2,514 research outputs found

    A comparison of European surveillance programs for campylobacter in broilers

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    Campylobacter is an important foodborne pathogen as it is associated with significant disease burden across Europe. Among various sources, Campylobacter infections in humans are often related to the consumption of undercooked poultry meat or improper handling of poultry meat. Many European countries have implemented measures to reduce human exposure to Campylobacter from broiler meat. In this paper, surveillance programs implemented in some European countries is summarized. Our findings reveal that many European countries test neck skin samples for Campylobacter as per the Process Hygiene Criterion (PHC) set by the European Regulation. Variations to the legal plan are seen in some countries, as in Norway and Iceland, where weekly sampling is performed during infection peak periods only, or in Iceland, where the Campylobacter limit is set at 500 CFU/g instead of 1000 CFU/g. Furthermore, northern European countries have implemented national Campylobacter surveillance plans. Denmark tests cloaca and leg skin samples at the slaughterhouses and meat samples at the retail, while Finland, Norway, and Sweden test caeca at slaughterhouses. In contrast, Iceland tests feces on farms. Iceland and Norway test flocks close to the slaughter date and when a farm tests positive, competent authority implement measures such as logistic slaughter, heat treatment or freeze the meat from these flocks. In Iceland, frozen meat is further processed prior to being put on the market. While the incidence of campylobacteriosis has declined in all European countries except France since the introduction of PHC in 2018, it is uncertain whether this decrease is due to prevalence reduction or underreporting during the COVID-19 pandemic. Future investigations with more comprehensive data, devoid of potential confounding factors, are necessary to validate this potential trend. However, it is evident that the implementation of national action plans can be successful in reducing the incidence of human campylobacteriosis, as demonstrated by Iceland

    Supplementary Material for: Joint linkage and association analysis using GENEHUNTER-MODSCORE with an application to familial pancreatic cancer

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    Introduction: Joint linkage and association (JLA) analysis combines two disease gene mapping strategies: linkage information contained in families and association information contained in populations. Such a JLA analysis can increase mapping power, especially when the evidence for both linkage and association is low to moderate. Similarly, an association analysis based on haplotypes instead of single markers can increase mapping power when the association pattern is complex. Methods: In this paper, we present an extension to the GENEHUNTER-MODSCORE software package that enables a JLA analysis based on haplotypes and uses information from arbitrary pedigree types and unrelated individuals. Our new JLA method is an extension of the MOD score approach for linkage analysis, which allows the estimation of trait-model and linkage disequilibrium (LD) parameters, i.e., penetrance, disease-allele frequency, and haplotype frequencies. LD is modelled between alleles at a single diallelic disease locus and up to three diallelic test markers. Linkage information is contributed by additional multi-allelic flanking markers. We investigated the statistical properties of our JLA implementation using extensive simulations, and we compared our approach to another commonly used single-marker JLA test. To demonstrate the applicability of our new method in practice, we analyzed pedigree data from the German National Case Collection for Familial Pancreatic Cancer (FaPaCa). Results: Based on the simulated data, we demonstrated the validity of our JLA MOD score analysis implementation and identified scenarios in which haplotype-based tests outperformed the single-marker test. The estimated trait-model and LD parameters were in good accordance with the simulated values. Our method outperformed another commonly used JLA single-marker test when the LD pattern was complex. The exploratory analysis of the FaPaCa families led to the identification of a promising genetic region on chromosome 22q13.33, which can serve as a starting point for future mutation analysis and molecular research in pancreatic cancer. Conclusion: Our newly proposed JLA MOD score method proves to be a valuable gene mapping and characterization tool, especially when either linkage or association information alone provide insufficient power to identify the disease-causing genetic variants

    Shared and separate patterns in brain morphometry across transdiagnostic dimensions

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    Determining similarities and differences in brain structure across psychiatric disorders is important to determine if psychiatric taxonomy is reflected in distinct brain structural changes. As previous neuroimaging meta-analyses have typically focused on a single disorder, precluding transdiagnostic comparisons, we aimed to quantify patterns of similarity and differences between psychiatric disorders in terms of regional brain volumes. Here we show, in network and pairwise meta-analyses of 498 studies (51,227 individuals, 17 psychiatric disorders and 17 brain regions), that psychiatric disorders show both distinct and overlapping patterns of brain volume gain and loss. A principal components analysis demonstrated that the first principal component could account for 48% of variance and corresponded to a pattern of increased basal ganglia and decreased hippocampal and amygdala volumes. This component loaded most strongly for disorders on the psychosis spectrum, and most weakly for affective disorders. Our findings illustrated that, while similar volumetric alterations are frequently shared between disorders, neuroanatomical patterns also appear related to clinically meaningful categories. (PROSPERO Registration: CRD42020221143.

    Fluid shear stress induces a shift from glycolytic to amino acid pathway in human trophoblasts

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    BACKGROUND: The human placenta, a tissue with a lifespan limited to the period of pregnancy, is exposed to varying shear rates by maternal blood perfusion depending on the stage of development. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of fluidic shear stress on the human trophoblast transcriptome and metabolism. RESULTS: Based on a trophoblast cell line cultured in a fluidic flow system, changes caused by shear stress were analyzed and compared to static conditions. RNA sequencing and bioinformatics analysis revealed an altered transcriptome and enriched gene ontology terms associated with amino acid and mitochondrial metabolism. A decreased GLUT1 expression and reduced glucose uptake, together with downregulated expression of key glycolytic rate-limiting enzymes, hexokinase 2 and phosphofructokinase 1 was observed. Altered mitochondrial ATP levels and mass spectrometry data, suggested a shift in energy production from glycolysis towards mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. This shift in energy production could be supported by increased expression of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase variants in response to shear stress as well as under low glucose availability or after silencing of GLUT1. The shift towards amino acid metabolic pathways could be supported by significantly altered amino acid levels, like glutamic acid, cysteine and serine. Downregulation of GLUT1 and glycolytic rate-limiting enzymes, with concomitant upregulation of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2 was confirmed in first trimester placental explants cultured under fluidic flow. In contrast, high fluid shear stress decreased glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2 expression in term placental explants when compared to low flow rates. Placental tissue from pregnancies with intrauterine growth restriction are exposed to high shear rates and showed also decreased glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2, while GLUT1 was unchanged and glycolytic rate-limiting enzymes showed a trend to be upregulated. The results were generated by using qPCR, immunoblots, quantification of immunofluorescent pictures, padlock probe hybridization, mass spectrometry and FRET-based measurement. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that onset of uteroplacental blood flow is accompanied by a shift from a predominant glycolytic- to an alternative amino acid converting metabolism in the villous trophoblast. Rheological changes with excessive fluidic shear stress at the placental surface, may disrupt this alternative amino acid pathway in the syncytiotrophoblast and could contribute to intrauterine growth restriction

    Post-LS3 Experimental Options in ECN3

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    International audienceThe Experimental Cavern North 3 (ECN3) is an underground experimental cavern on the CERN Prévessin site. ECN3 currently hosts the NA62 experiment, with a physics programme devoted to rare kaon decays and searches of hidden particles approved until Long Shutdown 3 (LS3). Several options are proposed on the longer term in order to make best use of the worldwide unique potential of the high-intensity/high-energy proton beam extracted from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) in ECN3. The current status of their study by the CERN Physics Beyond Colliders (PBC) Study Group is presented, including considerations on beam requirements and upgrades, detector R&D and construction, schedules and cost, as well as physics potential within the CERN and worldwide landscape

    Design of beam optics for RF-separated kaon and antiproton beams in the M2 beam line of the CERN North Area:Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment

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    The present contribution reviews the principle of RF separation and explains its dependence on different parameters of beam optics and hardware. The first examination of potential showstoppers for the RF-separated beam implementation for Phase-2 of the AMBER experiment in the M2 beam line of the North Area is presented. Different beam optics settings have been examined, providing either focused or parallel beams inside the RF cavities. The separation and transmission capability of the different optics settings for realistic characteristics of RF cavities are discussed and the preliminary results of the potential purity and intensity of the RF-separated beam are presented. These show that a trade-off between the overall beam intensity and the share of the required particle type in the overall beam needs to be established. No showstoppers have been identified for achieving the beam parameters required for AMBER's kaonic Primakoff reactions, kaon spectroscopy, prompt-photon production and kaon charge-radius programs. However, the high beam intensity requirements of the AMBER Drell–Yan programme cannot be satisfied with an RF-separated beam. © 2022 The Author(s

    Post-LS3 Experimental Options in ECN3

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    International audienceThe Experimental Cavern North 3 (ECN3) is an underground experimental cavern on the CERN Prévessin site. ECN3 currently hosts the NA62 experiment, with a physics programme devoted to rare kaon decays and searches of hidden particles approved until Long Shutdown 3 (LS3). Several options are proposed on the longer term in order to make best use of the worldwide unique potential of the high-intensity/high-energy proton beam extracted from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) in ECN3. The current status of their study by the CERN Physics Beyond Colliders (PBC) Study Group is presented, including considerations on beam requirements and upgrades, detector R&D and construction, schedules and cost, as well as physics potential within the CERN and worldwide landscape
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