482 research outputs found

    Divarasib plus cetuximab in KRAS G12C-positive colorectal cancer : a phase 1b trial

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    Abstract: KRAS G12C mutation is prevalent in similar to 4% of colorectal cancer (CRC) and is associated with poor prognosis. Divarasib, a KRAS G12C inhibitor, has shown modest activity as a single agent in KRAS G12C-positive CRC at 400 mg. Epidermal growth factor receptor has been recognized as a major upstream activator of RAS-MAPK signaling, a proposed key mechanism of resistance to KRAS G12C inhibition in CRC. Here, we report on divarasib plus cetuximab (epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor) in patients with KRAS G12C-positive CRC (n = 29) from arm C of an ongoing phase 1b trial. The primary objective was to evaluate safety. Secondary objectives included preliminary antitumor activity. The safety profile of this combination was consistent with those of single-agent divarasib and cetuximab. Treatment-related adverse events led to divarasib dose reductions in four patients (13.8%); there were no treatment withdrawals. The objective response rate was 62.5% (95% confidence interval: 40.6%, 81.2%) in KRAS G12C inhibitor-naive patients (n = 24). The median duration of response was 6.9 months. The median progression-free survival was 8.1 months (95% confidence interval: 5.5, 12.3). As an exploratory objective, we observed a decline in KRAS G12C variant allele frequency associated with response and identified acquired genomic alterations at disease progression that may be associated with resistance. The manageable safety profile and encouraging antitumor activity of divarasib plus cetuximab support the further investigation of this combination in KRAS G12C-positive CRC

    p53 and ovarian carcinoma survival: an Ovarian Tumor Tissue Analysis consortium study

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    Our objective was to test whether p53 expression status is associated with survival for women diagnosed with the most common ovarian carcinoma histotypes (high-grade serous carcinoma [HGSC], endometrioid carcinoma [EC], and clear cell carcinoma [CCC]) using a large multi-institutional cohort from the Ovarian Tumor Tissue Analysis (OTTA) consortium. p53 expression was assessed on 6,678 cases represented on tissue microarrays from 25 participating OTTA study sites using a previously validated immunohistochemical (IHC) assay as a surrogate for the presence and functional effect of TP53 mutations. Three abnormal expression patterns (overexpression, complete absence, and cytoplasmic) and the normal (wild type) pattern were recorded. Survival analyses were performed by histotype. The frequency of abnormal p53 expression was 93.4% (4,630/4,957) in HGSC compared to 11.9% (116/973) in EC and 11.5% (86/748) in CCC. In HGSC, there were no differences in overall survival across the abnormal p53 expression patterns. However, in EC and CCC, abnormal p53 expression was associated with an increased risk of death for women diagnosed with EC in multivariate analysis compared to normal p53 as the reference (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36-3.47, p = 0.0011) and with CCC (HR = 1.57, 95% CI 1.11-2.22, p = 0.012). Abnormal p53 was also associated with shorter overall survival in The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I/II EC and CCC. Our study provides further evidence that functional groups of TP53 mutations assessed by abnormal surrogate p53 IHC patterns are not associated with survival in HGSC. In contrast, we validate that abnormal p53 IHC is a strong independent prognostic marker for EC and demonstrate for the first time an independent prognostic association of abnormal p53 IHC with overall survival in patients with CCC

    Inhibition of HSP90 in Driver Oncogene-Defined Lung Adenocarcinoma Cell Lines: Key Proteins Underpinning Therapeutic Efficacy

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    The use of 90 kDa heat shock protein (HSP90) inhibition as a therapy in lung adenocarcinoma remains limited due to moderate drug efficacy, the emergence of drug resistance, and early tumor recurrence. The main objective of this research is to maximize treatment efficacy in lung adenocarcinoma by identifying key proteins underlying HSP90 inhibition according to molecular background, and to search for potential biomarkers of response to this therapeutic strategy. Inhibition of the HSP90 chaperone was evaluated in different lung adenocarcinoma cell lines representing the most relevant molecular alterations (EGFR mutations, KRAS mutations, or EML4-ALK translocation) and wild-type genes found in each tumor subtype. The proteomic technique iTRAQ was used to identify proteomic profiles and determine which biological pathways are involved in the response to HSP90 inhibition in lung adenocarcinoma. We corroborated the greater efficacy of HSP90 inhibition in EGFR mutated or EML4-ALK translocated cell lines. We identified proteins specifically and significantly deregulated after HSP90 inhibition for each molecular alteration. Two proteins, ADI1 and RRP1, showed independently deregulated molecular patterns. Functional annotation of the altered proteins suggested that apoptosis was the only pathway affected by HSP90 inhibition across all molecular subgroups. The expression of ADI1 and RRP1 could be used to monitor the correct inhibition of HSP90 in lung adenocarcinoma. In addition, proteins such as ASS1, ITCH, or UBE2L3 involved in pathways related to the inhibition of a particular molecular background could be used as potential response biomarkers, thereby improving the efficacy of this therapeutic approach to combat lung adenocarcinoma

    ONCOS-102 plus pemetrexed and platinum chemotherapy in malignant pleural mesothelioma: a randomized phase 2 study investigating clinical outcomes and the tumor microenvironment

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    Background ONCOS-102, an oncolytic adenovirus expressing granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, can alter the tumor microenvironment to an immunostimulatory state. Combining ONCOS-102 with standard-of-care chemotherapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) may improve treatment outcomes.Methods In this open-label, randomized study, patients with unresectable MPM received intratumoral ONCOS-102 (3×1011 virus particles on days 1, 4, 8, 36, 78, and 120) and pemetrexed plus cisplatin/carboplatin (from day 22), or pemetrexed plus cisplatin/carboplatin alone. The primary endpoint was safety. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival, objective response rate, and tumor immunologic activation (baseline and day 36 biopsies) were also assessed.Results In total, 31 patients (safety lead-in: n=6, randomized: n=25) were enrolled. Anemia (15.0% and 27.3%) and neutropenia (40.0% and 45.5%) were the most frequent grade ≄3 adverse events (AEs) in the ONCOS-102 (n=20) and chemotherapy-alone (n=11) cohorts. No patients discontinued ONCOS-102 due to AEs. No statistically significant difference in efficacy endpoints was observed. There was a numerical improvement in OS (30-month OS rate 34.1% vs 0; median OS 20.3 vs 13.5 months) with ONCOS-102 versus chemotherapy alone in chemotherapy-naĂŻve patients (n=17). By day 36, ONCOS-102 was associated with increased T-cell infiltration and immune-related gene expression that was not observed in the control cohort. Substantial immune activation in the tumor microenvironment was associated with survival at month 18 in the ONCOS-102 cohort.Conclusions ONCOS-102 plus pemetrexed and cisplatin/carboplatin was well tolerated by patients with MPM. In injected tumors, ONCOS-102 promoted a proinflammatory environment, including T-cell infiltration, which showed association with survival at month 18

    Safety of First-Line Nivolumab Plus Ipilimumab in Patients With Metastatic NSCLC: A Pooled Analysis of CheckMate 227, CheckMate 568, and CheckMate 817

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    Introduction: We characterized the safety of first-line nivolumab plus ipilimumab (NIVO+IPI) in a large patient population with metastatic NSCLC and efficacy outcomes after NIVO+IPI discontinuation owing to treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs). Methods: We pooled data from three first-line NIVO+IPI studies (NIVO, 3 mg/kg or 240 mg every 2 wk; IPI, 1 mg/kg every 6 wk) in metastatic NSCLC (CheckMate 227 part 1, CheckMate 817 cohort A, CheckMate 568 part 1). Safety end points included TRAEs and immune-mediated adverse events (IMAEs) in the pooled population and patients aged 75 years or older. Results: In the pooled population (N = 1255), any-grade TRAEs occurred in 78% of the patients, grade 3 or 4 TRAEs in 34%, and discontinuation of any regimen component owing to TRAEs in 21%. The most frequent TRAE and IMAE were diarrhea (20%; grade 3 or 4, 2%) and rash (17%; grade 3 or 4, 3%), respectively. The most common grade 3 or 4 IMAEs were hepatitis (5%) and diarrhea/colitis and pneumonitis (4% each). Pneumonitis was the most common cause of treatment-related death (5 of 16). Safety in patients aged 75 years or older (n = 174) was generally similar to the overall population, but discontinuation of any regimen component owing to TRAEs was more common (29%). In patients discontinuing NIVO+IPI owing to TRAEs (n = 225), 3-year overall survival was 50% (95% confidence interval: 42.6–56.0), and 42% (31.2–52.4) of 130 responders remained in response 2 years after discontinuation. Conclusions: First-line NIVO+IPI was well tolerated in this large population with metastatic NSCLC and in patients aged 75 years or older. Discontinuation owing to TRAEs did not reduce long-term survival.</p

    Tepotinib in patients with non-small cell lung cancer with high-level<i> MET</i> amplification detected by liquid biopsy : VISION Cohort B

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    Abstract: High-level MET amplification (METamp) is a primary driver in-1%-2% of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Cohort B of the phase 2 VISION trial evaluates tepotinib, an oral MET inhibitor, in patients with advanced NSCLC with high-level METamp who were enrolled by liquid biopsy. While the study was halted before the enrollment of the planned 60 patients, the results of 24 enrolled patients are presented here. The objective response rate (ORR) is 41.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22.1-63.4), and the median dura-tion of response is 14.3 months (95% CI, 2.8-not estimable). In exploratory biomarker analyses, focal METamp, RB1 wild-type, MYC diploidy, low circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) burden at baseline, and early mo-lecular response are associated with better outcomes. Adverse events include edema (composite term; any grade: 58.3%; grade 3: 12.5%) and constipation (any grade: 41.7%; grade 3: 4.2%). Tepotinib provides anti-tumor activity in high-level METamp NSCLC (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02864992)

    Sotorasib versus docetaxel for previously treated non-small-cell lung cancer with KRASG12C mutation: a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial

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    Background: Sotorasib is a specific, irreversible inhibitor of the GTPase protein, KRASG12C. We compared the efficacy and safety of sotorasib with a standard-of-care treatment in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with the KRASG12C mutation who had been previously treated with other anticancer drugs. Methods: We conducted a randomised, open-label phase 3 trial at 148 centres in 22 countries. We recruited patients aged at least 18 years with KRASG12C-mutated advanced NSCLC, who progressed after previous platinum-based chemotherapy and a PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitor. Key exclusion criteria included new or progressing untreated brain lesions or symptomatic brain lesions, previously identified oncogenic driver mutation other than KRASG12C for which an approved therapy is available (eg EGFR or ALK), previous treatment with docetaxel (neoadjuvant or adjuvant docetaxel was allowed if the tumour did not progress within 6 months after the therapy was terminated), previous treatment with a direct KRASG12C inhibitor, systemic anticancer therapy within 28 days of study day 1, and therapeutic or palliative radiation therapy within 2 weeks of treatment initiation. We randomly assigned (1:1) patients to oral sotorasib (960 mg once daily) or intravenous docetaxel (75 mg/m2 once every 3 weeks) in an open-label manner using interactive response technology. Randomisation was stratified by number of previous lines of therapy in advanced disease (1 vs 2 vs >2), ethnicity (Asian vs non-Asian), and history of CNS metastases (present or absent). Treatment continued until an independent central confirmation of disease progression, intolerance, initiation of another anticancer therapy, withdrawal of consent, or death, whichever occurred first. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival, which was assessed by a blinded, independent central review in the intention-to-treat population. Safety was assessed in all treated patients. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04303780, and is active but no longer recruiting. Findings: Between June 4, 2020, and April 26, 2021, 345 patients were randomly assigned to receive sotorasib (n=171 [50%]) or docetaxel (n=174 [50%]). 169 (99%) patients in the sotorasib group and 151 (87%) in the docetaxel group received at least one dose. After a median follow-up of 17·7 months (IQR 16·4–20·1), the study met its primary endpoint of a statistically significant increase in the progression-free survival for sotorasib, compared with docetaxel (median progression-free survival 5·6 months [95% CI 4·3–7·8] vs 4·5 months [3·0–5·7]; hazard ratio 0·66 [0·51–0·86]; p=0·0017). Sotorasib was well tolerated, with fewer grade 3 or worse (n=56 [33%] vs n=61 [40%]) and serious treatment-related adverse events compared with docetaxel (n=18 [11%] vs n=34 [23%]). For sotorasib, the most common treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or worse were diarrhoea (n= 20 [12%]), alanine aminotransferase increase (n=13 [8%]), and aspartate aminotransferase increase (n=9 [5%]). For docetaxel, the most common treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or worse were neutropenia (n=13 [9%]), fatigue (n=9 [6%]), and febrile neutropenia (n=8 [5%]). Interpretation: Sotorasib significantly increased progression-free survival and had a more favourable safety profile, compared with docetaxel, in patients with advanced NSCLC with the KRASG12C mutation and who had been previously treated with other anticancer drugs. Funding: Amgen
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