72 research outputs found

    Multivalent interactions of the disordered regions of XLF and XRCC4 foster robust cellular NHEJ and drive the formation of ligation-boosting condensates in vitro

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    In mammalian cells, DNA double-strand breaks are predominantly repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). During repair, the Ku70/80 heterodimer (Ku), XRCC4 in complex with DNA Ligase 4 (X4L4), and XLF form a flexible scaffold that holds the broken DNA ends together. Insights into the architectural organization of the NHEJ scaffold and its regulation by the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) have recently been obtained by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy analysis. However, several regions, especially the C-terminal regions (CTRs) of the XRCC4 and XLF scaffolding proteins, have largely remained unresolved in experimental structures, which hampers the understanding of their functions. Here, we used magnetic resonance techniques and biochemical assays to comprehensively characterize the interactions and dynamics of the XRCC4 and XLF CTRs at atomic resolution. We show that the CTRs of XRCC4 and XLF are intrinsically disordered and form a network of multivalent heterotypic and homotypic interactions that promotes robust cellular NHEJ activity. Importantly, we demonstrate that the multivalent interactions of these CTRs led to the formation of XLF and X4L4 condensates in vitro which can recruit relevant effectors and critically stimulate DNA end ligation. Our work highlights the role of disordered regions in the mechanism and dynamics of NHEJ and lays the groundwork for the investigation of NHEJ protein disorder and its associated condensates inside cells with implications in cancer biology, immunology and the development of genome editing strategies

    Fractional Flow Reserve to Guide Treatment of Patients With Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease

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    In Vitro Th17-Polarized Human CD4(+) T Cells Exacerbate Xenogeneic Graft-versus-Host Disease.

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    Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is a severe complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The role of Th17 cells in its pathophysiology remains a matter of debate. In this study, we assessed whether enrichment of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with in vitro Th17-polarized CD4(+) T cells would exacerbate xenogeneic GVHD (xGVHD) into NOD-scid IL-2Rgamma null (NSG) mice. Naive human CD4(+) T cells were stimulated under Th17-skewing conditions for 8 to 10 days and then coinjected in NSG mice with fresh PBMCs from the same donor. We observed that Th17-polarized cells engrafted and migrated toward xGVHD target organs. They also acquired a double-expressing IL-17A(+)IFNgamma(+) profile in vivo. Importantly, cotransfer of Th17-polarized cells (1x10(6)) with PBMCs (1x10(6)) exacerbated xGVHD compared with transplantation of PBMCs alone (2x10(6)). Furthermore, PBMC cotransfer with Th17-polarized cells was more potent for xGVHD induction than cotransfer with naive CD4(+) T cells stimulated in nonpolarizing conditions (Th0 cells, 1x10(6)+1x10(6) PBMCs) or with Th1-polarized cells (1x10(6)+1x10(6) PBMCs). In summary, our results suggest that human Th17-polarized cells can cooperate with PBMCs and be pathogenic in the NSG xGVHD model

    Comparison of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells From Different Origins for the Treatment of Graft-vs.-Host-Disease in a Humanized Mouse Model.

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    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have potent immunomodulatory properties that make them an attractive tool against graft- vs.-host disease (GVHD). However, despite promising results in phase I/II studies, bone marrow (BM-) derived MSCs failed to demonstrate their superiority over placebo in the sole phase III trial reported thus far. MSCs from different tissue origins display different characteristics, but their therapeutic benefits have never been directly compared in GVHD. Here, we compared the impact of BM-, umbilical cord (UC-), and adipose-tissue (AT-) derived MSCs on T-cell function in vitro and assessed their efficacy for the treatment of GVHD induced by injection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in NOD-scid IL-2Rgamma(null) HLA-A2/HHD mice. In vitro, resting BM- and AT-MSCs were more potent than UC-MSCs to inhibit lymphocyte proliferation, whereas UC- and AT-MSCs induced a higher regulatory T-cell (CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+))/T helper 17 ratio. Interestingly, AT-MSCs and UC-MSCs activated the coagulation pathway at a higher level than BM-MSCs. In vivo, AT-MSC infusions were complicated by sudden death in 4 of 16 animals, precluding an analysis of their efficacy. Intravenous MSC infusions (UC- or BM- combined) failed to significantly increase overall survival (OS) in an analysis combining data from 80 mice (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.32-1.08, P = 0.087). In a sensitivity analysis we also compared OS in control vs. each MSC group separately. The results for the BM-MSC vs. control comparison was HR = 0.63 (95% CI 0.30-1.34, P = 0.24) while the figures for the UC-MSC vs. control comparison was HR = 0.56 (95% CI 0.28-1.10, P = 0.09). Altogether, these results suggest that MSCs from various origins have different effects on immune cells in vitro and in vivo. However, none significantly prevented death from GVHD. Finally, our data suggest that the safety profile of AT-MSC and UC-MSC need to be closely monitored given their pro-coagulant activities in vitro

    Comparison of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells From Different Origins for the Treatment of Graft-vs.-Host-Disease in a Humanized Mouse Model

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    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have potent immunomodulatory properties that make them an attractive tool against graft- vs.-host disease (GVHD). However, despite promising results in phase I/II studies, bone marrow (BM-) derived MSCs failed to demonstrate their superiority over placebo in the sole phase III trial reported thus far. MSCs from different tissue origins display different characteristics, but their therapeutic benefits have never been directly compared in GVHD. Here, we compared the impact of BM-, umbilical cord (UC-), and adipose-tissue (AT-) derived MSCs on T-cell function in vitro and assessed their efficacy for the treatment of GVHD induced by injection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in NOD-scid IL-2Rγnull HLA-A2/HHD mice. In vitro, resting BM- and AT-MSCs were more potent than UC-MSCs to inhibit lymphocyte proliferation, whereas UC- and AT-MSCs induced a higher regulatory T-cell (CD4+CD25+FoxP3+)/T helper 17 ratio. Interestingly, AT-MSCs and UC-MSCs activated the coagulation pathway at a higher level than BM-MSCs. In vivo, AT-MSC infusions were complicated by sudden death in 4 of 16 animals, precluding an analysis of their efficacy. Intravenous MSC infusions (UC- or BM- combined) failed to significantly increase overall survival (OS) in an analysis combining data from 80 mice (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.32–1.08, P = 0.087). In a sensitivity analysis we also compared OS in control vs. each MSC group separately. The results for the BM-MSC vs. control comparison was HR = 0.63 (95% CI 0.30–1.34, P = 0.24) while the figures for the UC-MSC vs. control comparison was HR = 0.56 (95% CI 0.28–1.10, P = 0.09). Altogether, these results suggest that MSCs from various origins have different effects on immune cells in vitro and in vivo. However, none significantly prevented death from GVHD. Finally, our data suggest that the safety profile of AT-MSC and UC-MSC need to be closely monitored given their pro-coagulant activities in vitro

    Xenogeneic graft-versus-host disease in humanized NSG and NSG-HLA-A2/HHD mice

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    Despite the increasing use of humanized mouse models to study new approaches of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prevention, the pathogenesis of xenogeneic GVHD (xGVHD) in these models remains misunderstood. The aim of this study is to describe this pathogenesis in NOD/LtSz-PrkdcscidIL2rgtm1Wjl (NSG) mice infused with human PBMCs and to assess the impact of the expression of HLA-A0201 by NSG mice cells (NSG-HLA-A2/HHD mice) on xGVHD and graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) effects, by taking advantage of next-generation technologies. We found that T cells recovered from NSG mice after transplantation had upregulated expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, as well as in TCR, co-stimulatory, IL-2/STAT5, mTOR and Aurora kinase A pathways. T cells had mainly an effector memory or an effector phenotype and exhibited a Th1/Tc1-skewed differentiation. TCRb repertoire diversity wasmarkedly lower both in the spleen and lungs (a xGVHD target organ) than at infusion. There was no correlation between the frequencies of specific clonotypes at baseline and in transplanted mice. Finally, expression of HLA-A0201 by NSG mice led to more severe xGVHD and enhanced GvL effects toward HLA-A2+ leukemic cells. Altogether our data demonstrate that the pathogenesis of xGVHD shares important features with human GVHD and that NSG-HLA-A2/HHD mice could serve as better model to study GVHD and GvL effects

    Xenogeneic Graft-Versus-Host Disease in Humanized NSG and NSG-HLA-A2/HHD Mice

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    Despite the increasing use of humanized mouse models to study new approaches of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prevention, the pathogenesis of xenogeneic GVHD (xGVHD) in these models remains misunderstood. The aim of this study is to describe this pathogenesis in NOD/LtSz-PrkdcscidIL2rγtm1Wjl (NSG) mice infused with human PBMCs and to assess the impact of the expression of HLA-A0201 by NSG mice cells (NSG-HLA-A2/HHD mice) on xGVHD and graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) effects, by taking advantage of next-generation technologies. We found that T cells recovered from NSG mice after transplantation had upregulated expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, as well as in TCR, co-stimulatory, IL-2/STAT5, mTOR and Aurora kinase A pathways. T cells had mainly an effector memory or an effector phenotype and exhibited a Th1/Tc1-skewed differentiation. TCRβ repertoire diversity was markedly lower both in the spleen and lungs (a xGVHD target organ) than at infusion. There was no correlation between the frequencies of specific clonotypes at baseline and in transplanted mice. Finally, expression of HLA-A0201 by NSG mice led to more severe xGVHD and enhanced GvL effects toward HLA-A2+ leukemic cells. Altogether our data demonstrate that the pathogenesis of xGVHD shares important features with human GVHD and that NSG-HLA-A2/HHD mice could serve as better model to study GVHD and GvL effects.status: publishe

    Neuronal surface antibody-mediated encephalopathy as manifestation of chronic graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

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    Although it remained controversial for a long time, central nervous system (CNS) involvement of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is now becoming recognized as a real nosological entity. Previous case reports have suggested heterogeneous clinical presentations and it is not excluded that the whole spectrum of manifestations has not yet been fully described. Here, we report the case of a 58-year-old man with chronic GVHD who developed a rapidly ingravescent encephalopathy. There was no evidence for CNS immune-mediated lesions on conventional imaging nor for cellular infiltration in the cerebrospinal fluid. Serum analyses revealed the presence of anti-neuronal antibodies directed against anti-contactin-associated protein 2 (anti-Caspr2), a protein associated with voltage-gated potassium neuronal channels. Functional imaging with 2-deoxy-2-[fluorine-18] fluoro- D-glucose integrated with computed tomography (18F-FDG PET-CT) demonstrated diffuse cortical and subcortical hypometabolism. The patient was treated with a combination of immunosuppressive agents (corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide and rituximab) and progressively recovered normal neurocognitive functions. Taken together, these data suggest that CNS-GVHD may manifest as a reversible antibody-mediated functional encephalopathy. This report suggests for the first time the interest of screening for anti-neuronal antibodies and functional imaging with brain 18F-FDG PET-CT in diagnosing this severe complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHSCT). © 2018 Elsevier B.V

    Bim regulates the survival and suppressive capability of CD8+ FOXP3+ regulatory T cells during murine GVHD

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    peer reviewedCD8+ Foxp3+ T cells (Tregs) are a potent regulatory population whose functional and ontological similarities to CD4+ Fox3+ T cells have not been well delineated. Using an experimental model of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), we observed that CD8+ Tregs were significantly less potent than CD4+ Tregs for the suppression of GVHD. To define the mechanistic basis for this observation, we examined the T-cell repertoire and the transcriptional profile of in vivo-derived CD4+ and CD8+ Tregs that emerged early during this disease. Polyclonal and alloantigen-induced CD8+ Tregs had repertoire diversity that was similar to that of conventional CD8+ T cells, indicating that a restricted repertoire was not the proximate cause of decreased suppression. Transcriptional profiling revealed that CD8+ Tregs possessed a canonical Treg transcriptional signature that was similar to that observed in CD4+ Tregs, yet distinct from conventional CD8+ T cells. Pathway analysis, however, demonstrated that CD8+ Tregs had differential gene expression in pathways involved in cell death and survival. This was further confirmed by detailed mRNA sequence analysis and protein expression studies, which demonstrated that CD8+ Tregs had increased expression of Bim and reduced expression of Mcl-1. Transplantation with CD8+ Foxp3+ Bim-/- Tregs resulted in prolonged Treg survival and reduced GVHD lethality compared with wild-type CD8+ Tregs, providing functional confirmation that increased expression of Bim was responsible for reduced in vivo efficacy. Thus, Bim regulates the survival and suppressive capability of CD8+ Tregs, which may have implications for their use in regulatory T-cell therapy

    Chapter 35: Immune Reconstitution and Tolerance

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    peer reviewedHematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) remains the only curative treatment option for many patients with hematological malignancies and genetic disorders. Recipients can receive either an autologous or allogeneic graft, which is often dependent upon the primary disease for which transplantation is contemplated. One of the major goals of transplantation is the development of a fully functional immune system. Patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT), in particular, have the highest rate of transplantrelated mortality (TRM) due to complications that can result from immunodeficiencies or immune dysregulation that occurs as a consequence of the procedure. These include, but are not limited to, infections, graft‐versus‐host disease (GvHD), autoimmune disorders, and secondary malignancies. Recovery of a fully functional immune system is thus critical for HCT success and improving immune reconstitution is of great clinical interest. This chapter will focus on immune reconstitution following allo‐HCT since immune recovery is more complicated in this setting due to the underlying HLA disparity between the donor and the recipient
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