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    Teste de espécies/procedências de pinus no planalto do Tapajós, Pará.

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    Discrete energy landscapes and replica symmetry breaking at zero temperature

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    The order parameter P(q) for disordered systems with degenerate ground-states is reconsidered. We propose that entropy fluctuations lead to a trivial P(q) at zero temperature as in the non-degenerate case, even if there are zero-energy large-scale excitations (complex energy landscape). Such a situation should arise in the 3-dimensional +-J Ising spin glass and in MAX-SAT. Also, we argue that if the energy landscape is complex with a finite number of ground-state families, then replica symmetry breaking reappears at positive temperature.Comment: 7 pages; clarifications on valley definition

    Constraints on Cosmological Parameters from Future Galaxy Cluster Surveys

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    We study the expected redshift evolution of galaxy cluster abundance between 0 < z < 3 in different cosmologies, including the effects of the cosmic equation of state parameter w=p/rho. Using the halo mass function obtained in recent large scale numerical simulations, we model the expected cluster yields in a 12 deg^2 Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect (SZE) survey and a deep 10^4 deg^2 X-ray survey over a wide range of cosmological parameters. We quantify the statistical differences among cosmologies using both the total number and redshift distribution of clusters. Provided that the local cluster abundance is known to a few percent accuracy, we find only mild degeneracies between w and either Omega_m or h. As a result, both surveys will provide improved constraints on Omega_m and w. The Omega_m-w degeneracy from both surveys is complementary to those found either in studies of CMB anisotropies or of high-redshift Supernovae (SNe). As a result, combining these surveys together with either CMB or SNe studies can reduce the statistical uncertainty on both w and Omega_m to levels below what could be obtained by combining only the latter two data sets. Our results indicate a formal statistical uncertainty of about 3% (68% confidence) on both Omega_m and w when the SZE survey is combined with either the CMB or SN data; the large number of clusters in the X-ray survey further suppresses the degeneracy between w and both Omega_m and h. Systematics and internal evolution of cluster structure at the present pose uncertainties above these levels. We briefly discuss and quantify the relevant systematic errors. By focusing on clusters with measured temperatures in the X-ray survey, we reduce our sensitivity to systematics such as non-standard evolution of internal cluster structure.Comment: ApJ, revised version. Expanded discussion of systematics; Press-Schechter mass function replaced by fit from simulation
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