1,427 research outputs found

    Inflammatory and Angiogenic Protein Detection in the Human Vitreous: Cytometric Bead Assay

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    Introduction. To evaluate clinical feasibility and reproducibility of cytometric bead assay (CBA) in nondiluted vitreous samples of patients with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), diabetic macular edema (DME), and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Methods. Twelve patients from a single clinics day qualified for intravitreal injections (ARMD n = 6, DME n = 3, CRVO n = 3) and underwent a combination treatment including a single-site 23 gauge core vitrectomy which yielded a volume of 0.6 mL undiluted vitreous per patient. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular endothelial growth factor isoform A (VEGF-A), and monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were assessed directly from 0.3 mL at the same day (fresh samples). To assess the reproducibility 0.3 ml were frozen for 60 days at −80°, on which the CBA was repeated (frozen samples). Results. In the fresh samples IL-6 was highest in CRVO (median IL-6 55.8 pg/mL) > DME (50.6) > ARMD (3.1). Highest VEGF was measured in CRVO (447.4) > DME (3.9) > ARMD (2.0). MCP-1 was highest in CRVO (595.7) > AMD (530.8) > DME (178). The CBA reproducibility after frozen storage was examined to be most accurate for MCP1 (P = 0.91) > VEGF (P = 0.68) > IL-6 (P = 0.49). Conclusions. CBA is an innovative, fast determining, and reliable technology to analyze proteins in fluids, like the undiluted vitreous, which is important to better understand ocular pathophysiology and pharmacology. There is no influence of intermittent storage at −80° for the reproducibility of the CBA

    Chronic cocaine exposure in Drosophila: Life, cell death and oogenesis

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    AbstractDevelopmental signaling cascades that can be perturbed by cocaine and other drugs of abuse have been difficult to study in humans and vertebrate models. Although numerous direct neural targets of cocaine have been elucidated at the molecular level, little is known about the specific cellular events that are impacted indirectly as a result of the drug's perturbation of neural circuits. We have developed oogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster as a model in which to identify downstream biochemical and/or cellular processes that are disrupted by chronic cocaine exposure. In this model, cocaine feeding resulted not only in expected reductions in viability, but also in unanticipated developmental defects during oogenesis, including aberrant follicle morphogenesis and vitellogenic follicle degeneration. To identify mechanisms through which cocaine exerted its deleterious effects on oogenesis, we examined candidate components of neural and hormonal signaling pathways. Cocaine-induced disruptions in follicle formation were enhanced by juvenile hormone exposure and phenocopied by serotonin feeding, while cocaine-activated follicle apoptosis was enhanced by concomitant dopamine feeding. HPLC analysis of dopamine and serotonin in the ovary suggests that these neurotransmitters could variably mediate cocaine's effects on oogenesis indirectly in the brain and/or directly in the ovary itself. We confirmed the involvement of hormone signaling by measuring ecdysteroids, which increase following cocaine exposure, and by demonstrating suppression of cocaine-induced follicle loss by hormone receptor mutants. Cocaine-induced ovarian follicle apoptosis and adult lethality appear to be caused by modulation of dopamine levels, while morphological defects during follicle formation likely result from perturbing serotonin signaling during cocaine exposure. Our work suggests not only a new role for juvenile hormone and/or serotonin in Drosophila ovarian follicle formation, but also a cocaine-sensitive role for dopamine in modulating hormone levels in the female fly

    Correlation from undiluted vitreous cytokines of untreated central retinal vein occlusion with spectral domain optical coherence tomography

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    Purpose: To correlate inflammatory and proangiogenic key cytokines from undiluted vitreous of treatment-naïve central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) patients with SD-OCT parameters. Methods: Thirty-five patients (age 71.1 years, 24 phakic, 30 nonischemic) underwent intravitreal combination therapy, including a single-site 23-gauge core vitrectomy. Twenty-eight samples from patients with idiopathic, non-uveitis floaterectomy served as controls. Interleukin 6 (IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) levels were correlated with the visual acuity (logMar), category of CRVO (ischemic or nonischemic) and morphologic parameters, such as central macular thickness-CMT, thickness of neurosensory retina-TNeuro, extent of serous retinal detachment-SRT and disintegrity of the IS/OS and others. Results: The mean IL-6 was 64.7pg/ml (SD ± 115.8), MCP-1 1015.7 ( ± 970.1), and VEGF-A 278.4 ( ± 512.8), which was significantly higher than the control IL-6 6.2 ± 3.4pg/ml (P=0.06), MCP-1 253.2 ± 73.5 (P<0.0000001) and VEGF-A 7.0 ± 4.9 (P<0.0006). All cytokines correlated highly with one another (correlation coefficient r=0.82 for IL-6 and MCP-1; r=0.68 for Il-6 and VEGF-A; r=0.64 for MCP-1 and VEGF-A). IL-6 correlated significantly with CMT, TRT, SRT, dIS/OS, and dELM. MCP-1 correlated significantly with SRT, dIS/OS, and dELM. VEGF-A correlated not with changes in SD-OCT, while it had a trend to be higher in the ischemic versus the nonischemic CRVO group (P=0.09). Conclusions: The inflammatory cytokines were more often correlated with morphologic changes assessed by SD-OCT, whereas VEGF-A did not correlate with CRVO-associated changes in SD-OCT. VEGF inhibition alone may not be sufficient in decreasing the inflammatory response in CRVO therapy

    [O III]λ5007\lambda 5007 and X-ray Properties of a Complete Sample of Hard X-ray Selected AGNs in the Local Universe

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    We study the correlation between the [O III]λ5007\lambda 5007 and X-ray luminosities of local Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs), using a complete, hard X-ray (>10>10 keV) selected sample in the Swift/BAT 9-month catalog. From our optical spectroscopic observations at the South African Astronomical Observatory and the literature, a catalog of [O III]λ5007\lambda 5007 line flux for all 103 AGNs at Galactic latitudes of b>15|b|>15^\circ is complied. Significant correlations with intrinsic X-ray luminosity (LXL_{\rm X}) are found both for observed (L[O III]L_{\rm [O~III]}) and extinction-corrected (L[O III]corL_{\rm [O~III]}^{\rm cor}) luminosities, separately for X-ray unabsorbed and absorbed AGNs. We obtain the regression form of L[O III]L_{\rm [O~III]} L210  keV1.18±0.07\propto L_{\rm 2-10\; keV}^{1.18\pm0.07} and L[O III]corL_{\rm [O~III]}^{\rm cor} L210  keV1.16±0.09\propto L_{\rm 2-10\; keV}^{1.16\pm0.09} from the whole sample. The absorbed AGNs with low (<<0.5\%) scattering fractions in soft X-rays show on average smaller L[O III]/LXL_{\rm [O~III]}/L_{\rm X} and L[O III]cor/LXL_{\rm [O~III]}^{\rm cor}/L_{\rm X} ratios than the other absorbed AGNs, while those in edge-on host galaxies do not. These results suggest that a significant fraction of this population are buried in tori with small opening angles. By using these L[O III]L_{\rm [O~III]} vs. LXL_{\rm X} correlations, the X-ray luminosity function of local AGNs (including Compton thick AGNs) in a standard population synthesis model gives much better agreement with the [O III]λ5007\lambda 5007 luminosity function derived from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey than previously reported. This confirms that hard X-ray observations are a very powerful tool to find AGNs with high completeness.Comment: 14 pages including 11 figures and 3 tables, accepted for publication in ApJ. In this manuscript, the observed 14-195 keV luminosities in Table 1 have been corrected to be exactly the same as in the original Swift/BAT 9-month catalog. Accordingly, Figures 2(a) and 3(a) and a part of Tables 2 and 3 have been updated. The changes from the previous version are small and do not affect the tex

    Visual rehabilitation in combined surgical procedures: bridging two eye poles for better vision

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    Augenzentrum Nymphenburger Höfe and Augenklinik Herzog Carl Theodor, München, GermanyDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, GermanyDepartment of Ophthalmology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of KoreaCleveland Clinic Foundation, Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland, OH, USADepartment of Ophthalmology, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, BrazilDepartment of Ophthalmology, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, SingaporeDepartment of Ophthalmology, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, BrazilWeb of Scienc

    Investigating the evolution of the dual AGN system ESO~509-IG066

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    We analyze the evolution of the dual AGN in ESO 509-IG066, a galaxy pair located at z=0.034 whose nuclei are separated by 11 kpc. Previous observations with XMM-Newton on this dual AGN found evidence for two moderately obscured (NH1022N_H\sim10^{22} cm2^{-2}) X-ray luminous (LX1043L_X\sim10^{43} erg/s) nuclear sources. We present an analysis of subsequent Chandra, NuSTAR and Swift/XRT observations that show one source has dropped in flux by a factor of 10 between 2004 and 2011, which could be explained by either an increase in the absorbing column or an intrinsic fading of the central engine possibly due to a decrease in mass accretion. Both of these scenarios are predicted by galaxy merger simulations. The source which has dropped in flux is not detected by NuSTAR, which argues against absorption, unless it is extreme. However, new Keck/LRIS optical spectroscopy reveals a previously unreported broad H-alpha line which is highly unlikely to be visible under the extreme absorption scenario. We therefore conclude that the black hole in this nucleus has undergone a dramatic drop in accretion rate. From AO-assisted near-infrared integral-field spectroscopy of the other nucleus, we find evidence that the galaxy merger is having a direct effect on the kinematics of the gas close to the nucleus of the galaxy, providing a direct observational link between the galaxy merger and the mass accretion rate on to the black hole.Comment: Accepted for publication in Ap