3,151 research outputs found

    “They Need to Go in There”: Criminalized Subjectivity among Formerly Incarcerated Black Men

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    Black people are overrepresented in the American criminal justice system, yet policy-based criminal justice research has historically ignored the perspectives of criminalized Black people. Using interviews with 27 formerly incarcerated Black men, the author helps address this issue by exploring how carceral experiences produce “criminalized subjectivities.” In particular, when explicitly asked about what they would say to powerful state officials about their contact with the criminal justice system, the Black men in this study described a range of practices and policies they viewed as unfair and contradictory. Interviewees discussed: unequal judicial processes, inhumane prison conditions, postimprisonment barriers to reintegration, and the rigged nature of racialized mass criminalization. The author argues that, taken together, their responses constitute a critical perspective urging structural (rather than individual-level) change, rooted in experiences with invisibilization and criminalization

    sj-docx-1-psp-10.1177_01461672231219391 – Supplemental material for Children Value Animals More Than Adults Do: A Conceptual Replication and Extension

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    Supplemental material, sj-docx-1-psp-10.1177_01461672231219391 for Children Value Animals More Than Adults Do: A Conceptual Replication and Extension by Mariola Paruzel-Czachura, Maximilian Maier, Roksana Warmuz, Matti Wilks and Lucius Caviola in Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin</p

    Endovascular therapy of malignant obstruction of the inferior vena cava with the Sinus-XL® stent system

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    Die interventionelle Radiologie hat sich in den letzten Jahrzehnten zunehmend auf palliativmedizinische sowie onkologische Bereiche ausgeweitet und kann durch minimal-invasive Therapieoptionen gerade in vulnerablen Patientenkollektiven attraktive Behandlungsmöglichkeiten zur Verfügung stellen. Die tumorbedingte untere Einflussstauung ist ein seltenes Krankheitsbild und stellt eine schwere symptomatische Komplikation einer malignen Grunderkrankung dar. Dabei kommt es im Rahmen dieser Grunderkrankung durch die Primärtumormasse oder Metastasen zu extrinsischer Kompression der Vena cava inferior (VCI), Gefäßinvasion oder Thrombusbildung. Ziel der Dissertationsarbeit ist es, den technischen und klinischen Erfolg der Sinus-XL ® Stentimplantation in die Vena cava inferior bei einer tumorbedingten unteren Einflussstauung zu untersuchen. Als technischer Erfolg wurde dabei die problemlose Stentimplantation mit anschließender Aufhebung der VCI-Stenose/Okklusion und Revaskularisation der VCI definiert. Bezüglich des klinischen Erfolges wurde der Frage nachgegangen, inwieweit die Stentimplantation die typischen Symptome einer unteren Einflussstauung (Ödeme der unteren Extremität, Aszites und Anasarka) lindern und bestenfalls eliminieren kann. In der vorliegenden Arbeit sind dazu retrospektiv die Daten von insgesamt 21 Patienten (11 Frauen, 10 Männer) mit einem medianen Alter von 61 Jahren (19-92 Jahre), die zwischen Oktober 2010 und Januar 2021 aufgrund einer tumorbedingten unteren Einflussstauung mit einem Sinus-XL ® Stent endovaskulär versorgt wurden, ausgewertet worden. Zur Quantifizierung der klinischen Symptomatik wurde für das jeweilige Symptom ein Scoring-System entwickelt bzw. modifiziert. Der technische Erfolg belief sich auf 100% (21/21). Postinterventionell konnte zudem eine signifikante Reduktion des transstenotischen Druckgradienten (p = 0,008) und eine signifikante Aufweitung des Stenosendiameters (p < 0,001) erreicht werden. Die primäre und primär-assistierte Stentoffenheit betrug 92,9 % (13/14) und 100% (14/14), die anatomische Stentoffenheit (< 50% Restenose) belief sich auf 53,3 % (8/15). Die Reinterventionsrate lag bei 4,8 % (1/21). Schwerwiegende Komplikationen traten nicht auf. Der klinische Erfolg bezüglich der Ödeme der unteren Extremität belief sich auf 82,4 % (14/17), 93,8 % (15/16) sowie auf 85,7 % (18/21) und zeigte in allen betrachteten Zeitintervallen eine signifikante Scorewertreduktion (p < 0,001). Das klinische Outcome bezüglich der Ödeme war bei kürzeren Stenosen/Obstruktionen signifikant besser (p = 0,025). Bezüglich einer intrahepatischen Segmentbeteiligung, der transstenotischen Druckgradienten, der absoluten Gradientenreduktion sowie der Überlebenszeit nach der Intervention zeigten sich hingegen keine als klinisch relevant einzustufende Ergebnisse. Ein eindeutiger Effekt der Intervention auf die Symptome Anasarka und Aszites konnte nicht nachgewiesen werden. Diesbezüglich zeigten sich klinische Erfolgsraten von 42,9 % (6/14) und 5,3 % (1/19). Im postinterventionellen Verlauf konnten außerdem signifikante Reduktionen der präinterventionellen Harnstoffwerte sowie des Körpergewichtes der Patienten verzeichnet werden. Zusammenfassend zeigt die vorliegende Arbeit, dass die Sinus-XL ® Stentimplantation geeignet ist, eine tumorbedingte Vena cava inferior-Stenose/Obstruktion aufzuheben und eine Revaskularisation der VCI zu erreichen. Die klinischen Symptome einer unteren Einflussstauung – insbesondere bezogen auf die Ödeme der unteren Extremität und mit Einschränkungen bezogen auf die Symptome Aszites und Anasarka – können ebenfalls durch die Stentimplantation gelindert und teilweise sogar langanhaltend eliminiert werden. Die Sinus-XL ® Stentimplantation sollte daher stets als Therapieoption bei tumorbedingten unteren Einflussstauungen in Erwägung gezogen werden. Nicht zuletzt stellt die Stentimplantation auch eine sichere und komplikationsarme Intervention dar. Weitere Studien, bestenfalls multizentrische Studien, sind jedoch notwendig, um die dargestellten Ergebnisse weiter zu untermauern.In recent decades interventional radiology has increasingly expanded into palliative as well as oncologic settings and can provide attractive treatment options through minimal-invasive therapies, especially in vulnerable patient populations. Malignant obstruction of the inferior vena cava (IVC) is a rare clinical condition and represents a severe symptomatic complication of an underlying malignant disease. Extrinsic compression of the inferior vena cava, vascular invasion or thrombus formation occur as part of the underlying disease. The aim of this work is to investigate the technical and clinical success of Sinus-XL ® stent implantation into the inferior vena cava in case of malignant obstruction of the inferior vena cava. Technical success was defined as the successful stent implantation with subsequent resolution of the stenosis/occlusion and revascularization of the IVC. Regarding clinical success, the question was addressed to what extent stent implantation can alleviate and, at best, eliminate the typical symptoms of malignant IVC obstruction (lower extremity edema, ascites and anasarca). Therefore data from a total of 21 patients (11 women, 10 men) with a median age of 61 years (19-92 years) who underwent endovascular treatment with a Sinus-XL ® stent for malignant IVC obstruction between October 2010 and January 2021 was retrospectively analyzed. In order to quantify the extent of the clinical symptoms a scoring system was developed or modified for each symptom. The technical success was 100% (21/21). After the intervention a significant reduction of the transstenotic pressure gradient (p = 0.008) and a significant widening of the stenotic diameter (p < 0.001) were achieved. Primary and primary-assisted stent patency were 92.9% (13/14) and 100% (14/14), anatomic stent patency (< 50% restenosis) was 53.3% (8/15). The reintervention rate was 4.8% (1/21). No major complications occurred. The clinical outcome regarding lower extremity edema was 82.4% (14/17), 93.8% (15/16), and 85.7% (18/21), showing a significant score reduction in all time intervals considered (p < 0.001). Clinical outcome regarding edema was significantly better with shorter stenosis/obstruction (p = 0.025). In contrast, with regard to intrahepatic segment involvement, transstenotic pressure gradients, absolute gradient reduction, and survival time after the intervention, there were no results that could be classified as clinically relevant. A clear effect of the intervention on the symptoms of anasarca and ascites could not be demonstrated. In this regard, clinical success rates of 42.9% (6/14) and 5.3% (1/19) were shown. In the post-interventional course, significant reductions of the pre-interventional urea levels as well as of the patients´ body weight could also be recorded. In conclusion, the present work shows that Sinus-XL ® stent implantation is suitable to resolve malignant IVC obstruction and to achieve revascularization of the IVC. The clinical symptoms - especially related to lower extremity edema and with limitations related to the symptoms of ascites and anasarca - can be alleviated by stent implantation and in some cases even eliminated. Sinus-XL ® stent implantation should therefore always be considered as a therapeutic option for malignant IVC obstruction. Last but not least, stent implantation also represents a safe and low-complication intervention. However, further studies, at best multicenter studies, are necessary to further substantiate the presented results

    Investigating (sequential) unit asking: an unsuccessful quest for scope sensitivity in willingness to donate judgments

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    People exhibit scope insensitivity: Their expressed valuation of a problem is not proportionate with its scope or size. To address scope insensitivity in charitable giving, Hsee et al. (2013) developed the (Classical) Unit Asking technique, where people are first asked how much they are willing to donate to support a single individual, followed by how much they are willing to donate to support a group of individuals. In this paper, we explored the mechanisms, extensions, and limitations of the technique. In particular, we investigated an extension of the technique, which we call Sequential Unit Asking (SUA). SUA asks people a series of willingness-to-donate questions, in which the number of individuals to be helped increases in a stepwise manner until it reaches the total group size. Across four studies investigating donation judgments (total (Formula presented.)), we did not find evidence that willingness to donate (WTD) judgments to the total group increased with larger groups. Instead, our results suggest that Unit Asking (sequential or classical) increases donation amounts only through a single one-off boost. Further, we find evidence in three out of four studies that the SUA extension increases WTD judgments over Classical Unit Asking. In a fifth study ((Formula presented.)) using a contingent valuation design (instead of donation judgments), we find scope sensitivity using all asking techniques. We conclude that, while it is difficult to create scope sensitivity in WTD judgments, SUA should be considered a promising approach to increase charitable donations

    Virtues for real-world utilitarians

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    Utilitarianism says that we should maximize aggregate well-being, impartially considered. But utilitarians that try to apply this principle will encounter many psychological obstacles, ranging from selfishness to moral biases to limits to epistemic and instrumental rationality. To overcome the most important of these obstacles, utilitarians should cultivate a number of virtues. These virtues are selected based on two criteria. First, the virtues should be impactful: they should greatly increase your impact (according to utilitarian standards) if you acquire them. Second, the virtues should be acquirable: they should be psychologically realistic to acquire. These criteria yield that utilitarians should prioritize six virtues: moderate altruism, moral expansiveness, effectiveness-focus, truth-seeking, collaborativeness, and determination. The chapter ends with a discussion of how these virtues compare with standard conceptions of utilitarianism as well as with common sense morality

    Images of Preto Velho in the representations of type from Museu Afro Brasil: proposal for an interpretation of an African matrix

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    O presente trabalho explora o conjunto representações de idosos negros pertencentes ao acervo do Museu Afro Brasil a partir da iconografia das entidades de matriz africana Preto Velho e Preta Velha. O estudo propõe a comparação visual entre as entidades e as obras dos pintores João e Artur Timótheo da Costa e Benedito José Tobias de modo a entender essa produção para além da tradicional abordagem da história da arte atrelada aos gêneros de pintura ocidental – pintura de gênero, retrato e estudo de tipos. Ao deslocar o escopo analítico se levantam novas questões e hipóteses quanto as obras, seus sentidos, intencionalidades e diálogos com o período, de maneira que este estudo se aprofunda em problemáticas envolvendo a representação da população negra no Brasil, o contexto dos artistas negros e sua produção nas primeiras décadas do século XX, assim como o contexto histórico e social da iconografia das entidades, a fim de realizar uma análise comparativa que visa mostrar que esses retratos fazem parte de uma cultura visual em que podem se mesclar tradições não apenas acadêmicas, mas também afro-brasileiras. Por fim a proposta deste trabalho objetiva, para além dos temas abordados, renovar a atenção para artistas negros, sua agencia e caráter inovador no período, tal qual a potência de sua produção.Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP)2022/03419-
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