory budgeting. These principles are based on the fundamental idea that budget allocations should be fair in terms of the resources invested into meeting the wishes of individual voters. This is in contrast to earlier proposals that are based on specific assumptions regarding the satisfaction of voters with a given budget allocation. We analyse these new principles in axiomatic, algorithmic, and experimental terms

    Design optimization of offshore wind jacket piles by assessing support structure orientation relative to metocean conditions

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    The orientation of a three-legged offshore wind jacket structure in 60 m water depth, supporting the IEA 15 MW reference turbine, has been assessed for optimizing the jacket pile design. A reference site off the coast of Massachusetts was considered, including site-specific metocean conditions and realistically plausible geotechnical conditions. Soil–structure interaction was modeled using three-dimensional finite-element (FE) ground–structure simulations to obtain equivalent mudline springs, which were subsequently used in nonlinear elastic simulations, considering aerodynamic and hydrodynamic loading of extreme sea states in the time domain. Jacket pile loads were found to be sensitive to the maximum 50-year wave direction, as opposed to the wind direction, indicating that the jacket orientation should be considered relative to the dominant wave direction. The results further demonstrated that the jacket orientation has a substantial impact on the overall jacket pile mass and maximum pile embedment depth and therefore represents an important opportunity for project cost and risk reductions. Finally, this research highlights the importance of detailed knowledge of the full global model behavior (both turbine and foundation) for capturing this optimization potential, particularly due to the influence of wind–wave misalignment on pile loads. Close collaboration between the turbine supplier and foundation designer, at the appropriate design stages, is essential.</p

    Mesenchymale Stromazellen beeinflussen die lokale kardiale Immunantwort nach Sepsis im murinen Modell

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    Fairness in Participatory Budgeting via Equality of Resources

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    We introduce a family of normative principles to assess fairness in the context of participatory budgeting. These principles are based on the fundamental idea that budget allocations should be fair in terms of the resources invested into meeting the wishes of individual voters. This is in contrast to earlier proposals that are based on specific assumptions regarding the satisfaction of voters with a given budget allocation. We analyse these new principles in axiomatic, algorithmic, and experimental terms

    Machine learning algorithm improves the detection of NASH (NAS-based) and at-risk NASH: A development and validation study

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    Background and aims: Detecting NASH remains challenging, while at-risk NASH (steatohepatitis and F≥ 2) tends to progress and is of interest for drug development and clinical application. We developed prediction models by supervised machine learning techniques, with clinical data and biomarkers to stage and grade patients with NAFLD. Approach and results: Learning data were collected in the Liver Investigation: Testing Marker Utility in Steatohepatitis metacohort (966 biopsy-proven NAFLD adults), staged and graded according to NASH CRN. Conditions of interest were the clinical trial definition of NASH (NAS ≥ 4;53%), at-risk NASH (NASH with F ≥ 2;35%), significant (F ≥ 2;47%), and advanced fibrosis (F ≥ 3;28%). Thirty-five predictors were included. Missing data were handled by multiple imputations. Data were randomly split into training/validation (75/25) sets. A gradient boosting machine was applied to develop 2 models for each condition: clinical versus extended (clinical and biomarkers). Two variants of the NASH and at-risk NASH models were constructed: direct and composite models.Clinical gradient boosting machine models for steatosis/inflammation/ballooning had AUCs of 0.94/0.79/0.72. There were no improvements when biomarkers were included. The direct NASH model produced AUCs (clinical/extended) of 0.61/0.65. The composite NASH model performed significantly better (0.71) for both variants. The composite at-risk NASH model had an AUC of 0.83 (clinical and extended), an improvement over the direct model. Significant fibrosis models had AUCs (clinical/extended) of 0.76/0.78. The extended advanced fibrosis model (0.86) performed significantly better than the clinical version (0.82). Conclusions: Detection of NASH and at-risk NASH can be improved by constructing independent machine learning models for each component, using only clinical predictors. Adding biomarkers only improved the accuracy of fibrosis

    Diminishing benefits of urban living for children and adolescents’ growth and development

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    Optimal growth and development in childhood and adolescence is crucial for lifelong health and well-being1–6. Here we used data from 2,325 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight from 71 million participants, to report the height and body-mass index (BMI) of children and adolescents aged 5–19 years on the basis of rural and urban place of residence in 200 countries and territories from 1990 to 2020. In 1990, children and adolescents residing in cities were taller than their rural counterparts in all but a few high-income&nbsp;countries. By 2020, the urban height advantage became smaller in most countries, and in many high-income western countries it reversed into a small urban-based disadvantage. The exception was for boys in most countries in sub-Saharan Africa and in some countries in Oceania, south Asia and the region of central Asia, Middle East and north Africa. In these countries, successive cohorts of boys from rural places either did not gain height or possibly became shorter, and hence fell further behind their urban peers. The difference between the age-standardized mean BMI of children in urban and rural areas was &lt;1.1 kg m–2 in the vast majority of&nbsp;countries. Within this small range, BMI increased slightly more in cities than in rural areas, except in south Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and some countries in central and eastern Europe. Our results show that in much of the world, the growth and developmental advantages of living in cities have diminished in the twenty-first century, whereas in much of sub-Saharan Africa they have amplified

    Alterations in ether lipid metabolism and the consequences for the mouse lipidome

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    Alkylglycerol monooxygenase (AGMO) and plasmanylethanolamine desaturase (PEDS1) are enzymes involved in ether lipid metabolism. While AGMO degrades plasmanyl lipids by oxidative cleavage of the ether bond, PEDS1 exclusively synthesizes a specific subclass of ether lipids, the plasmalogens, by introducing a vinyl ether double bond into plasmanylethanolamine phospholipids. Ether lipids are characterized by an ether linkage at the sn-1 position of the glycerol backbone and they are found in membranes of different cell types. Decreased plasmalogen levels have been associated with neurological diseases like Alzheimer's disease. Agmo-deficient mice do not present an obvious phenotype under unchallenged conditions. In contrast, Peds1 knockout mice display a growth phenotype. To investigate the molecular consequences of Agmo and Peds1 deficiency on the mouse lipidome, five tissues from each mouse model were isolated and subjected to high resolution mass spectrometry allowing the characterization of up to 2013 lipid species from 42 lipid subclasses. Agmo knockout mice moderately accumulated plasmanyl and plasmenyl lipid species. Peds1-deficient mice manifested striking changes characterized by a strong reduction of plasmenyl lipids and a concomitant massive accumulation of plasmanyl lipids resulting in increased total ether lipid levels in the analyzed tissues except for the class of phosphatidylethanolamines where total levels remained remarkably constant also in Peds1 knockout mice. The rate-limiting enzyme in ether lipid metabolism, FAR1, was not upregulated in Peds1-deficient mice, indicating that the selective loss of plasmalogens is not sufficient to activate the feedback mechanism observed in total ether lipid deficiency

    Performance of non-invasive tests and histology for the prediction of clinical outcomes in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: an individual participant data meta-analysis

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    BackgroundHistologically assessed liver fibrosis stage has prognostic significance in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and is accepted as a surrogate endpoint in clinical trials for non-cirrhotic NAFLD. Our aim was to compare the prognostic performance of non-invasive tests with liver histology in patients with NAFLD.MethodsThis was an individual participant data meta-analysis of the prognostic performance of histologically assessed fibrosis stage (F0–4), liver stiffness measured by vibration-controlled transient elastography (LSM-VCTE), fibrosis-4 index (FIB-4), and NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS) in patients with NAFLD. The literature was searched for a previously published systematic review on the diagnostic accuracy of imaging and simple non-invasive tests and updated to Jan 12, 2022 for this study. Studies were identified through PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL, and authors were contacted for individual participant data, including outcome data, with a minimum of 12 months of follow-up. The primary outcome was a composite endpoint of all-cause mortality, hepatocellular carcinoma, liver transplantation, or cirrhosis complications (ie, ascites, variceal bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy, or progression to a MELD score ≥15). We calculated aggregated survival curves for trichotomised groups and compared them using stratified log-rank tests (histology: F0–2 vs F3 vs F4; LSM: 2·67; NFS: 0·676), calculated areas under the time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curves (tAUC), and performed Cox proportional-hazards regression to adjust for confounding. This study was registered with PROSPERO, CRD42022312226.FindingsOf 65 eligible studies, we included data on 2518 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD from 25 studies (1126 [44·7%] were female, median age was 54 years [IQR 44–63), and 1161 [46·1%] had type 2 diabetes). After a median follow-up of 57 months [IQR 33–91], the composite endpoint was observed in 145 (5·8%) patients. Stratified log-rank tests showed significant differences between the trichotomised patient groups (p<0·0001 for all comparisons). The tAUC at 5 years were 0·72 (95% CI 0·62–0·81) for histology, 0·76 (0·70–0·83) for LSM-VCTE, 0·74 (0·64–0·82) for FIB-4, and 0·70 (0·63–0·80) for NFS. All index tests were significant predictors of the primary outcome after adjustment for confounders in the Cox regression.InterpretationSimple non-invasive tests performed as well as histologically assessed fibrosis in predicting clinical outcomes in patients with NAFLD and could be considered as alternatives to liver biopsy in some cases
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