3,988 research outputs found

    Updates on radiotherapy-immunotherapy combinations: Proceedings of 6th annual ImmunoRad conference.

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    Focal radiation therapy (RT) has attracted considerable attention as a combinatorial partner for immunotherapy (IT), largely reflecting a well-defined, predictable safety profile and at least some potential for immunostimulation. However, only a few RT-IT combinations have been tested successfully in patients with cancer, highlighting the urgent need for an improved understanding of the interaction between RT and IT in both preclinical and clinical scenarios. Every year since 2016, ImmunoRad gathers experts working at the interface between RT and IT to provide a forum for education and discussion, with the ultimate goal of fostering progress in the field at both preclinical and clinical levels. Here, we summarize the key concepts and findings presented at the Sixth Annual ImmunoRad conference

    The Italian Consensus Conference on FAI Syndrome in Athletes (Cotignola Agreement)

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    Background. Femoro-acetabular impingement (FAI) is an important topic in literature because of its strong relationship with sport populations. Methods. Sixty-five experts participated in “this Consensus Conference (CC)”. They discussed, voted and approved a consensus document on the FAI syndrome in athletes. Results. The CC experts approved document provided suggestions concerning: 1) Epidemiology of FAI; 2) Clinical evaluation; 3) Radiological evaluation; 4) Conservative treatment; 5) Surgical criteria; 6) Surgical techniques; 7) Post-surgical rehabilita-tion; 8) Outcome evaluation; 9) FAI-associated clinical frameworks. Conclusions. The CC offers a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis and treatment of FAI syndrome in athletes taking into account all the different steps needed to approach this pathology in sport populations

    A growth curve model to assess the effectiveness of a community-based intervention for the empowerment of Malian females in the decision to disclose (or not) their HIV status (ANRS-12373 Gundo-So)

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    International audienceBACKGROUND: In Mali, women living with HIV (WLHIV) who disclose their positive status are often confronted with stigma, violence, economic pressure, and social exclusion, including from family. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention for the empowerment of WLHIV on the decision to disclose or not their HIV-positive status, and associated factors.METHODS: ANRS-12373/Gundo-So (Chamber of Secrets in Bambara) was implemented in 6 community-based clinics in Mali in 2019/2020. The intervention consisted of 9 weekly sessions of peer-support for strengthening the capacity of WLHIV to manage the consequences concerning (non)disclosure of their HIV-positive status. Individual and psychosocial characteristics were collected at enrolment, pre- /post-intervention, then quarterly over 9 months. Effectiveness was evaluated using a scale measuring the psychological burden related to the sero-status secret from 0 (none) to 5 (very high). A growth curve model using Poisson distribution was estimated to investigate changes before(=0) and after the intervention(=1). Random-effects allowed controlling for unobserved/unobservable characteristics. This technique accounts for missing data and unequally spaced time points.RESULTS: Among 240 WLHIV enrolled, 222 (92.5%) and 146 (60.8%) responded to the pre-/post-intervention questionnaires respectively. Then, 139 (58.0%) continued follow-up at M3, and 136 (56.6%) at both M6 and M9. Analyses were carried out over the 1019 observations. At baseline, median age[IQR] was 33[28-39] years, 76.7% of participants did not have any education level/low-level. The psychological burden of sero-status secret was self-evaluated =1 by 50% of participants, whereas it was =4 for 23%. Estimations without confounders showed that the psychological burden decreased on average by 42% after the intervention (IRR:0.58, 95%CI[0.46-0.61]). Including covariates showed that the psychological burden decreases with age (IRR:0.98, 95%CI[0.97-0.99]), easy ARV uptake (IRR:0.81, 95%CI[0.68-0.97]), and absence of loneliness (IRR:0.83, 95%CI[0.71-0.96]). The intervention effectiveness persisted after including covariates. The psychological burden decreased of 44% after the intervention (IRR:0.56, 95%CI[0.48-0.65]).CONCLUSIONS: Our results have demonstrated that the Gundo-So intervention was effective for the empowerment of Malian WLHIV to reduce the psychological burden of HIV disclosure-related issues. Social and behavioral interventions adopting a community-based approach can effectively promote health outcomes among people confronted to sociocultural hostile environments such as Mali

    Rubin Observatory LSST Transients and Variable Stars Roadmap

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    International audienceThe Vera C. Rubin Legacy Survey of Space and Time (LSST) holds the potential to revolutionize time domain astrophysics, reaching completely unexplored areas of the Universe and mapping variability time scales from minutes to a decade. To prepare to maximize the potential of the Rubin LSST data for the exploration of the transient and variable Universe, one of the four pillars of Rubin LSST science, the Transient and Variable Stars Science Collaboration, one of the eight Rubin LSST Science Collaborations, has identified research areas of interest and requirements, and paths to enable them. While our roadmap is ever-evolving, this document represents a snapshot of our plans and preparatory work in the final years and months leading up to the survey’s first light

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation as an adjunct to standard care in improving walking distances in intermittent claudication patients: the NESIC RCT

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    Background Peripheral arterial disease is common and associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. While patients with peripheral arterial disease are known to benefit from supervised exercise therapy, it is not always available. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation devices may offer a similar benefit. A randomised controlled trial was required to ascertain whether such devices can benefit patients who receive supervised exercise therapy and those who do not. Objective(s) The primary objective was to assess the mean difference in absolute walking distance at 3 months in intermittent claudication patients receiving either a neuromuscular electrical stimulation device and local standard care (intervention), or local standard care alone (control). Design A pragmatic, multicentre, randomised controlled trial stratified by centre. Setting Secondary-care National Health Service hospitals in the United Kingdom. Participants Patients aged ≄18 years, with a diagnosis of intermittent claudication according to the Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaire and ankle–brachial pressure index (or stress test), without contraindications to neuromuscular electrical stimulation were deemed eligible to partake. Interventions Participants were randomised 1 : 1 to either local standard care or local standard care and neuromuscular electrical stimulation. Due to the nature of the intervention, it was unfeasible to blind the research nurse or participant to the study allocation. Main outcome measures The primary outcome measure was absolute walking distance measured by treadmill testing at 3 months. Secondary outcomes included change in initial claudication distance, quality of life, compliance with interventions and haemodynamic assessments. Results Two hundred patients underwent randomisation, with 160 patients having analysable primary outcome data for the intention-to-treat analysis intervention (n = 80); control (n = 80). As the data were right-censored, a Tobit regression model was used to analyse the primary outcome, utilising the square root of the absolute walking distance to accommodate the skewed data. However, as this made the data difficult to interpret, a Tobit regression model using raw absolute walking distance data was used as well. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation improved the difference in absolute walking distance at 3 months but this was not statistically significant (square root of absolute walking distance: 0.835 units, 95% confidence interval −0.67 to 2.34 units; p = 0.28/absolute walking distance raw data: 27.18 m, 95% confidence interval −26.92 to 81.28 m; p = 0.323). Supervised exercise therapy participants showed a markedly improved absolute walking distance compared with patients receiving best medical therapy only at 3 months (square root of absolute walking distance: 3.295 units 95% confidence interval 1.77 to 4.82; p < 0.001/absolute walking distance raw data: 121.71 m, 95% confidence interval 67.32 to 176.10; p ≀ 0.001). Neuromuscular electrical stimulation significantly improved absolute walking distance at 3 months for mild claudicants (square root of absolute walking distance: 2.877 units, 95% confidence interval 0.51 to 5.25; p = 0.019/absolute walking distance raw data: 120.55 m, 95% confidence interval 16.03 to 225.06; p = 0.03) compared to the control arm. This was an unplanned (post hoc) analysis. There were no clear differences in mechanistic measurements between the two treatment groups over the follow-up period. Serious adverse events were evenly reported between the two groups; all being classified as either not related or unlikely to be related to the study device. Limitations Absolute walking distance was used as the primary outcome measure; there was a large range of baseline distances in both groups with right-skewed distribution. We did not stratify by baseline absolute walking distance for the primary outcome analysis. Additionally, only 160 patients had analysable primary outcome data due to missing treadmill data. Conclusions Supervised exercise therapy is an effective treatment for intermittent claudication. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation appears to be beneficial as an adjunct to supervised exercise therapy and on its own in mild claudicants. Future work Further studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in combination with supervised exercise therapy, and in mild to moderate claudicants in a larger sample size. Study registration This trial is registered as ISRCTN18242823. Funding This project was funded by the Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation (EME) Programme, a Medical Research Council (MRC) and National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR) partnership (project number 15/180/68). This will be published in full in Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation; Vol. 10, No. 2. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information. Infrastructure support for this research was provided by the NIHR Imperial Biomedical Research Centre (BRC) (with others, e.g. NIHR Imperial CRF, Imperial College ECMC, NIHR Imperial PSTRC, NIHR London MIC, etc.). Plain language summary Why did we conduct this research? Patients with intermittent claudication present with pain in the lower limbs on exercising, relieved by rest. This negatively impacts on exercise tolerance and quality of life. Initially, such patients should be offered best medical therapy, including exercise advice, and a supervised exercise therapy programme. Supervised exercise therapy involves leg and feet exercises supervised by health-care professionals and, despite evidence favouring supervised versus unsupervised exercise, are underutilised in the United Kingdom. Therefore, there remains a significant difference between recommended standard care (best medical therapy and supervised exercise therapy) and ‘real-world’ standard care (best medical therapy only). Neuromuscular electrical stimulation devices have emerged as safe, portable and readily accessible, with some evidence suggesting they can improve outcomes, including pain-free walking distance and quality of life. This study investigated whether a neuromuscular electrical stimulation device improved the walking distance of patients with intermittent claudication compared to local standard care available (which may include supervised exercise therapy). What did we do? Two hundred patients diagnosed with intermittent claudication at 11 hospitals in England took part. A computer program randomly assigned half the patients to local standard care only, while the other half were given a neuromuscular electrical stimulation device which delivers electrical stimulation to leg and feet muscles through foot-pads, plus local standard care. What did we find? There was no clear difference in maximal walking distances between those who received a device and those who didn’t. However, neuromuscular electrical stimulation improved walking distances in patients who attended a supervised exercise therapy programme (although not significant), and clearly improved walking distances in those patients with a good baseline upper walking limit. Supervised exercise therapy significantly improved walking distances. What could be done next? Future research studies should further evaluate the effectiveness of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in combination with supervised exercise therapy, and in patients who have a good baseline walking distance in a larger sample of patients with intermittent claudication. Scientific summary Background Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common condition that is predominantly caused by atherosclerosis, resulting in a reduced blood flow to the affected limb. It presents a significant global health burden, affecting over 200 million people worldwide. These individuals are at higher risk of other cardiovascular events and PAD itself has its own associated sequelae – for example, ulcer development. Intermittent claudication (IC) is the commonest symptom of PAD, patients experiencing leg pain while walking which is relieved by rest. This has a significant impact on exercise tolerance and quality of life. According to National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines, all patients suffering from IC should receive both first-line treatment of best medical therapy (BMT) (including exercise advice) and supervised exercise therapy (SET). SET is known to significantly improve absolute walking distance (AWD) in IC patients but despite these guidelines, recommended care for the first-line management of claudication is significantly below standard, largely due to lack of National Health Service capability. Without a demonstrable benefit of non-invasive strategies for the management of IC, there is an increased likelihood of invasive treatment options. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is an emerging technology and such devices are readily accessible and can be used in the patient’s own home. Although some evidence of the efficacy of NMES in the management of patients with IC exists, in improving both functional and quality-of-life measures, further high-quality research is required. The NESIC (A Multicenter Randomised Controlled Study: Does Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Improve the Absolute Walking Distance in Patients with Intermittent Claudication (NESIC) compared to best available treatment?) study provides an evidence base for the efficacy of the REVITIVE IXTM (Actegy Health Ltd, Bracknell, UK) device in the non-invasive management of claudicants and assesses the cost-effectiveness of the device compared to SET. Objectives (list of research questions) 1.Primary objective: To assess the clinical efficacy of a NMES device as an adjunct to the local standard care available at the study randomisation sites to improve AWD in patients with IC. 2.Secondary objectives: a.To understand the underlying mechanisms for change in clinical and subjective outcomes in the form of lower-limb gross (duplex ultrasound) and superficial haemodynamic assessment (laser doppler flowmetry) b.To determine compliance with NMES device and SET programme c.To compare quality of life between those receiving local standard care alone and those receiving both local standard care and NMES d.To assess the actual cost-effectiveness of the NMES device compared to SET. Methods Design A multicentre, pragmatic, randomised clinical trial to compare the mean difference in AWD in patients with IC who are given NMES in addition to local standard care and those receiving local standard care only. Setting Eleven secondary-care NHS hospitals across England; a combination of centres with and without established provision of SET. Participants Between March 2018 and 17 March 2020, 200 participants were randomised into the NESIC trial. Follow-up was completed on 31 March 2021. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants, who then underwent eligibility assessments. Participants, as defined by the inclusion and exclusion criteria, were randomised 1 : 1 to either local standard care alone (standard care), or NMES and local standard care (intervention). Inclusion criteria ‱positive Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaire ‱ankle–brachial pressure index 30 mmHg, 40 seconds post 1 minute treadmill at 10% gradient, 4 km/hour) ‱able to give informed consent to participate in the trial after reading the patient information documentation ‱age ≄18 years. Exclusion criteria ‱severe IC requiring invasive intervention as determined by the treating clinician ‱critical limb ischaemia as defined by the European Consensus Document ‱comorbid disease prohibiting walking on a treadmill or taking part in SET ‱able to walk for longer than 15 minutes on the study treadmill assessment ‱have attended SET classes in the previous 6 months ‱popliteal entrapment syndrome ‱commenced vascular-symptom-specific medication in previous 6 months – for example, naftidrofuryl oxalate, cilostazol ‱pregnancy ‱any implanted electronic, cardiac or defibrillator device ‱acute deep vein thrombosis ‱broken or bleeding skin, including leg ulceration ‱peripheral neuropathy ‱recent lower-limb injury or lower back pain ‱already using a NMES device. Randomisation Randomisation (1 : 1) was web-based and hosted by Oracle Health Sciences InFormℱ (OracleÂź; Health Sciences, Austin, TX, USA) electronic data capture on an Oracle platform. Randomisation used random block size and was stratified by centres. Interventions The NMES device (REVITIVE IX) can be used in the patient’s own home. It delivers a 30-minute pre-programmed session of electrical stimulation to the lower-limb muscles through foot pads while the patient is in a seated position. The user controls the intensity of the impulses, and therapeutic benefit is deemed to occur when impulses are sufficient to cause contraction of the calf muscles, increasing venous return to the heart. The IsoRocker feature allows the device to tilt back and forth as the muscles contract and relax. The device is to be used for at least one 30-minute session daily (up to a maximum of six sessions) for 3 months (treatment period). Diabetic patients are to use the device for a minimum of two 30-minute sessions daily for the duration of the treatment period to better reflect the evidence supporting the diabetic patient group and improvement of their symptoms. A SET programme is usually led by a physiotherapist or allied health-care provider supervising exercise, usually within the physiotherapy gymnasium with equipment including a treadmill, steps and walking cones. SET classes usually involve a circuit of lower-limb exercises, for a minimum of 30 minutes per week, and usually over a 3-month duration. Outcomes and follow-up The primary outcome was AWD at 3 months, measured by treadmill testing. Secondary outcomes included quality of life over 12 months as measured by generic health-related quality of life tools, European Quality of Life 5-Dimensions 5-Level (EQ-5D-5LÂź) (EuroQol Group, Rotterdam, The Netherlands), Short-Form Health Survey-36 (SF-36Âź) (RAND Health Care, Santa Monica, CA, USA) and the intermittent claudication questionnaire; compliance with NMES and SET as measured against self-report participant diaries and device data loggers; change in initial claudication distance measured by treadmill testing; and haemodynamic assessments measured by duplex ultrasound and laser doppler flowmetry. Participants in both groups were followed up for 12 months post randomisation. In-person visits were performed at screening/baseline (randomisation), 3 months, 6 months and 12 months. The treadmill assessment (Gardner-Skinner protocol) and laser doppler flowmetry of the foot were completed at each visit and the duplex ultrasound was performed by a vascular scientist at baseline and 3 months only. Self-report health resource-use participant diaries were completed throughout the 12-month duration of the study. Additionally, the self-report exercise diaries were completed by all participants for 3 months or for the duration of the SET programme, and the device compliance diaries were completed by participants randomised to NMES for the duration of the treatment period. A device experience questionnaire was completed at 3 months for participants in the NMES arm of the trial. The quality-of-life questionnaires were administered at baseline and each follow-up either in person, via the telephone or via post. Participant follow-up is summarised in Appendix 1. Due to the COVID-19 crisis, a substantial amendment was submitted to Ethics in April 2020 to allow all follow-up visits to take place remotely (i.e. over the telephone completely or in combination with postal questionnaires) in the event that the participant was unable to attend in clinic or the site was unable to accommodate the on-site visit. Missed (physical) assessments as a result of a remote visit were rescheduled at a later date as a separate on-site visit, where possible. If an on-site visit was rescheduled at a later date, all quality-of-life questionnaires that were completed remotely were repeated at the on-site visit. Results (research findings) Two hundred participants underwent randomisation and 160 were included in the intention-to-treat primary analysis [intervention (n = 80); control (n = 80)]. NMES improved AWD in patients with IC following the 3-month treatment period but this was not statistically significant [square root of AWD: 0.835 units, 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.67 to 2.34; p = 0.276/AWD raw data: 27.18 m, 95% CI −26.92 to 81.28; p = 0.323]. Participants who had access to a SET programme showed a clear improvement in AWD compared with patients who received BMT only at 3 months (square root of AWD: 3.295 units, 95% CI 1.77 to 4.82; p < 0.001/AWD raw data: 121.1 m, 95% CI 67.32 to 176.10; p < 0.001). Improvements in the AWD at 3 months were seen when NMES was used in combination with SET, but this was not significant (square root of AWD: 1.724 units, 95% CI −0.56 to 4.01; p = 0.137/AWD raw data: 64.26 units, 95% CI −20.03 to 148.54; p = 0.13). NMES significantly improved AWD at 3 months for patients who could walk for more than 340 m at baseline (square root of AWD: 2.877 units, 95% CI 0.51 to 5.25; p = 0.019/AWD raw data: 120.55 m, 95% CI 16.03 to 225.06; p = 0.03) compared to the control arm. Mechanistic findings of the laser doppler flowmetry found no clear differences in blood flux between the two treatment groups over the 12-month follow-up period, nor any significant differences in volume flow or time average mean velocity (duplex ultrasound) groups at 3 months. Serious adverse events (n = 29) were reported in 24 participants, with all events being classified as either not related or unlikely to be related to the study device. The number of SAEs in the treatment arm was 13 and 16 in the control arm. Most of the events required hospitalisation; there were four deaths. Conclusions The results of the NESIC trial indicate that SET is the most effective treatment option for patients with IC. Although not significant, NMES improves walking distances when used in combination with a SET programme, and significantly improves AWD in mild claudicants. Implications for health care Findings from this trial suggest that all IC patients should have access to a SET programme and changes to such programmes may need to be made to encourage and/or retain participants. NMES may be an effective adjunct to SET and in patients with a good baseline walking distance. Recommendations for research (numbered in priority order) 1.Randomised controlled trial of NMES as an adjunct to SET in IC patients stratified by baseline AWD, as the NESIC study showed promise of non-invasive effectiveness in mild and/or moderate claudicants at improving walking distances, but larger numbers are required to validate this finding. 2.Research to examine the poor patient motivation and adherence to SET, as SET is clearly an effective treatment option for claudicants as seen in this study and many other studies but uptake/compliance remains an issue. 3.Research to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of SET programmes on maximal walking distance (MWD) and secondary outcomes such as quality of life and long-term engagement in physical activity. The NESIC study showed the effectiveness of SET at 12 months at improving AWD but longer-term follow-up is required to evaluate whether this is sustained years later. Previous studies have shown mixed results on the impact of SET on other outcomes, such as quality of life, and therefore further research is required. Study registration This trial is registered as ISRCTN18242823. Funding This project was funded by the Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation (EME) Programme, a Medical Research Council (MRC) and National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR) partnership (project number 15/180/68). This will be published in full in Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation; Vol. 10, No. 2. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information. Infrastructure support for this research was provided by the NIHR Imperial Biomedical Research Centre (BRC) (with others, e.g. NIHR Imperial CRF, Imperial College ECMC, NIHR Imperial PSTRC, NIHR London MIC, etc.)

    First spectroscopic investigation of Anomalous Cepheid variables

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    Anomalous Cepheids (ACEPs) are intermediate mass metal-poor pulsators mostly discovered in dwarf galaxies of the Local Group. However, recent Galactic surveys, including the Gaia DR3, found a few hundreds of ACEPs in the Milky Way. Their origin is not well understood. We aim to investigate the origin and evolution of Galactic ACEPs by studying for the first time the chemical composition of their atmospheres. We used UVES@VLT to obtain high-resolution spectra for a sample of 9 ACEPs belonging to the Galactic halo. We derived the abundances of 12 elements, including C, Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Y, and Ba. We complemented these data with literature abundances for an additional three ACEPs that were previously incorrectly classified as type II Cepheids, thus increasing the sample to a total of 12 stars. All the investigated ACEPs have an iron abundance [Fe/H]<−1.5<-1.5 dex as expected from theoretical predictions for these pulsators. The abundance ratios of the different elements to iron show that the ACEP's chemical composition is generally consistent with that of the Galactic halo field stars, except the Sodium, which is found overabundant in 9 out of the 11 ACEPs where it was measured, in close similarity with second-generation stars in the Galactic Globular Clusters. The same comparison with dwarf and ultra-faint satellites of the Milky Way reveals more differences than similarities so it is unlikely that the bulk of Galactic ACEPs originated in such a kind of galaxies which subsequently dissolved in the Galactic halo. The principal finding of this work is the unexpected overabundance of Sodium in ACEPs. We explored several hypotheses to explain this feature, finding that the most promising scenario is the evolution of low-mass stars in a binary system with either mass transfer or merging. Detailed modelling is needed to confirm this hypothesis.Comment: 15 Figures, 4 Tables, Accepted for publication on Astronomy & Astrophysic

    Rare predicted loss-of-function variants of type I IFN immunity genes are associated with life-threatening COVID-19

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    BackgroundWe previously reported that impaired type I IFN activity, due to inborn errors of TLR3- and TLR7-dependent type I interferon (IFN) immunity or to autoantibodies against type I IFN, account for 15-20% of cases of life-threatening COVID-19 in unvaccinated patients. Therefore, the determinants of life-threatening COVID-19 remain to be identified in similar to 80% of cases.MethodsWe report here a genome-wide rare variant burden association analysis in 3269 unvaccinated patients with life-threatening COVID-19, and 1373 unvaccinated SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals without pneumonia. Among the 928 patients tested for autoantibodies against type I IFN, a quarter (234) were positive and were excluded.ResultsNo gene reached genome-wide significance. Under a recessive model, the most significant gene with at-risk variants was TLR7, with an OR of 27.68 (95%CI 1.5-528.7, P=1.1x10(-4)) for biochemically loss-of-function (bLOF) variants. We replicated the enrichment in rare predicted LOF (pLOF) variants at 13 influenza susceptibility loci involved in TLR3-dependent type I IFN immunity (OR=3.70[95%CI 1.3-8.2], P=2.1x10(-4)). This enrichment was further strengthened by (1) adding the recently reported TYK2 and TLR7 COVID-19 loci, particularly under a recessive model (OR=19.65[95%CI 2.1-2635.4], P=3.4x10(-3)), and (2) considering as pLOF branchpoint variants with potentially strong impacts on splicing among the 15 loci (OR=4.40[9%CI 2.3-8.4], P=7.7x10(-8)). Finally, the patients with pLOF/bLOF variants at these 15 loci were significantly younger (mean age [SD]=43.3 [20.3] years) than the other patients (56.0 [17.3] years; P=1.68x10(-5)).ConclusionsRare variants of TLR3- and TLR7-dependent type I IFN immunity genes can underlie life-threatening COVID-19, particularly with recessive inheritance, in patients under 60 years old

    Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels are associated with first-phase insulin release

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    Aims: Prior studies provided evidence that low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol-lowering statins reduce cardiovascular events while conveying an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between LDL levels and both insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in a cohort of 356 adult first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Insulin sensitivity was assessed by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp and first-phase insulin secretion was measured by both intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and OGTT. Results: LDL-cholesterol levels were not independently associated with insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. After adjusting for several potential confounders, LDL-cholesterol concentration exhibited a positive independent association with acute insulin response (AIR) during IVGTT and with the OGTT derived Stumvoll first-phase insulin secretion index. When insulin release was adjusted for the underlying degree of insulin sensitivity, using the disposition index (AIR&nbsp;×&nbsp;insulin-stimulated glucose disposal), ÎČ-cell function was significantly associated with LDL-cholesterol levels, even after further adjusting for several potential confounders. Conclusions: The present results suggest that LDL cholesterol is a positive modulator of insulin secretion. The deterioration in glycemic control observed during treatment with statins might thus be explained by an impairment in insulin secretion due to the cholesterol-lowering effect of statins

    Antibody responses to Influenza vaccination are diminished in patients with inflammatory bowel disease on infliximab or tofacitinib

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    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We sought to determine whether six commonly used immunosuppressive regimens were associated with lower antibody responses after seasonal influenza vaccination in patients with IBD. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study including 213 IBD patients and 53 healthy controls; 165 who had received seasonal influenza vaccine and 101 who had not. IBD medications included infliximab, thiopurines, infliximab and thiopurine combination therapy, ustekinumab, vedolizumab or tofacitinib. The primary outcome was antibody responses against influenza/A H3N2 and A/H1N1, compared to controls, adjusting for age, prior vaccination and interval between vaccination and sampling. RESULTS: Lower antibody responses against influenza A/H3N2 were observed in patients on infliximab (Geometric Mean Ratio 0.35 [95% CI 0.20-0.60], p=0.0002), combination of infliximab and thiopurine therapy (0.46 [0.27-0.79], p=0.0050) and tofacitinib (0.28 [0.14-0.57], p=0.0005) compared to controls. Lower antibody responses against A/H1N1 were observed in patients on infliximab (0.29 [0.15-0.56], p=0.0003), combination of infliximab and thiopurine therapy (0.34 [0.17-0.66], p=0.0016), thiopurine monotherapy (0.46 [0.24-0.87], p=0.017) and tofacitinib (0.23 [0.10-0.56], p=0.0013). Ustekinumab and vedolizumab were not associated with reduced antibody responses against A/H3N2 or A/H1N1. Vaccination in the previous year was associated with higher antibody responses to A/H3N2. Vaccine-induced anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody concentration weakly correlated with antibodies against H3N2 (r=0.27; p=0.0004) and H1N1 (r=0.33; p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination in both the 2020-2021 and 2021-2022 seasons was associated with significantly higher antibody responses to influenza/A than no vaccination or vaccination in 2021-2022 alone. Infliximab and tofacitinib are associated with lower binding antibody responses to Influenza/A, similar to COVID-19 vaccine-induced antibody responses.Published version, accepted version (12 month embargo), submitted versionThe article is available via Open Access. Click on the 'Additional link' above to access the full-text