150 research outputs found

    Phospholipases in Gliomas: Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives from Bench to Bedside

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    Phospholipases are essential intermediaries that work as hydrolyzing enzymes of phospholipids (PLs), which represent the most abundant species contributing to the biological membranes of nervous cells of the healthy human brain. They generate different lipid mediators, such as diacylglycerol, phosphatidic acid, lysophosphatidic acid, and arachidonic acid, representing key elements of intra- and inter-cellular signaling and being involved in the regulation of several cellular mechanisms that can promote tumor progression and aggressiveness. In this review, it is summarized the current knowledge about the role of phospholipases in brain tumor progression, focusing on low- and high-grade gliomas, representing promising prognostic or therapeutic targets in cancer therapies due to their influential roles in cell proliferation, migration, growth, and survival. A deeper understanding of the phospholipases-related signaling pathways could be necessary to pave the way for new targeted therapeutic strategies

    Exploring the cost-effectiveness of high versus low perioperative fraction of inspired oxygen in the prevention of surgical site infections among abdominal surgery patients in three low- and middle-income countries

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    Background: This study assessed the potential cost-effectiveness of high (80–100%) vs low (21–35%) fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) at preventing surgical site infections (SSIs) after abdominal surgery in Nigeria, India, and South Africa. Methods: Decision-analytic models were constructed using best available evidence sourced from unbundled data of an ongoing pilot trial assessing the effectiveness of high FiO2, published literature, and a cost survey in Nigeria, India, and South Africa. Effectiveness was measured as percentage of SSIs at 30 days after surgery, a healthcare perspective was adopted, and costs were reported in US dollars ().Results:HighFiO2maybecosteffective(cheaperandeffective).InNigeria,theaveragecostforhighFiO2was). Results: High FiO2 may be cost-effective (cheaper and effective). In Nigeria, the average cost for high FiO2 was 216 compared with 222forlowFiO2leadingtoa 222 for low FiO2 leading to a −6 (95% confidence interval [CI]: −13to 13 to −1) difference in costs. In India, the average cost for high FiO2 was 184comparedwith184 compared with 195 for low FiO2 leading to a −11(9511 (95% CI: −15 to −6)differenceincosts.InSouthAfrica,theaveragecostforhighFiO2was6) difference in costs. In South Africa, the average cost for high FiO2 was 1164 compared with 1257forlowFiO2leadingtoa 1257 for low FiO2 leading to a −93 (95% CI: −132to 132 to −65) difference in costs. The high FiO2 arm had few SSIs, 7.33% compared with 8.38% for low FiO2, leading to a −1.05 (95% CI: −1.14 to −0.90) percentage point reduction in SSIs. Conclusion: High FiO2 could be cost-effective at preventing SSIs in the three countries but further data from large clinical trials are required to confirm this

    Unravelling the mechanotransduction pathways in Alzheimer’s disease

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    Abstract Alzheimer’s disease (AD) represents one of the most common and debilitating neurodegenerative disorders. By the end of 2040, AD patients might reach 11.2 million in the USA, around 70% higher than 2022, with severe consequences on the society. As now, we still need research to find effective methods to treat AD. Most studies focused on the tau and amyloid hypothesis, but many other factors are likely involved in the pathophysiology of AD. In this review, we summarize scientific evidence dealing with the mechanotransduction players in AD to highlight the most relevant mechano-responsive elements that play a role in AD pathophysiology. We focused on the AD-related role of extracellular matrix (ECM), nuclear lamina, nuclear transport and synaptic activity. The literature supports that ECM alteration causes the lamin A increment in the AD patients, leading to the formation of nuclear blebs and invaginations. Nuclear blebs have consequences on the nuclear pore complexes, impairing nucleo-cytoplasmic transport. This may result in tau hyperphosphorylation and its consequent self-aggregation in tangles, which impairs the neurotransmitters transport. It all exacerbates in synaptic transmission impairment, leading to the characteristic AD patient’s memory loss. Here we related for the first time all the evidence associating the mechanotransduction pathway with neurons. In addition, we highlighted the entire pathway influencing neurodegenerative diseases, paving the way for new research perspectives in the context of AD and related pathologies

    The effects of primary care monitoring strategies on COVID-19 related hospitalisation and mortality: a retrospective electronic medical records review in a northern Italian province, the MAGMA study

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    Most symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections produce mild to moderate symptoms. Although most patients are managed in the outpatient setting, little is known about the effect of general practitioners’ (GP) management strategies on the outcomes of COVID-19 outpatients in Italy. Describe the management of Italian GPs of SARS-CoV-2 infected adult patients and explore whether GP active care and monitoring are associated with reducing hospitalisation and death. Retrospective observational study of SARS-CoV-2 infected adult outpatients managed by GPs in Modena (Italy) from March 2020 to April 2021. Information on management and monitoring strategies, patients’ socio-demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and outcomes (hospitalisation and death due to COVID-19) were retrieved through an electronic medical record review and analysed descriptively and through multiple logistic regression. Out of the 5340 patients from 46 GPs included in the study, 3014 (56%) received remote monitoring, and 840 (16%) had at least one home visit. More than 85% of severe or critical patients were actively monitored (73% daily) and 52% were visited at home. Changes over time in patients’ therapeutic management were observed in concordance with the guidelines’ release. Active daily remote monitoring and home visits were strongly associated with reduced hospitalisation rate (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.33–0.80 and OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.33–0.78 respectively). GPs effectively managed an increasing number of outpatients during the first waves of the pandemic. Active monitoring and home visits were associated with reduced hospitalisation in COVID-19 outpatients.</p

    The effects of primary care monitoring strategies on COVID-19 related hospitalisation and mortality: a retrospective electronic medical records review in a northern Italian province, the MAGMA study

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    Background: Most symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections produce mild to moderate symptoms. Although most patients are managed in the outpatient setting, little is known about the effect of general practitioners' (GP) management strategies on the outcomes of COVID-19 outpatients in Italy. Objectives: Describe the management of Italian GPs of SARS-CoV-2 infected adult patients and explore whether GP active care and monitoring are associated with reducing hospitalisation and death. Methods: Retrospective observational study of SARS-CoV-2 infected adult outpatients managed by GPs in Modena (Italy) from March 2020 to April 2021. Information on management and monitoring strategies, patients' socio-demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and outcomes (hospitalisation and death due to COVID-19) were retrieved through an electronic medical record review and analysed descriptively and through multiple logistic regression. Results: Out of the 5340 patients from 46 GPs included in the study, 3014 (56%) received remote monitoring, and 840 (16%) had at least one home visit. More than 85% of severe or critical patients were actively monitored (73% daily) and 52% were visited at home. Changes over time in patients' therapeutic management were observed in concordance with the guidelines' release. Active daily remote monitoring and home visits were strongly associated with reduced hospitalisation rate (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.33-0.80 and OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.33-0.78 respectively). Conclusion: GPs effectively managed an increasing number of outpatients during the first waves of the pandemic. Active monitoring and home visits were associated with reduced hospitalisation in COVID-19 outpatients

    Molecular Fingerprint of BMD Patients Lacking a Portion in the Rod Domain of Dystrophin

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    BMD is characterized by a marked heterogeneity of gene mutations resulting in many abnormal dystrophin proteins with different expression and residual functions. The smaller dystrophin molecules lacking a portion around exon 48 of the rod domain, named the D8 region, are related to milder phenotypes. The study aimed to determine which proteins might contribute to preserving muscle function in these patients. Patients were subdivided, based on the absence or presence of deletions in the D8 region, into two groups, BMD1 and BMD2. Muscle extracts were analyzed by 2-D DIGE, label-free LC-ESI-MS/MS, and Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA). Increased levels of proteins typical of fast fibers and of proteins involved in the sarcomere reorganization characterize BMD2. IPA of proteomics datasets indicated in BMD2 prevalence of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis and a correct flux through the TCA cycle enabling them to maintain both metabolism and epithelial adherens junction. A 2-D DIGE analysis revealed an increase of acetylated proteoforms of moonlighting proteins aldolase, enolase, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase that can target the nucleus promoting stem cell recruitment and muscle regeneration. In BMD2, immunoblotting indicated higher levels of myogenin and lower levels of PAX7 and SIRT1/2 associated with a set of proteins identified by proteomics as involved in muscle homeostasis maintenance

    Use of Telemedicine for Post-discharge Assessment of the Surgical Wound: International Cohort Study, and Systematic Review with Meta-analysis