241 research outputs found

    Airborne imaging for heritage documentation using the Fotokite tethered flying camera

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    Since the beginning of aerial photography, researchers used all kinds of devices (from pigeons, kites, poles, and balloons to rockets) to take still cameras aloft and remotely gather aerial imagery. To date, many of these unmanned devices are still used for what has been referred to as Low-Altitude Aerial Photography or LAAP. In addition to these more traditional camera platforms, radio-controlled (multi-)copter platforms have recently added a new aspect to LAAP. Although model airplanes have been around for several decades, the decreasing cost, increasing functionality and stability of ready-to-fly multi-copter systems has proliferated their use among non-hobbyists. As such, they became a very popular tool for aerial imaging. The overwhelming amount of currently available brands and types (heli-, dual-, tri-, quad-, hexa-, octo-, dodeca-, deca-hexa and deca-octocopters), together with the wide variety of navigation options (e.g. altitude and position hold, waypoint flight) and camera mounts indicate that these platforms are here to stay for some time. Given the multitude of still camera types and the image quality they are currently capable of, endless combinations of low- and high-cost LAAP solutions are available. In addition, LAAP allows for the exploitation of new imaging techniques, as it is often only a matter of lifting the appropriate device (e.g. video cameras, thermal frame imagers, hyperspectral line sensors). Archaeologists were among the first to adopt this technology, as it provided them with a means to easily acquire essential data from a unique point of view, whether for simple illustration purposes of standing historic structures or to compute three-dimensional (3D) models and orthophotographs from excavation areas. However, even very cheap multi-copters models require certain skills to pilot them safely. Additionally, malfunction or overconfidence might lift these devices to altitudes where they can interfere with manned aircrafts. As such, the safe operation of these devices is still an issue, certainly when flying on locations which can be crowded (such as students on excavations or tourists walking around historic places). As the future of UAS regulation remains unclear, this talk presents an alternative approach to aerial imaging: the Fotokite. Developed at the ETH Zürich, the Fotokite is a tethered flying camera that is essentially a multi-copter connected to the ground with a taut tether to achieve controlled flight. Crucially, it relies solely on onboard IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) measurements to fly, launches in seconds, and is classified as not a UAS (Unmanned Aerial System), e.g. in the latest FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) UAS proposal. As a result it may be used for imaging cultural heritage in a variety of environments and settings with minimal training by non-experienced pilots. Furthermore, it is subject to less extensive certification, regulation and import/export restrictions, making it a viable solution for use at a greater range of sites than traditional methods. Unlike a balloon or a kite it is not subject to particular weather conditions and, thanks to active stabilization, is capable of a variety of intelligent flight modes. Finally, it is compact and lightweight, making it easy to transport and deploy, and its lack of reliance on GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) makes it possible to use in urban, overbuilt areas. After outlining its operating principles, the talk will present some archaeological case studies in which the Fotokite was used, hereby assessing its capabilities compared to the conventional UAS’s on the market

    Adaptive fast open-loop maneuvers for quadrocopters

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    We present a conceptually and computationally lightweight method for the design and iterative learning of fast maneuvers for quadrocopters. We use first-principles, reduced-order models and we do not require nor make an attempt to follow a specific state trajectory—only the initial and the final states of the vehicle are taken into account. We evaluate the adaptation scheme through experiments on quadrocopters in the ETH Flying Machine Arena that perform multi-flips and other high-performance maneuver

    Golgi tethering factors

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    AbstractTransport of cargo to, through and from the Golgi complex is mediated by vesicular carriers and transient tubular connections. In this review, we describe vesicle tethering events with the understanding that similar events occur during transport via larger structures. Tethering factors can be generally divided into a group of coiled-coil proteins and a group of multi-subunit complexes. Current evidence suggests that these factors function in a variety of membrane–membrane tethering events at the Golgi complex, interact with SNARE molecules, and are regulated by small GTPases of the Rab and Arl families

    The Sec34/Sec35p complex, a Ypt1p effector required for retrograde intra-Golgi trafficking, interacts with Golgi SNAREs and COPI vesicle coat proteins

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    The Sec34/35 complex was identified as one of the evolutionarily conserved protein complexes that regulates a cis-Golgi step in intracellular vesicular transport. We have identified three new proteins that associate with Sec35p and Sec34p in yeast cytosol. Mutations in these Sec34/35 complex subunits result in defects in basic Golgi functions, including glycosylation of secretory proteins, protein sorting, and retention of Golgi resident proteins. Furthermore, the Sec34/35 complex interacts genetically and physically with the Rab protein Ypt1p, intra-Golgi SNARE molecules, as well as with Golgi vesicle coat complex COPI. We propose that the Sec34/35 protein complex acts as a tether that connects cis-Golgi membranes and COPI-coated, retrogradely targeted intra-Golgi vesicles

    Interaction of the conserved oligomeric Golgi complex with t-SNARE Syntaxin5a/Sed5 enhances intra-Golgi SNARE complex stability

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    Tethering factors mediate initial interaction of transport vesicles with target membranes. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) enable consequent docking and membrane fusion. We demonstrate that the vesicle tether conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex colocalizes and coimmunoprecipitates with intra-Golgi SNARE molecules. In yeast cells, the COG complex preferentially interacts with the SNARE complexes containing yeast Golgi target (t)-SNARE Sed5p. In mammalian cells, hCog4p and hCog6p interact with Syntaxin5a, the mammalian homologue of Sed5p. Moreover, fluorescence resonance energy transfer reveals an in vivo interaction between Syntaxin5a and the COG complex. Knockdown of the mammalian COG complex decreases Golgi SNARE mobility, produces an accumulation of free Syntaxin5, and decreases the steady-state levels of the intra-Golgi SNARE complex. Finally, overexpression of the hCog4p N-terminal Syntaxin5a-binding domain destabilizes intra-Golgi SNARE complexes, disrupting the Golgi. These data suggest that the COG complex orchestrates vesicular trafficking similarly in yeast and mammalian cells by binding to the t-SNARE Syntaxin5a/Sed5p and enhancing the stability of intra-Golgi SNARE complexes

    Sec35p, a Novel Peripheral Membrane Protein, Is Required for ER to Golgi Vesicle Docking

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    SEC35 was identified in a novel screen for temperature-sensitive mutants in the secretory pathway of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Wuestehube et al., 1996. Genetics. 142:393–406). At the restrictive temperature, the sec35-1 strain exhibits a transport block between the ER and the Golgi apparatus and accumulates numerous vesicles. SEC35 encodes a novel cytosolic protein of 32 kD, peripherally associated with membranes. The temperature-sensitive phenotype of sec35-1 is efficiently suppressed by YPT1, which encodes the rab-like GTPase required early in the secretory pathway, or by SLY1-20, which encodes a dominant form of the ER to Golgi target -SNARE–associated protein Sly1p. Weaker suppression is evident upon overexpression of genes encoding the vesicle-SNAREs SEC22, BET1, or YKT6. The cold-sensitive lethality that results from deleting SEC35 is suppressed by YPT1 or SLY1-20. These genetic relationships suggest that Sec35p acts upstream of, or in conjunction with, Ypt1p and Sly1p as was previously found for Uso1p. Using a cell-free assay that measures distinct steps in vesicle transport from the ER to the Golgi, we find Sec35p is required for a vesicle docking stage catalyzed by Uso1p. These genetic and biochemical results suggest Sec35p acts with Uso1p to dock ER-derived vesicles to the Golgi complex

    Novel Role for the Golgi Membrane Protein TMEM165 in Control of Migration and Invasion for Breast Carcinoma

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    The TMEM165 gene encodes for a multiple pass membrane protein localized in the Golgi that has been linked to congenital disorders of glycosylation. The TMEM165 protein is a putative ion transporter that regulates H+/Ca++/Mn++ homeostasis and pH in the Golgi. Previously, we identified TMEM165 as a potential biomarker for breast carcinoma in a glycoproteomic study using late stage invasive ductal carcinoma tissues with patient-matched adjacent normal tissues. The TMEM165 protein was not detected in non-malignant matched breast tissues and was detected in invasive ductal breast carcinoma tissues by mass spectrometry. Our hypothesis is that the TMEM165 protein confers a growth advantage to breast cancer. In this preliminary study we have investigated the expression of TMEM165 in earlier stage invasive ductal carcinoma and ductal carcinoma in situ cases. We created a CRISPR/Cas9 knockout of TMEM165 in the human invasive breast cancer cell line MDAMB231. Our results indicate that removal of TMEM165 in these cells results in a significant reduction of cell migration, tumor growth, and tumor vascularization in vivo. Furthermore, we find that TMEM165 expression alters the glycosylation of breast cancer cells and these changes promote the invasion and growth of breast cancer by altering the expression levels of key glycoproteins involved in regulation of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition such as E-cadherin. These studies illustrate new potential functions for this Golgi membrane protein in the control of breast cancer growth and invasion

    The Cellular Distribution of Serotonin Transporter Is Impeded on Serotonin-Altered Vimentin Network

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    BACKGROUND:The C-terminus of the serotonin transporter (SERT) contains binding domains for different proteins and is critical for its functional expression. In endogenous and heterologous expression systems, our proteomic and biochemical analysis demonstrated that an intermediate filament, vimentin, binds to the C-terminus of SERT. It has been reported that 5HT-stimulation of cells leads to disassembly and spatial reorientation of vimentin filaments. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:We tested the impact of 5HT-stimulation on vimentin-SERT association and found that 5HT-stimulation accelerates the translocation of SERT from the plasma membrane via enhancing the level of association between phosphovimentin and SERT. Furthermore a progressive truncation of the C-terminus of SERT was performed to map the vimentin-SERT association domain. Deletion of up to 20, but not 14 amino acids arrested the transporters at intracellular locations. Although, truncation of the last 14 amino acids, did not alter 5HT uptake rates of transporter but abolished its association with vimentin. To understand the involvement of 5HT in phosphovimentin-SERT association from the plasma membrane, we further investigated the six amino acids between Delta14 and Delta20, i.e., the SITPET sequence of SERT. While the triple mutation on the possible kinase action sites, S(611), T(613), and T(616) arrested the transporter at intracellular locations, replacing the residues with aspartic acid one at a time altered neither the 5HT uptake rates nor the vimentin association of these mutants. However, replacing the three target sites with alanine, either simultaneously or one at a time, had no significant effect on 5HT uptake rates or the vimentin association with transporter. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:Based on our findings, we propose that phosphate modification of the SITPET sequence differentially, one at a time exposes the vimentin binding domain on the C-terminus of SERT. Conversely, following 5HT stimulation, the association between vimentin-SERT is enhanced which changes the cellular distribution of SERT on an altered vimentin network
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