66 research outputs found

    Saharan dust events at the Jungfraujoch: detection by wavelength dependence of the single scattering albedo and analysis of the events during the years 2001 and 2002

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    International audienceScattering and absorption coefficients have been measured continuously at several wavelengths since March 2001 at the high altitude site Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l.). From these data, the wavelength dependences of the Ångström exponent and particularly of the single scattering albedo are determined. While the exponent of the single scattering albedo is usually positive, it becomes negative during Saharan dust events (SDE) due to the greater size of the mineral aerosols and to their different chemical composition. This change in the sign of the single scattering exponent turns out to be a simple means for detecting Saharan dust events. The occurrence of SDE detected by this new method was largely confirmed by visual inspection of filter colors and by studying long-range back-trajectories. An examination of SDE over a 22 months period shows that SDE are more frequent during the March?June period as well as during October and November. The trajectory analysis indicated a mean traveling time of 96.5 h with the most important source countries situated in the northern and north-western part of the Saharan desert. Most of the SDE do not lead to a detectable increase of the 48 h total suspended particulate matter (TSP) at the Jungfraujoch. During Saharan dust events, the average contribution of this dust to hourly TSP at the JFJ is 16 ?g/m3, which corresponds to an annual mean of 0.8 ?g/m3 or 24% of TSP

    Saharan dust events at the Jungfraujoch: detection by wavelength dependence of the single scattering albedo and first climatology analysis

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    International audienceScattering and absorption coefficients have been measured continuously at several wavelengths since March 2001 at the high altitude site Jungfraujoch (3580ma.s.l.). From these data, the wavelength dependences of the Ångström exponent and particularly of the single scattering albedo are determined. While the exponent of the single scattering albedo usually increases with wavelength, it decreases with wavelength during Saharan dust events (SDE) due to the greater size of the mineral aerosol particles and their different chemical composition. This change in the sign of the single scattering exponent turns out to be a sensitive means for detecting Saharan dust events. The occurrence of SDE detected by this new method was confirmed by visual inspection of filter colors and by studying long-range back-trajectories. An examination of SDE over a 22-month period shows that SDE are more frequent during the March-June period as well as during October and November. The trajectory analysis indicated a mean traveling time of 96.5h, with the most important source countries situated in the northern and north-western part of the Saharan desert. Most of the SDE do not lead to a detectable increase of the 48-h total suspended particulate matter (TSP) concentration at the Jungfraujoch. During Saharan dust events, the average contribution of this dust to hourly TSP at the Jungfraujoch is 16µg/m3, which corresponds to an annual mean of 0.8µg/m3 or 24% of TSP

    Investigation of the Planetary Boundary Layer in the Swiss Alps Using Remote Sensing and In Situ Measurements

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    The development of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) has been studied in a complex terrain using various remote sensing and in situ techniques. The high-altitude research station at Jungfraujoch (3,580m a.s.l.) in the Swiss Alps lies for most of the time in the free troposphere except when it is influenced by the PBL reaching the station, especially during the summer season. A ceilometer and a wind profiler were installed at Kleine Scheidegg, a mountain pass close to Jungfraujoch, located at an altitude of 2,061ma.s.l. Data from the ceilometer were analyzed using two different algorithms, while the signal-to-noise ratio of the wind profiler was studied to compare the retrieved PBL heights. The retrieved values from the ceilometer and wind profiler agreed well during daytime and cloud-free conditions. The results were additionally compared with the PBL height estimated by the numerical weather prediction model COSMO-2, which showed a clear underestimation of the PBL height for most of the cases but occasionally also a slight overestimation especially around noon, when the PBL showed its maximum extent. Air parcels were transported upwards by slope winds towards Jungfraujoch when the PBL was higher than 2,800ma.s.l. during cloud-free cases. This was confirmed by the in situ aerosol measurements at Jungfraujoch with a significant increase in particle number concentration, particle light absorption and scattering coefficients when PBL-influenced air masses reached the station in the afternoon hours. The continuous aerosol in situ measurements at Jungfraujoch were clearly influenced by the local PBL development but also by long-range transport phenomena such as Saharan dust or pollution from the south

    Driving factors of aerosol properties over the foothills of central Himalayas based on 8.5 years continuous measurements

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    This study presents analysis of in situ measurements conducted over the period 2005–2014 in the Indian Himalayas to give a thorough overview of the factors and causes that drive aerosol properties. Aerosol extensive properties (namely, particle number concentration, scattering coefficient, equivalent black carbon, PM2.5, and PM10) have 1.5–2 times higher values in the early to late afternoon than during the night, and a strong seasonality. The interannual variability is ±20% for both PM2.5 and total particle number concentration. Analysis of the data shows statistically significant decreasing trends of −2.3 μg m−3 year−1 and −2.7 μg m−3 year−1 for PM2.5 and PM10, respectively, over the study period. The mountainous terrain site (Mukteshwar, MUK) is primarily under the influence of air from the plains. This is due to convective transport processes that are enhanced by local and mesoscale topography, leading to pronounced valley/mountain winds and consequently to atmospheric boundary layer air lifting from the plains below. The transport from plains is evident in seasonal‐diurnal patterns observed at MUK. The timing of the patterns corresponds with changes in turbulence and water vapor (q). According to our analysis, using these as proxies is a viable method for examining boundary layer influence in the absence of direct atmospheric boundary layer height measurements. Comparing the measurements with climate models shows that even regional climate models have problems capturing the orographic influence accurately at MUK, highlighting the importance of long‐term direct measurements at multiple points to understand aerosol behavior in mountainous areas

    Characterization and intercomparison of aerosol absorption photometers: Result of two intercomparison workshops

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    Absorption photometers for real time application have been available since the 1980s, but the use of filter-based instruments to derive information on aerosol properties (absorption coefficient and black carbon, BC) is still a matter of debate. Several workshops have been conducted to investigate the performance of individual instruments over the intervening years. Two workshops with large sets of aerosol absorption photometers were conducted in 2005 and 2007. The data from these instruments were corrected using existing methods before further analysis. The inter-comparison shows a large variation between the responses to absorbing aerosol particles for different types of instruments. The unit to unit variability between instruments can be up to 30% for Particle Soot Absorption Photometers (PSAPs) and Aethalometers. Multi Angle Absorption Photometers (MAAPs) showed a variability of less than 5%. Reasons for the high variability were identified to be variations in sample flow and spot size. It was observed that different flow rates influence system performance with respect to response to absorption and instrumental noise. Measurements with non absorbing particles showed that the current corrections of a cross sensitivity to particle scattering are not sufficient. Remaining cross sensitivities were found to be a function of the total particle load on the filter. The large variation between the response to absorbing aerosol particles for different types of instruments indicates that current correction functions for absorption photometers are not adequate

    Characterization of atmospheric aerosols at Monte Cimone, Italy, during summer 2004: Source apportionment and transport mechanisms

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    Atmospheric aerosols in the PM10 and PM1 fractions have been sampled at the Global Atmospheric Watch station Mount Cimone, Italy (2165 m above mean sea level) for 3 months during summer 2004, and simultaneous size distributions have been derived by means of an optical particle counter. Samples have been analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, ion chromatography, and thermal-optical methodology in order to quantify their elemental, ionic, and carbonaceous constituents. The concentration of PM10 was 16.1 \ub1 9.8 mg m3 (average and standard deviation). Source apportionment allowed us to identify, quantify and characterize the following aerosol classes: anthropogenic pollution (10 mg m3), mineral dust (4 mg m3), and sea salt (0.2 mg m3). Pollution has been further split into ammonium sulfate (44%), organic matter (42%), and other compounds (14%). The nitrate/sulfate ratio in the polluted aerosol was 0.1. Fine particles have been completely related to the polluted aerosol component, and they represented 70% in weight of pollution. Coarse particles characterized the dust and salt components, and crustal oxides have been found to be the largest responsible for the aerosol concentration variations that occurred during the campaign. Nitrate has also been found in the coarse particles, representing 10% of mineral dust. The analysis of the transport mechanisms responsible for aerosol fluctuations permitted us to identify the origin of the major aerosol components: Pollution has been ascribed to regional transport driven by boundary layer meteorology, whereas mineral dust has been related to long-range transport events originating in the Sahara and Sahel. A particularly significant Saharan episode has been identified on 10 August 2004 (PM10 daily concentration, 69.9 mg m3). Average elemental ratios for the African dust events were as follows: Si/Al = 2.31, Fe/Ca = 0.94, Ca/Al = 0.90, K/Ca = 0.44, Ti/Ca = 0.11, and Ti/Fe = 0.12
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