12,669 research outputs found

    CoCO2-MOSAIC 1.0: a global mosaic of regional, gridded, fossil, and biofuel CO<sub>2</sub> emission inventories

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    Gridded bottom-up inventories of CO2 emissions are needed in global CO2 inversion schemes as priors to initialize transport models and as a complement to top-down estimates to identify the anthropogenic sources. Global inversions require gridded datasets almost in near-real time that are spatially and methodologically consistent at a global scale. This may result in a loss of more detailed information that can be assessed by using regional inventories because they are built with a greater level of detail including country-specific information and finer resolution data. With this aim, a global mosaic of regional, gridded CO2 emission inventories, hereafter referred to as CoCO2-MOSAIC 1.0, has been built in the framework of the CoCO2 project. CoCO2-MOSAIC 1.0 provides gridded (0.1∘ × 0.1∘) monthly emissions fluxes of CO2 fossil fuel (CO2ff, long cycle) and CO2 biofuel (CO2bf, short cycle) for the years 2015–2018 disaggregated in seven sectors. The regional inventories integrated are CAMS-REG-GHG 5.1 (Europe), DACCIWA 2.0 (Africa), GEAA-AEI 3.0 (Argentina), INEMA 1.0 (Chile), REAS 3.2.1 (East, Southeast, and South Asia), and VULCAN 3.0 (USA). EDGAR 6.0, CAMS-GLOB-SHIP 3.1 and CAMS-GLOB-TEMPO 3.1 are used for gap-filling. CoCO2-MOSAIC 1.0 can be recommended as a global baseline emission inventory for 2015 which is regionally accepted as a reference, and as such we use the mosaic to inter-compare the most widely used global emission inventories: CAMS-GLOB-ANT 5.3, EDGAR 6.0, ODIAC v2020b, and CEDS v2020_04_24. CoCO2-MOSAIC 1.0 has the highest CO2ff (36.7 Gt) and CO2bf (5.9 Gt) emissions globally, particularly in the USA and Africa. Regional emissions generally have a higher seasonality representing better the local monthly profiles and are generally distributed over a higher number of pixels, due to the more detailed information available. All super-emitting pixels from regional inventories contain a power station (CoCO2 database), whereas several super-emitters from global inventories are likely incorrectly geolocated, which is likely because regional inventories provide large energy emitters as point sources including regional information on power plant locations. CoCO2-MOSAIC 1.0 is freely available at zenodo (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7092358; Urraca et al., 2023) and at the JRC Data Catalogue (https://data.jrc.ec.europa.eu/dataset/6c8f9148-ce09-4dca-a4d5-422fb3682389, last access: 15 May 2023; Urraca Valle et al., 2023).</p

    Updated T2K measurements of muon neutrino and antineutrino disappearance using 3.6 ×\times 1021^{21} protons on target

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    International audienceMuon neutrino and antineutrino disappearance probabilities are identical in the standard three-flavor neutrino oscillation framework, but CPT violation and non-standard interactions can violate this symmetry. In this work we report the measurements of sin⁡2ξ23\sin^{2} \theta_{23} and Δm322\Delta m_{32}^2 independently for neutrinos and antineutrinos. The aforementioned symmetry violation would manifest as an inconsistency in the neutrino and antineutrino oscillation parameters. The analysis discussed here uses a total of 1.97×\times1021^{21} and 1.63×\times1021^{21} protons on target taken with a neutrino and antineutrino beam respectively, and benefits from improved flux and cross-section models, new near detector samples and more than double the data reducing the overall uncertainty of the result. No significant deviation is observed, consistent with the standard neutrino oscillation picture

    The Design and Technology Development of the JUNO Central Detector

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    International audienceThe Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is a large scale neutrino experiment with multiple physics goals including deter mining the neutrino mass hierarchy, the accurate measurement of neutrino oscillation parameters, the neutrino detection from the super nova, the Sun, and the Earth, etc. JUNO puts forward physically and technologically stringent requirements for its central detector (CD), including a large volume and target mass (20 kt liquid scintillator, LS), a high energy resolution (3% at 1 MeV), a high light transmittance, the largest possible photomultiplier (PMT) coverage, the lowest possible radioactive background, etc. The CD design, using a spherical acrylic vessel with a diameter of 35.4 m to contain the LS and a stainless steel structure to support the acrylic vessel and PMTs, was chosen and optimized. The acrylic vessel and the stainless steel structure will be immersed in pure water to shield the radioactive back ground and bear great buoyancy. The challenging requirements of the acrylic sphere have been achieved, such as a low intrinsic radioactivity and high transmittance of the manufactured acrylic panels, the tensile and compressive acrylic node design with embedded stainless steel pad, one-time polymerization for multiple bonding lines. Moreover, several technical challenges of the stainless steel structure have been solved: the production of low radioactivity stainless steel material, the deformation and precision control during production and assembly, the usage of high strength stainless steel rivet bolt and of high friction efficient linkage plate. Finally, the design of the ancillary equipment like the LS filling, overflowing and circulating system was done

    First measurement of muon neutrino charged-current interactions on hydrocarbon without pions in the final state using multiple detectors with correlated energy spectra at T2K

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    Updated discussion in Sec. V-A; Updated author listThis paper reports the first measurement of muon neutrino charged-current interactions without pions in the final state using multiple detectors with correlated energy spectra at T2K. The data was collected on hydrocarbon targets using the off-axis T2K near detector (ND280) and the on-axis T2K near detector (INGRID) with neutrino energy spectra peaked at 0.6 GeV and 1.1 GeV respectively. The correlated neutrino flux presents an opportunity to reduce the impact of the flux uncertainty and to study the energy dependence of neutrino interactions. The extracted double-differential cross sections are compared to several Monte Carlo neutrino-nucleus interaction event generators showing the agreement between both detectors individually and with the correlated result

    A genome-wide association study of blood cell morphology identifies cellular proteins implicated in disease aetiology

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    This is the final version. Available on open access from Nature Research via the DOI in this recordData availability; For ethical and legal reasons access to INTERVAL data are subject to controls. Bona fide scientists can seek access to relevant de-identified individual participant data—including genetic, haematology analyser and proteomic data—and a copy of the trial’s data dictionary by applying to the INTERVAL Data Access Committee using the email address [email protected]. The INTERVAL Data Access Committee (supplemented, when required, by expertise from additional external scientists) meets several times a year to review applications according to the usual academic criteria of scientific validity and feasibility. Following approval by the INTERVAL Data Access Committee, a material transfer or research collaboration agreement will be agreed and signed with the applicants. Applicants might be requested to provide reimbursement of data management or preparation costs, as the INTERVAL trial is no longer in receipt of funding. Applicants will be required to provide updates to the INTERVAL Data Access Committee on their use of the INTERVAL trial data, including provision of copies of any publications. Applicants will be required to adhere in publications with the INTERVAL trial’s policy for acknowledgment of the trial’s funders, stakeholders, and scientific or technical contributors. The GRCh37 genome reference build is available for download from https://grch37.ensembl.org/info/data/ftp/index.html. Genomewide summary statistics may be downloaded by anonymous ftp from ftp://ftp.sanger.ac.uk/pub/project/humgen/summary_statistics/sysmex_blood_cell_genetics. The data from Ulirsch et al.29 are available from https://github.com/caleblareau/singlecell_bloodtraits/, from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) under accession GSE119453 and from the Sequence Read Archive (SRA) under accession PRJNA491478. Other MK epigenetic data were generated by the BLUEPRINT project and are available in the EGA dataset EGAD00001001871.Code availability: The R code used for the association analysis is available in the git repository: https://github.com/ParsaAkbari/UKBB500K-Conditional-Analysis.Blood cells contain functionally important intracellular structures, such as granules, critical to immunity and thrombosis. Quantitative variation in these structures has not been subjected previously to large-scale genetic analysis. We perform genome-wide association studies of 63 flow-cytometry derived cellular phenotypes-including cell-type specific measures of granularity, nucleic acid content and reactivity-in 41,515 participants in the INTERVAL study. We identify 2172 distinct variant-trait associations, including associations near genes coding for proteins in organelles implicated in inflammatory and thrombotic diseases. By integrating with epigenetic data we show that many intracellular structures are likely to be determined in immature precursor cells. By integrating with proteomic data we identify the transcription factor FOG2 as an early regulator of platelet formation and α-granularity. Finally, we show that colocalisation of our associations with disease risk signals can suggest aetiological cell-types-variants in IL2RA and ITGA4 respectively mirror the known effects of daclizumab in multiple sclerosis and vedolizumab in inflammatory bowel disease