2,138 research outputs found

    Rationale of the association between Mediterranean diet and the risk of frailty in older adults and systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Frailty is a geriatric syndrome whose frequency is increasing in parallel with population aging and is of great interest due to its dire consequences: increased disability, hospitalizations, falls and fractures, institutionalization, and mortality. Frailty is multifactorial but nutritional factors, which are modifiable, play a crucial role in its pathogenesis. Epidemiologic evidence supports that high-quality dietary patterns can prevent, delay or even reverse the occurrence of frailty. In order to add new knowledge bridging the gap as the main purpose of the present article we performed a comprehensive review of the rationale behind the association of MedDiet with frailty and a systematic review and meta-analysis updating the latest ones published in 2018 specifically examining the relationship of Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and incident frailty. Adding the updated information, our results confirmed a robust association of a higher adherence to MedDiet with reduced incident frailty. Key components of the MedDiet, i.e., abundant consumption of vegetables and fruit as well as the use of olive oil as the main source of fat, all of which have been associated with a lower incidence of frailty, may help explain the observed benefit. Future well-designed and sufficiently large intervention studies are needed to confirm the encouraging findings of the current observational evidence. Meanwhile, based on the existing evidence, the promotion of MedDiet, a high-quality dietary pattern, adapted to the conditions and traditions of each region, and considering lifelong and person-tailored strategies, is an open opportunity to reduced incident frailty. This could also help counteract the worrying trend towards the spread of unhealthy eating and lifestyle models such as those of Western diets that greatly contribute to the genesis of chronic non-communicable diseases and disability

    Neurological recovery after early versus delayed surgical decompression for acute traumatic spinal cord injury.

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    The aim of this study was to determine whether early surgical treatment results in better neurological recovery 12 months after injury than late surgical treatment in patients with acute traumatic spinal cord injury (tSCI). Patients with tSCI requiring surgical spinal decompression presenting to 17 centres in Europe were recruited. Depending on the timing of decompression, patients were divided into early (≀ 12 hours after injury) and late (> 12 hours and < 14 days after injury) groups. The American Spinal Injury Association neurological (ASIA) examination was performed at baseline (after injury but before decompression) and at 12 months. The primary endpoint was the change in Lower Extremity Motor Score (LEMS) from baseline to 12 months. The final analyses comprised 159 patients in the early and 135 in the late group. Patients in the early group had significantly more severe neurological impairment before surgical treatment. For unadjusted complete-case analysis, mean change in LEMS was 15.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) 12.1 to 19.0) in the early and 11.3 (95% CI 8.3 to 14.3) in the late group, with a mean between-group difference of 4.3 (95% CI -0.3 to 8.8). Using multiply imputed data adjusting for baseline LEMS, baseline ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS), and propensity score, the mean between-group difference in the change in LEMS decreased to 2.2 (95% CI -1.5 to 5.9). Compared to late surgical decompression, early surgical decompression following acute tSCI did not result in statistically significant or clinically meaningful neurological improvements 12 months after injury. These results, however, do not impact the well-established need for acute, non-surgical tSCI management. This is the first study to highlight that a combination of baseline imbalances, ceiling effects, and loss to follow-up rates may yield an overestimate of the effect of early surgical decompression in unadjusted analyses, which underpins the importance of adjusted statistical analyses in acute tSCI research

    High resolution

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    Neutron capture cross section measurements of isotopes close to s-process branching-points are of fundamental importance for the understanding of this nucleosynthesis mechanism through which about 50% of the elements heavier than iron are produced. We present in this contribution the results corresponding to the high resolution measurement, for first time ever, of the 80Se(n, Îł) cross section, in which 98 resonances never measured before have been reported. As a consequence, ten times more precise values for the MACS have been obtained compared to previous accepted value adopted in the astrophysical KADoNiS data base

    Surgical management of Glioma Grade 4: technical update from the neuro-oncology section of the Italian Society of Neurosurgery (SINch (R)): a systematic review

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    PurposeThe extent of resection (EOR) is an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) in adult patients with Glioma Grade 4 (GG4). The aim of the neuro-oncology section of the Italian Society of Neurosurgery (SINch (R)) was to provide a general overview of the current trends and technical tools to reach this goal.MethodsA systematic review was performed. The results were divided and ordered, by an expert team of surgeons, to assess the Class of Evidence (CE) and Strength of Recommendation (SR) of perioperative drugs management, imaging, surgery, intraoperative imaging, estimation of EOR, surgery at tumor progression and surgery in elderly patients.ResultsA total of 352 studies were identified, including 299 retrospective studies and 53 reviews/meta-analysis. The use of Dexamethasone and the avoidance of prophylaxis with anti-seizure medications reached a CE I and SR A. A preoperative imaging standard protocol was defined with CE II and SR B and usefulness of an early postoperative MRI, with CE II and SR B. The EOR was defined the strongest independent risk factor for both OS and tumor recurrence with CE II and SR B. For intraoperative imaging only the use of 5-ALA reached a CE II and SR B. The estimation of EOR was established to be fundamental in planning postoperative adjuvant treatments with CE II and SR B and the stereotactic image-guided brain biopsy to be the procedure of choice when an extensive surgical resection is not feasible (CE II and SR B).ConclusionsA growing number of evidences evidence support the role of maximal safe resection as primary OS predictor in GG4 patients. The ongoing development of intraoperative techniques for a precise real-time identification of peritumoral functional pathways enables surgeons to maximize EOR minimizing the post-operative morbidity

    Antihypertensive treatment changes and related clinical outcomes in older hospitalized patients

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    Background: Hypertension management in older patients represents a challenge, particularly when hospitalized.Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate the determinants and related outcomes of antihypertensive drug prescription in a cohort of older hospitalized patients.Methods: A total of 5671 patients from REPOSI (a prospective multicentre observational register of older Italian in-patients from internal medicine or geriatric wards) were considered; 4377 (77.2%) were hypertensive. Minimum treatment (MT) for hypertension was defined according to the 2018 ESC guidelines [an angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitor (ACE-I) or an angiotensin-receptorblocker (ARB) with a calcium- channel-blocker (CCB) and/or a thiazide diuretic; if > 80 years old, an ACE I or ARB or CCB or thiazide diuretic]. Determinants of MT discontinuation at discharge were assessed. Study outcomes were any cause rehospitalization/all cause death, all cause death, cardiovascular (CV) hospitalization/death, CV death, non CV death, evaluated according to the presence of MT at discharge.Results: Hypertensive patients were older than normotensives, with a more impaired functional status, higher burden of comorbidity and polypharmacy. A total of 2233 patients were on MT at admission, 1766 were on MT at discharge. Discontinuation of MT was associated with the presence of comorbidities (lower odds for diabetes, higher odds for chronic kidney disease and dementia). An adjusted multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that MT for hypertension at discharge was associated with lower risk of all cause death, all cause death/hospitalization, CV death, CV death/hospitalization and non-CV death. Conclusions: Guidelines-suggested MT for hypertension at discharge is associated with a lower risk of adverse clinical outcomes. Nevertheless, changes in anti hypertensive treatment still occur in a significant proportion of older hospitalized patients

    Hyperuricemia increases the risk of cardiovascular mortality associated with very high HdL-cholesterol level

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    Background and aims: Whether the association between very high HDL-cholesterol levels and cardiovascular mortality (CVM) is modulated by some facilitating factors is unclear. Aim of the study was to investigate whether the risk of CVM associated with very high HDL-cholesterol is increased in subjects with hyperuricemia. Methods and results: Multivariable Cox analyses were made in 18,072 participants from the multicentre URRAH study stratified by sex and HDL-cholesterol category. During a median follow-up of 11.4 years there were 1307 cases of CVM. In multivariable Cox models a J-shaped association was found in the whole population, with the highest risk being present in the high HDL-cholesterol group [&gt;80 mg/dL, adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 1.28; 95%CI, 1.02–1.61; p = 0.031)]. However, a sex-specific analysis revealed that this association was present only in women (HR, 1.34; 95%CI, 1.02–1.77; p = 0.034) but not in men. The risk of CVM related to high HDL-cholesterol was much greater in the women with high uric acid (&gt;0.30 mmol/L, HR 1.61; 95%CI, 1.08–2.39) than in those with low uric acid (HR, 1.17; 95%CI, 0.80–1.72, p for interaction = 0.016). In women older than 70 years with hyperuricemia the risk related to high HDL-cholesterol was 1.83 (95%CI, 1.19–2.80, p &lt; 0.005). Inclusion of BMI in the models weakened the strength of the associations. Conclusion: Our data indicate that very high HDL-cholesterol levels in women are associated with CVM in a J-shaped fashion. The risk of CVM is increased by concomitant hyperuricemia suggesting that a proinflammatory/oxidative state can enhance the detrimental cardiovascular effects associated with high HDL-cholesterol

    A multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of combustion-free nicotine alternatives on cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic parameters in individuals with type 2 diabetes who smoke: the DiaSmokeFree study protocol

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    Stopping smoking is crucial for public health and especially for individuals with diabetes. Combustion-free nicotine alternatives like e-cigarettes and heated tobacco products are increasingly being used as substitutes for conventional cigarettes, contributing to the decline in smoking prevalence. However, there is limited information about the long-term health impact of those products in patients with diabetes. This randomized controlled trial aims to investigate whether switching from conventional cigarettes to combustion-free nicotine alternatives will lead to a measurable improvement in cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic parameters over a period of 2 years in smokers with type 2 diabetes. The multicenter study will be conducted in seven sites across four countries. A total of 576 smokers with type 2 diabetes will be randomly assigned (1:2 ratio) to either standard of care with brief cessation advice (Control Arm) or combustion-free nicotine alternatives use (Intervention Arm). The primary end point is the change in the proportion of patients with metabolic syndrome between baseline and the 2-year follow-up. Additionally, the study will analyze the absolute change in the sum of the individual factors of metabolic syndrome at each study time point. Patient recruitment has started in September 2021 and enrollment is expected to be completed by December 2023. Results will be reported in 2026. This study may provide valuable insights into cardiovascular and metabolic health benefits or risks associated with using combustion-free nicotine alternatives for individuals with type 2 diabetes who are seeking alternatives to tobacco cigarette smoking. The study protocol, informed consent forms, and relevant documents were approved by seven ethical review boards. Study results will be disseminated through articles published in high-quality, peer-reviewed journals and presentations at conferences

    Measurement of the 77Se(n,Îł)^{77}Se ( n , Îł ) cross section up to 200 keV at the n_TOF facility at CERN

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    The 77Se(n,γ)^{77}Se ( n , γ ) reaction is of importance for 77Se^{77}Se abundance during the slow neutron capture process in massive stars. We have performed a new measurement of the 77Se^{77}Se radiative neutron capture cross section at the Neutron Time-of-Flight facility at CERN. Resonance capture kernels were derived up to 51 keV and cross sections up to 200 keV. Maxwellian-averaged cross sections were calculated for stellar temperatures between kT=5 keVkT=5 \space keV and kT=100 keVkT=100\space keV, with uncertainties between 4.2% and 5.7%. Our results lead to substantial decreases of 14% and 19% in 77Se^{77}Se abundances produced through the slow neutron capture process in selected stellar models of 15M⊙15M⊙ and 2M⊙2M⊙, respectively, compared to using previous recommendation of the cross section

    Measurement of the

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    The neutron capture cross section of 241Am is an important quantity for nuclear energy production and fuel cycle scenarios. Several measurements have been performed in recent years with the aim to reduce existing uncertainties in evaluated data. Two previous measurements, performed at the 185 m flight-path station EAR1 of the neutron time-of-flight facility n_TOF at CERN, have permitted to substantially extend the resolved resonance region, but suffered in the near-thermal energy range from the unfavorable signal-to-background ratio resulting from the combination of the high radioactivity of 241Am and the rather low thermal neutron flux. The here presented 241Am(n,Îł) measurement, performed with C6D6 liquid scintillator gamma detectors at the 20 m flight-path station EAR2 of the n_TOF facility, took advantage of the much higher neutron flux. The current status of the analysis of the data, focussed on the low-energy region, will be described here
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