120 research outputs found

    Discussion of off-target and tentative genomic findings may sometimes be necessary to allow evaluation of their clinical significance

    Get PDF
    We discuss a case where clinical genomic investigation of muscle weakness unexpectedly found a genetic variant that might (or might not) predispose to kidney cancer. We argue that despite its off-target and uncertain nature, this variant should be discussed with the man who had the test, not because it is medical information, but because this discussion would allow the further clinical evaluation that might lead it to becoming so. We argue that while prominent ethical debates around genomics often take 'results' as a starting point and ask questions as to whether to look for and how to react to them, the construction of genomic results is fraught with ethical complexity, although often couched as a primarily technical problem. We highlight the need for greater focus on, and appreciation of, the ethical work undertaken daily by scientists and clinicians working in genomic medicine and discuss how public conversations around genomics need to adapt to prepare future patients for potentially uncertain and unexpected outcomes from clinical genomic tests

    Genomic variant sharing: a position statement.

    Get PDF
    Sharing de-identified genetic variant data is essential for the practice of genomic medicine and is demonstrably beneficial to patients. Robust genetic diagnoses that inform medical management cannot be made accurately without reference to genetic test results from other patients, as well as population controls. Errors in this process can result in delayed, missed or erroneous diagnoses, leading to inappropriate or missed medical interventions for the patient and their family. The benefits of sharing individual genetic variants, and the harms of not sharing them, are numerous and well-established. Databases and mechanisms already exist to facilitate deposition and sharing of pseudonomised genetic variants, but clarity and transparency around best practice is needed to encourage widespread use, prevent inconsistencies between different communities, maximise individual privacy and ensure public trust. We therefore recommend that widespread sharing of a small number of individual genetic variants associated with limited clinical information should become standard practice in genomic medicine. Information robustly linking genetic variants with specific conditions is fundamental biological knowledge, not personal information, and therefore should not require consent to share. For additional case-level detail about individual patients or more extensive genomic information, which is often essential for clinical interpretation, it may be more appropriate to use a controlled-access model for data sharing, with the ultimate aim of making as much information as open and de-identified as possible with appropriate consent

    Cognitive and affective outcomes of genetic counselling in the Netherlands at group and individual level:a personalized approach seems necessary

    Get PDF
    We performed a large outcome study at group and individual level in which the goals of genetic counselling were operationalized into cognitive and affective outcomes: empowerment, perceived personal control and anxiety. We then examined which socio-demographic and clinical variables were associated with changes in these outcomes. Data came from 1479 counselees who completed questionnaires (GCOS-18, PPC and STAI) at three time points: before the start of genetic counselling, after the first consultation and after the results of genetic counselling were disclosed. Results showed that at group level empowerment, perceived personal control and anxiety improved significantly after the whole genetic counselling process. Effect-sizes were medium for empowerment and small for the other outcomes. At individual level, 48% of counselees improved in empowerment, 21% in perceived personal control and 17% in anxiety. Around 10% of counselees worsened on all outcomes. Only 'reason for referral' and 'genetic test result' were significantly associated with changes in outcomes. This study demonstrated improvements among counselees in cognitive and affective outcomes after genetic counselling at group level. However, our results also suggest that there are opportunities for improvement at individual level, as many counselees remained stable and some even worsened on all outcomes. Routine outcome monitoring could help to explore the needs of counselees and could help to identify counselees who worsen.</p

    Population-based preconception carrier screening:how potential users from the general population view a test for 50 serious diseases

    Get PDF
    With the increased international focus on personalized health care and preventive medicine, next-generation sequencing (NGS) has substantially expanded the options for carrier screening of serious, recessively inherited diseases. NGS screening tests not only offer reproductive options not previously available to couples, but they may also ultimately reduce the number of children born with devastating disorders. To date, preconception carrier screening (PCS) has largely targeted single diseases such as cystic fibrosis, but NGS allows the testing of many genes or diseases simultaneously. We have developed an expanded NGS PCS test for couples; simultaneously it covers 50 very serious, early-onset, autosomal recessive diseases that are untreatable. This is the first, noncommercial, population-based, expanded PCS test to be offered prospectively to couples in a health-care setting in Europe. So far, little is known about how potential users view such a PCS test. We therefore performed an online survey in 2014 among 500 people from the target population in the Netherlands. We enquired about their intention to take an expanded PCS test if one was offered, and through which provider they would like to see it offered. One-third of the respondents said they would take such a test were it to be offered. The majority (44%) preferred the test to be offered via their general practitioner (GP) and 58% would be willing to pay for the test, with a median cost of €75. Our next step is to perform an implementation study in which this PCS test will be provided via selected GPs in the Northern Netherlands

    Population-based preconception carrier screening: how potential users from the general population view a test for 50 serious diseases

    No full text
    With the increased international focus on personalized health care and preventive medicine, next-generation sequencing (NGS) has substantially expanded the options for carrier screening of serious, recessively inherited diseases. NGS screening tests not only offer reproductive options not previously available to couples, but they may also ultimately reduce the number of children born with devastating disorders. To date, preconception carrier screening (PCS) has largely targeted single diseases such as cystic fibrosis, but NGS allows the testing of many genes or diseases simultaneously. We have developed an expanded NGS PCS test for couples; simultaneously it covers 50 very serious, early-onset, autosomal recessive diseases that are untreatable. This is the first, noncommercial, population-based, expanded PCS test to be offered prospectively to couples in a health-care setting in Europe. So far, little is known about how potential users view such a PCS test. We therefore performed an online survey in 2014 among 500 people from the target population in the Netherlands. We enquired about their intention to take an expanded PCS test if one was offered, and through which provider they would like to see it offered. One-third of the respondents said they would take such a test were it to be offered. The majority (44%) preferred the test to be offered via their general practitioner (GP) and 58% would be willing to pay for the test, with a median cost of [euro ]75. Our next step is to perform an implementation study in which this PCS test will be provided via selected GPs in the Northern Netherlands

    Genetic testing of children for adult-onset conditions: opinions of the British adult population and implications for clinical practice

    No full text
    This study set out to explore the attitudes of a representative sample of the British public towards genetic testing in children to predict disease in the future. We sought opinions about genetic testing for adult-onset conditions for which no prevention/treatment is available during childhood, and about genetic 'carrier' status to assess future reproductive risks. The study also examined participants' level of agreement with the reasons professional organisations give in favour of deferring such testing. Participants (n=2998) completed a specially designed questionnaire, distributed by email. Nearly half of the sample (47%) agreed that parents should be able to test their child for adult-onset conditions, even if there is no treatment or prevention at time of testing. This runs contrary to professional guidance about genetic testing in children. Testing for carrier status was supported by a larger proportion (60%). A child's future ability to decide for her/himself if and when to be tested was the least supported argument in favour of deferring testing.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 5 November 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.221

    Next Generation Diagnostics in Inherited Arrhythmia Syndromes A Comparison of Two Approaches

    Get PDF
    Abstract Next-generation sequencing (NGS) provides an unprecedented opportunity to assess genetic variation underlying human disease. Here, we compared two NGS approaches for diagnostic sequencing in inherited arrhythmia syndromes. We compared PCR-based target enrichment and long-read sequencing (PCR-LR) with in-solution hybridization-based enrichment and short-read sequencing (Hyb-SR). The PCR-LR assay comprehensively assessed five long-QT genes routinely sequenced in diagnostic laboratories and &quot;hot spots&quot; in RYR2. The Hyb-SR assay targeted 49 genes, including those in the PCR-LR assay. The sensitivity for detection of control variants did not differ between approaches. In both assays, the major limitation was upstream target capture, particular in regions of extreme GC content. These initial experiences with NGS cardiovascular diagnostics achieved up to 89 % sensitivity at a fraction of current costs. In the next iteration of these assays we anticipate sensitivity above 97 % for all LQT genes. NGS assays will soon replace conventional sequencing for LQT diagnostics and molecular pathology

    Next generation diagnostics in inherited arrhythmia syndromes : a comparison of two approaches.

    Get PDF
    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) provides an unprecedented opportunity to assess genetic variation underlying human disease. Here, we compared two NGS approaches for diagnostic sequencing in inherited arrhythmia syndromes. We compared PCR-based target enrichment and long-read sequencing (PCR-LR) with in-solution hybridization-based enrichment and short-read sequencing (Hyb-SR). The PCR-LR assay comprehensively assessed five long-QT genes routinely sequenced in diagnostic laboratories and "hot spots" in RYR2. The Hyb-SR assay targeted 49 genes, including those in the PCR-LR assay. The sensitivity for detection of control variants did not differ between approaches. In both assays, the major limitation was upstream target capture, particular in regions of extreme GC content. These initial experiences with NGS cardiovascular diagnostics achieved up to 89 % sensitivity at a fraction of current costs. In the next iteration of these assays we anticipate sensitivity above 97 % for all LQT genes. NGS assays will soon replace conventional sequencing for LQT diagnostics and molecular pathology
    corecore