172 research outputs found

    Evaluating the association between genetically proxied ACE inhibition and dementias

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    Introduction: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) has been implicated in the metabolism of amyloid beta; however, the causal effect of ACE inhibition on risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia and other common dementias is largely unknown. Methods: We examined the causal association of genetically proxied ACE inhibition with four types of dementias using a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) approach. Results: Genetically proxied ACE inhibition was associated with increased risk of AD dementia (odds ratio per one standard deviation reduction in serum ACE [95% confidence interval]; 1.07 [1.04‚Äď1.10], P¬†=¬†5¬†√ó¬†10‚ąí07) and frontotemporal dementia (1.16 [1.04‚Äď1.29], P¬†=¬†0.01) but not with Lewy body dementia or vascular dementia (P >¬†0.05). These findings were independently replicated and remained consistent in sensitivity analyses. Discussion: This comprehensive MR study provided genetic evidence for an association between ACE inhibition and the risk for AD and frontotemporal dementias. These results should encourage further studies of the neurocognitive effects of ACE inhibition. Highlights: This study evaluated genetically proxied angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition association with dementias. The results suggest an association between ACE inhibition and Alzheimer's disease. The results suggest an association between ACE inhibition and frontotemporal dementia. Those associations can be interpreted as potentially causal

    New insights into the genetic etiology of Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias

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    Characterization of the genetic landscape of Alzheimer‚Äôs disease (AD) and related dementias (ADD) provides a unique opportunity for a better understanding of the associated pathophysiological processes. We performed a two-stage genome-wide association study totaling 111,326 clinically diagnosed/‚Äėproxy‚Äô AD cases and 677,663 controls. We found 75 risk loci, of which 42 were new at the time of analysis. Pathway enrichment analyses confirmed the involvement of amyloid/tau pathways and highlighted microglia implication. Gene prioritization in the new loci identified 31 genes that were suggestive of new genetically associated processes, including the tumor necrosis factor alpha pathway through the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex. We also built a new genetic risk score associated with the risk of future AD/dementia or progression from mild cognitive impairment to AD/dementia. The improvement in prediction led to a 1.6- to 1.9-fold increase in AD risk from the lowest to the highest decile, in addition to effects of age and the APOE őĶ4 allele

    Alzheimer's polygenic hazard score in SuperAgers: SuperGenes or SuperResilience?

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    Abstract Introduction SuperAgers are individuals over age 80 with superior episodic memory, at a level consistent with individuals 20 to 30 years their junior and who seem to show resistance to age‚Äźrelated neurofibrillary degeneration. Here we examine whether low genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) contributes to SuperAgers‚Äô unusually high episodic memory performance in advanced age. Methods The AD polygenic hazard score (PHS) was calculated for each SuperAger and cognitively normal participant and compared between groups. Results A total of 37 SuperAgers (73% female, mean [standard deviation] 82.7 [2.8] years old) and 35 controls (54% female, 83.7 [4.3] years old) were included. There was no significant difference in the AD PHS between SuperAgers and cognitively normal controls. Discussion Unusually successful cognitive aging cannot be simply explained by low polygenic risk for AD as assessed by common genetic variants. However, rare variants and common protective genetic factors may contribute to resistance or resilience. Highlights SuperAging cannot be simply explained by low polygenic risk for Alzheimer's disease. Rare variants and common protective genetic factors may contribute to SuperAging. A protective factors polygenic score may uncover mechanisms for SuperAging

    New insights into the genetic etiology of Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias

    No full text
    Characterization of the genetic landscape of Alzheimer‚Äôs disease (AD) and related dementias (ADD) provides a unique opportunity for a better understanding of the associated pathophysiological processes. We performed a two-stage genome-wide association study totaling 111,326 clinically diagnosed/‚Äėproxy‚Äô AD cases and 677,663 controls. We found 75 risk loci, of which 42 were new at the time of analysis. Pathway enrichment analyses confirmed the involvement of amyloid/tau pathways and highlighted microglia implication. Gene prioritization in the new loci identified 31 genes that were suggestive of new genetically associated processes, including the tumor necrosis factor alpha pathway through the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex. We also built a new genetic risk score associated with the risk of future AD/dementia or progression from mild cognitive impairment to AD/dementia. The improvement in prediction led to a 1.6- to 1.9-fold increase in AD risk from the lowest to the highest decile, in addition to effects of age and the APOE őĶ4 allele

    Alzheimer's polygenic hazard score in SuperAgers: SuperGenes or SuperResilience?

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    IntroductionSuperAgers are individuals over age 80 with superior episodic memory, at a level consistent with individuals 20 to 30 years their junior and who seem to show resistance to age-related neurofibrillary degeneration. Here we examine whether low genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) contributes to SuperAgers' unusually high episodic memory performance in advanced age.MethodsThe AD polygenic hazard score (PHS) was calculated for each SuperAger and cognitively normal participant and compared between groups.ResultsA total of 37 SuperAgers (73% female, mean [standard deviation] 82.7 [2.8] years old) and 35 controls (54% female, 83.7 [4.3] years old) were included. There was no significant difference in the AD PHS between SuperAgers and cognitively normal controls.DiscussionUnusually successful cognitive aging cannot be simply explained by low polygenic risk for AD as assessed by common genetic variants. However, rare variants and common protective genetic factors may contribute to resistance or resilience.HighlightsSuperAging cannot be simply explained by low polygenic risk for Alzheimer's disease.Rare variants and common protective genetic factors may contribute to SuperAging.A protective factors polygenic score may uncover mechanisms for SuperAging

    Genome-wide association study and functional validation implicates JADE1 in tauopathy

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    AbstractPrimary age-related tauopathy (PART) is a neurodegenerative tauopathy with features distinct from but also overlapping with Alzheimer disease (AD). While both exhibit Alzheimer-type temporal lobe neurofibrillary degeneration alongside amnestic cognitive impairment, PART develops independently of amyloid-ő≤ (Aő≤) deposition in plaques. The pathogenesis of PART is unknown, but evidence suggests it is associated with genes that promote tau pathology as well as others that protect from Aő≤ toxicity. Here, we performed a genetic association study in an autopsy cohort of individuals with PART (n=647) using Braak neurofibrillary tangle stage as a quantitative trait adjusting for sex, age, genotyping platform, and principal components. We found significant associations with some candidate loci associated with AD and progressive supranuclear palsy, a primary tauopathy (SLC24A4, MS4A6A, HS3ST1, MAPT and EIF2AK3). Genome-wide association analysis revealed a novel significant association with a single nucleotide polymorphism on chromosome 4 (rs56405341) in a locus containing three genes, including JADE1 which was significantly upregulated in tangle-bearing neurons by single-soma RNA-seq. Immunohistochemical studies using antisera targeting JADE1 protein revealed localization within tau aggregates in autopsy brain from tauopathies containing isoforms with four microtubule-binding domain repeats (4R) and mixed 3R/4R, but not with 3R exclusively. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed a direct and specific binding of JADE1 protein to tau containing four (4R) and no N-terminal inserts (0N4R) in post-mortem human PART brain tissue. Finally, knockdown of the Drosophila JADE1 homolog rhinoceros (rno) enhanced tau-induced toxicity and apoptosis in vivo in a humanized 0N4R mutant tau knock-in model as quantified by rough eye phenotype and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) in the fly brain. Together, these findings indicate that PART has a genetic architecture that partially overlaps with AD and other tauopathies and suggests a novel role for JADE1 as a mediator of neurofibrillary degeneration

    Early Selective Vulnerability of the CA2 Hippocampal Subfield in Primary Age-Related Tauopathy.

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    Primary age-related tauopathy (PART) is a neurodegenerative entity defined as Alzheimer-type neurofibrillary degeneration primarily affecting the medial temporal lobe with minimal to absent amyloid-ő≤ (Aő≤) plaque deposition. The extent to which PART can be differentiated pathoanatomically from Alzheimer disease (AD) is unclear. Here, we examined the regional distribution of tau pathology in a large cohort of postmortem brains (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ914). We found an early vulnerability of the CA2 subregion of the hippocampus to neurofibrillary degeneration in PART, and semiquantitative assessment of neurofibrillary degeneration in CA2 was significantly greater than in CA1 in PART. In contrast, subjects harboring intermediate-to-high AD neuropathologic change (ADNC) displayed relative sparing of CA2 until later stages of their disease course. In addition, the CA2/CA1 ratio of neurofibrillary degeneration in PART was significantly higher than in subjects with intermediate-to-high ADNC burden. Furthermore, the distribution of tau pathology in PART diverges from the Braak NFT staging system and Braak stage does not correlate with cognitive function in PART as it does in individuals with intermediate-to-high ADNC. These findings highlight the need for a better understanding of the contribution of PART to cognitive impairment and how neurofibrillary degeneration interacts with Aő≤ pathology in AD and PART

    Age at symptom onset and death and disease duration in genetic frontotemporal dementia: an international retrospective cohort study

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    BACKGROUND: Frontotemporal dementia is a heterogenous neurodegenerative disorder, with about a third of cases being genetic. Most of this genetic component is accounted for by mutations in GRN, MAPT, and C9orf72. In this study, we aimed to complement previous phenotypic studies by doing an international study of age at symptom onset, age at death, and disease duration in individuals with mutations in GRN, MAPT, and C9orf72. METHODS: In this international, retrospective cohort study, we collected data on age at symptom onset, age at death, and disease duration for patients with pathogenic mutations in the GRN and MAPT genes and pathological expansions in the C9orf72 gene through the Frontotemporal Dementia Prevention Initiative and from published papers. We used mixed effects models to explore differences in age at onset, age at death, and disease duration between genetic groups and individual mutations. We also assessed correlations between the age at onset and at death of each individual and the age at onset and at death of their parents and the mean age at onset and at death of their family members. Lastly, we used mixed effects models to investigate the extent to which variability in age at onset and at death could be accounted for by family membership and the specific mutation carried. FINDINGS: Data were available from 3403 individuals from 1492 families: 1433 with C9orf72 expansions (755 families), 1179 with GRN mutations (483 families, 130 different mutations), and 791 with MAPT mutations (254 families, 67 different mutations). Mean age at symptom onset and at death was 49·5 years (SD 10·0; onset) and 58·5 years (11·3; death) in the MAPT group, 58·2 years (9·8; onset) and 65·3 years (10·9; death) in the C9orf72 group, and 61·3 years (8·8; onset) and 68·8 years (9·7; death) in the GRN group. Mean disease duration was 6·4 years (SD 4·9) in the C9orf72 group, 7·1 years (3·9) in the GRN group, and 9·3 years (6·4) in the MAPT group. Individual age at onset and at death was significantly correlated with both parental age at onset and at death and with mean family age at onset and at death in all three groups, with a stronger correlation observed in the MAPT group (r=0·45 between individual and parental age at onset, r=0·63 between individual and mean family age at onset, r=0·58 between individual and parental age at death, and r=0·69 between individual and mean family age at death) than in either the C9orf72 group (r=0·32 individual and parental age at onset, r=0·36 individual and mean family age at onset, r=0·38 individual and parental age at death, and r=0·40 individual and mean family age at death) or the GRN group (r=0·22 individual and parental age at onset, r=0·18 individual and mean family age at onset, r=0·22 individual and parental age at death, and r=0·32 individual and mean family age at death). Modelling showed that the variability in age at onset and at death in the MAPT group was explained partly by the specific mutation (48%, 95% CI 35-62, for age at onset; 61%, 47-73, for age at death), and even more by family membership (66%, 56-75, for age at onset; 74%, 65-82, for age at death). In the GRN group, only 2% (0-10) of the variability of age at onset and 9% (3-21) of that of age of death was explained by the specific mutation, whereas 14% (9-22) of the variability of age at onset and 20% (12-30) of that of age at death was explained by family membership. In the C9orf72 group, family membership explained 17% (11-26) of the variability of age at onset and 19% (12-29) of that of age at death. INTERPRETATION: Our study showed that age at symptom onset and at death of people with genetic frontotemporal dementia is influenced by genetic group and, particularly for MAPT mutations, by the specific mutation carried and by family membership. Although estimation of age at onset will be an important factor in future pre-symptomatic therapeutic trials for all three genetic groups, our study suggests that data from other members of the family will be particularly helpful only for individuals with MAPT mutations. Further work in identifying both genetic and environmental factors that modify phenotype in all groups will be important to improve such estimates. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council, National Institute for Health Research, and Alzheimer's Society.status: publishe
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