72 research outputs found

    Central Exercise Action Increases the AMPK and mTOR Response to Leptin

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    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) are key regulators of cellular energy balance and of the effects of leptin on food intake. Acute exercise is associated with increased sensitivity to the effects of leptin on food intake in an IL-6-dependent manner. To determine whether exercise ameliorates the AMPK and mTOR response to leptin in the hypothalamus in an IL-6-dependent manner, rats performed two 3-h exercise bouts, separated by one 45-min rest period. Intracerebroventricular IL-6 infusion reduced food intake and pretreatment with AMPK activators and mTOR inhibitor prevented IL-6-induced anorexia. Activators of AMPK and fasting increased food intake in control rats to a greater extent than that observed in exercised ones, whereas inhibitor of AMPK had the opposite effect. Furthermore, the reduction of AMPK and ACC phosphorylation and increase in phosphorylation of proteins involved in mTOR signal transduction, observed in the hypothalamus after leptin infusion, were more pronounced in both lean and diet-induced obesity rats after acute exercise. Treatment with leptin reduced food intake in exercised rats that were pretreated with vehicle, although no increase in responsiveness to leptin-induced anorexia after pretreatment with anti-IL6 antibody, AICAR or Rapamycin was detected. Thus, the effects of leptin on the AMPK/mTOR pathway, potentiated by acute exercise, may contribute to appetite suppressive actions in the hypothalamus

    Genetic and Pharmacological Inhibition of MicroRNA-92a Maintains Podocyte Cell Cycle Quiescence and Limits Crescentic Glomerulonephritis

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    Crescentic rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) represents the most aggressive form of acquired glomerular disease. While most therapeutic approaches involve potentially toxic immunosuppressive strategies, the pathophysiology remains incompletely understood. Podocytes are glomerular epithelial cells that are normally growth-arrested because of the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors. An exception is in RPGN where podocytes undergo a deregulation of their differentiated phenotype and proliferate. Here we demonstrate that microRNA-92a (miR-92a) is enriched in podocytes of patients and mice with RPGN. The CDK inhibitor p57Kip2 is a major target of miR-92a that constitutively safeguards podocyte cell cycle quiescence. Podocyte-specific deletion of miR-92a in mice de-repressed the expression of p57Kip2 and prevented glomerular injury in RPGN. Administration of an anti-miR-92a after disease initiation prevented albuminuria and kidney failure, indicating miR-92a inhibition as a potential therapeutic strategy for RPGN. We demonstrate that miRNA induction in epithelial cells can break glomerular tolerance to immune injury

    Manipulation of Signaling Thresholds in “Engineered Stem Cell Niches” Identifies Design Criteria for Pluripotent Stem Cell Screens

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    In vivo, stem cell fate is regulated by local microenvironmental parameters. Governing parameters in this stem cell niche include soluble factors, extra-cellular matrix, and cell-cell interactions. The complexity of this in vivo niche limits analyses into how individual niche parameters regulate stem cell fate. Herein we use mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) and micro-contact printing (µCP) to investigate how niche size controls endogenous signaling thresholds. µCP is used to restrict colony diameter, separation, and degree of clustering. We show, for the first time, spatial control over the activation of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway (Jak-Stat). The functional consequences of this niche-size-dependent signaling control are confirmed by demonstrating that direct and indirect transcriptional targets of Stat3, including members of the Jak-Stat pathway and pluripotency-associated genes, are regulated by colony size. Modeling results and empirical observations demonstrate that colonies less than 100 µm in diameter are too small to maximize endogenous Stat3 activation and that colonies separated by more than 400 µm can be considered independent from each other. These results define parameter boundaries for the use of ESCs in screening studies, demonstrate the importance of context in stem cell responsiveness to exogenous cues, and suggest that niche size is an important parameter in stem cell fate control

    Copy rights: The politics of copying and creativity

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    This article analyses the politics of copyright and copying. Copyright is an increasingly important driver of the modern economy, but this does not exhaust its significance. It matters, we argue, not just for the distribution of rewards and resources in the creative industries, but as a site within which established political concerns – collective and individual interests and identities - are articulated and negotiated, and within which notions of ‘originality’, ‘creativity’ and ‘copying’ are politically constituted. Set against the background of the increasing economic value attributed to the creative industries, the impact of digitalization on them, and the European Union’s Digital Single Market strategy, the article reveals how copyright policy, and the underlying assumptions about ‘copying’ and ‘creativity’, express (often unexamined) political values and ideologies. Drawing on a close reading of policy statements, official reports, court cases, and interviews with stakeholders, we explore the multiple political aspects of copyright, showing how copyright policy operates to privilege particular interests and practices, and to acknowledge only specific forms of creative endeavour

    Ross Volunteers - 145

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    Corps of Cadets: Ross Volunteersphotograph date: Unknow