1,202 research outputs found

    Use of First-Line Oral Analgesics during and after COVID-19: Results from a Survey on a Sample of Italian 696 COVID-19 Survivors with Post-Acute Symptoms

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    : Background-Analgesics could be used to manage painful symptoms during and after COVID-19. Materials and methods-Persistence of painful symptoms was assessed during and after COVID-19 in a sample of patients admitted to a post-acute COVID-19 outpatient service in Rome, Italy. Data on type and frequency of use of first-line analgesics were collected. Pain severity was evaluated with a numeric rating scale (NRS) from 0 to 10. Results-Mean age of 696 participants was 57.1 ¬Ī 20.3 years and 61.7% were women. During COVID-19, the most prevalent symptoms were fever, fatigue, arthralgia, myalgia and headache. Acetaminophen was used by 40% of the sample. Only 6.7% needed to continue analgesic therapy after COVID-19. Frequent causes of analgesics consumption were persistent arthralgia and myalgia. The most common analgesics used amongst those who continued taking analgesics in the post-acute phase of COVID-19 were the following: acetaminophen (31%), ibuprofen (31%) and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) (29.5%); in older subjects the most common analgesic used was acetaminophen (54%). Most of the subjects in this group said there was an improvement in pain perception after taking analgesic therapy (84%). Conclusions-Use of analgesics in the post-acute COVID-19 is common in subjects with persistent arthralgia and myalgia, and common analgesics were acetaminophen and ibuprofen. Further research on the safety and efficacy of those medications in COVID-19 is warranted

    The James Webb Space Telescope Mission

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    Twenty-six years ago a small committee report, building on earlier studies, expounded a compelling and poetic vision for the future of astronomy, calling for an infrared-optimized space telescope with an aperture of at least 4m4m. With the support of their governments in the US, Europe, and Canada, 20,000 people realized that vision as the 6.5m6.5m James Webb Space Telescope. A generation of astronomers will celebrate their accomplishments for the life of the mission, potentially as long as 20 years, and beyond. This report and the scientific discoveries that follow are extended thank-you notes to the 20,000 team members. The telescope is working perfectly, with much better image quality than expected. In this and accompanying papers, we give a brief history, describe the observatory, outline its objectives and current observing program, and discuss the inventions and people who made it possible. We cite detailed reports on the design and the measured performance on orbit.Comment: Accepted by PASP for the special issue on The James Webb Space Telescope Overview, 29 pages, 4 figure

    The James Webb Space Telescope Mission

    No full text
    Twenty-six years ago a small committee report, building on earlier studies, expounded a compelling and poetic vision for the future of astronomy, calling for an infrared-optimized space telescope with an aperture of at least 4 m. With the support of their governments in the US, Europe, and Canada, 20,000 people realized that vision as the 6.5 m James Webb Space Telescope. A generation of astronomers will celebrate their accomplishments for the life of the mission, potentially as long as 20 yr, and beyond. This report and the scientific discoveries that follow are extended thank-you notes to the 20,000 team members. The telescope is working perfectly, with much better image quality than expected. In this and accompanying papers, we give a brief history, describe the observatory, outline its objectives and current observing program, and discuss the inventions and people who made it possible. We cite detailed reports on the design and the measured performance on orbit

    Effects of a 2-year exercise training on neuromuscular system health in older individuals with low muscle function

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    Background: Ageing is accompanied by a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength, potentially determining the insurgence of sarcopenia. Evidence suggests that motoneuron and neuromuscular junction (NMJ) degeneration contribute to sarcopenia pathogenesis. Seeking for strategies able to slow down sarcopenia insurgence and progression, we investigated whether a 2-year mixed-model training involving aerobic, strength and balance exercises would be effective for improving or preserving motoneuronal health and NMJ stability, together with muscle mass, strength and functionality in an old, sarcopenic population. Methods: Forty-five sarcopenic elderly (34 females; 11 males) with low dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) lean mass and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) score <9 were randomly assigned to either a control group [Healthy Aging Lifestyle Education (HALE), n = 21] or an intervention group [MultiComponent Intervention (MCI), n = 24]. MCI trained three times per week for 2 years with a mix of aerobic, strength and balance exercises matched with nutritional advice. Before and after the intervention, ultrasound scans of the vastus lateralis (VL), SPPB and a blood sample were obtained. VL architecture [pennation angle (PA) and fascicle length (Lf)] and cross-sectional area (CSA) were measured. As biomarkers of neuronal health and NMJ stability status, neurofilament light chain (NfL) and C-terminal agrin fragment (CAF) concentrations were measured in serum. Differences in ultrasound parameters, NfL and CAF concentration and physical performance between baseline and follow-up were tested with mixed ANOVA or Wilcoxon test. The relationship between changes in physical performance and NfL or CAF concentration was assessed through correlation analyses. Results: At follow-up, MCI showed preserved VL architecture (PA, Lf) despite a reduced CSA (‚ąí8.4%, P < 0.001), accompanied by maintained CAF concentration and ameliorated overall SPPB performance (P = 0.007). Conversely, HALE showed 12.7% decrease in muscle CSA (P < 0.001), together with 5.1% and 5.5% reduction in PA and Lf (P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively), and a 6.2% increase in CAF (P = 0.009) but improved SPPB balance score (P = 0.007). NfL concentration did not change in either group. In the population, negative correlations between changes in CAF concentration and SPPB total score were found (P = 0.047), whereas no correlation between NfL and SPPB variations was observed. Conclusions: The present findings suggest that our 2-year mixed aerobic, strength and balance training seemed effective for preventing the age and sarcopenia-related increases in CAF concentration, preserving NMJ stability as well as muscle structure (PA and Lf) and improving physical performance in sarcopenic older individuals

    Amino acid profiles in older adults with frailty. Secondary analysis from MetaboFrail and BIOSPHERE studies

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    An altered amino acid metabolism has been described in frail older adults which may contribute to muscle loss and functional decline associated with frailty. In the present investigation, we compared circulating amino acid profiles of older adults with physical frailty and sarcopenia (PF&S, n = 94), frail/pre-frail older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (F-T2DM, n = 66), and robust non-diabetic controls (n = 40). Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS‚ÄďDA) models were built to define the amino acid signatures associated with the different frailty phenotypes. PLS‚ÄďDA allowed correct classification of participants with 78.2 ¬Ī 1.9% accuracy. Older adults with F-T2DM showed an amino acid profile characterized by higher levels of 3-methylhistidine, alanine, arginine, ethanolamine, and glutamic acid. PF&S and control participants were discriminated based on serum concentrations of aminoadipic acid, aspartate, citrulline, cystine, taurine, and tryptophan. These findings suggest that different types of frailty may be characterized by distinct metabolic perturbations. Amino acid profiling may therefore serve as a valuable tool for frailty biomarker discovery

    Protein Intake Is Associated with Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Levels in Italian Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    The present study was conducted to test the association between protein intake and blood pressure, glucose levels, and blood cholesterol in a large sample of Italian older adults. Longevity Check-up 7+ (Lookup 7+) is an ongoing project that started in June 2015. The project is conducted in unconventional settings (e.g., exhibitions, malls, health promotion campaigns) across Italy with the aim of fostering adoption of healthy lifestyles in the general population. For the present study, participants were eligible if they were 65+ years and provided written informed consent. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and blood glucose and cholesterol levels were assessed. Protein intake was estimated using a 12-item food frequency questionnaire. Three-thousand four-hundred and four older adults were included in the study. The results of the linear regression showed an inverse association between protein intake (as a continuous variable) and DBP, and a positive correlation with blood cholesterol levels. The findings of the present study indicate that a high intake of protein was negatively associated with DBP and positively associated with total blood cholesterol levels in a large cohort of Italian older adults, after adjustment for numerous covariates

    Clinical presentation and prognosis of COVID-19 in older adults with hypothyroidism: data from the GeroCovid observational study

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    Background: The prevalence of hypothyroidism among older patients hospitalized for COVID-19 and its association with mortality is unclear. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of hypothyroidism in older COVID-19 inpatients and verify if this comorbidity is associated with a specific pattern of onset symptoms and a worse prognosis. Methods: COVID-19 inpatients aged ‚Č• 60 years, participating in the GeroCovid acute wards cohort, were included. The history of hypothyroidism was derived from medical records and the use of thyroid hormones. Sociodemographic data, comorbidities, symptoms/signs at the disease onset and inflammatory markers at ward admission were compared between people with vs without history of hypothyroidism. The association between hypothyroidism and in-hospital mortality was tested through Cox regression. Results: Of the 1245 patients included, 8.5% had a history of hypothyroidism. These patients were more likely to present arterial hypertension and obesity compared with those without an history of hypothyroidism. Concerning COVID-19 clinical presentation, patients with hypothyroidism had less frequently low oxygen saturation and anorexia but reported muscle pain and loss of smell more commonly than those without hypothyroidism. Among the inflammatory markers, patients with hypothyroidism had higher lymphocytes values. At Cox regression, hypothyroidism was associated with reduced in-hospital mortality only in the univariable model (HR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.45‚Äď0.96, p = 0.03); conversely, no significant result were observed after adjusting for potential confounders (HR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.47‚Äď1.03, p = 0.07). Conclusions: Hypothyroidism does not seem to substantially influence the prognosis of COVID-19 in older people, although it may be associated with peculiar clinical and biochemical features at the disease onset

    Molecular Profiling of Lymphatic Endothelial Cell Activation In Vitro

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    The lymphatic vascular system plays a key role in cancer progression. Indeed, the activation of lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) through the lymphangiogenic process allows for the formation of new lymphatic vessels (LVs) that represent the major route for the dissemination of solid tumors. This process is governed by a plethora of cancer-derived and microevironmental mediators that strictly activate and control specific molecular pathways in LECs. In this work we used an in vitro model of LEC activation to trigger lymphangiogenesis using a mix of recombinant pro-lymphangiogenic factors (VFS) and a co-culture system with human melanoma cells. Both systems efficiently activated LECs, and under these experimental conditions, RNA sequencing was exploited to unveil the transcriptional profile of activated LECs. Our data demonstrate that both recombinant and tumor cell-mediated activation trigger significant molecular pathways associated with endothelial activation, morphogenesis, and cytokine-mediated signaling. In addition, this system provides information on new genes to be further investigated in the lymphangiogenesis process and open the possibility for further exploitation in other tumor contexts where lymphatic dissemination plays a relevant role
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