80 research outputs found

    A Cross-Sectional Study Comparing the Frequency of Drug Interactions After Adding Simeprevir- or Sofosbuvir-Containing Therapy to Medication Profiles of Hepatitis C Monoinfected Patients.

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    INTRODUCTION:This study compares the expected occurrence of contraindicated drug-drug interactions (XDDIs) when simeprevir (SIM)- or sofosbuvir (SOF)-containing therapy is added to medication profiles of patients with hepatitis C (HCV) monoinfection to quantify, in relative terms, the population-based risk of XDDIs. Second, this study identified the predictors of XDDIs when HCV therapies are added to medication profiles. METHODS:A cross-sectional study was performed among Veterans' Affairs patients. Inclusion criteria were: (1) age ≥18 years, (2) HCV infection, and (3) availability of a medication list. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus were excluded. Demographics, comorbidities, year of HCV diagnosis, and most recent medication list were collected from medical records. The primary outcome was the presence of XDDIs involving HCV therapy and the medications in the patient's home medication list after the addition of either SIM- or SOF-containing regimens. To define XDDIs, Lexi-Interact drug interaction software was used. RESULTS:4,251 patients were included. The prevalence of XDDIs involving SIM- or SOF-containing therapy were 12.6% and 4.7% (p < 0.001), respectively. In multivariable analyses examining the predictors of XDDIs involving SIM-containing therapy, the only medication-related predictor was use of ≥6 home medications (odds ratio OR 4.58, 95% confidence interval CI 3.54-5.20, p < 0.001). Similarly, use of ≥6 home medications was also the only variable associated with an increased probability of XDDI involving SOF-containing therapy (OR 3.83, 95% CI 2.57-5.70, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Sofosbuvir-containing therapy had a lower frequency of XDDIs than SIM-containing therapy. Polypharmacy with various classes of home medications predicted XDDIs involving SIM- or SOF-containing therapy

    Changes in population characteristics and their implication on public health research

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    Population estimates are generally drawn from one point in time to study disease trends over time; changes in population characteristics over time are usually not assessed and included in the study design. We evaluated whether population characteristics remained static and assessed the degree of population shifts over time. The analysis was based on the New York State 1990 and 2000 census data with adjustments for changes in geographic boundaries. Differences in census tract information were quantified by calculating the mean, median, standard deviation, and the percent of change for each population characteristic. Between 1990 and 2000, positive and negative fluctuations in population size created a U-shaped bimodal pattern of population change which increased the disparities in demographics and socioeconomic status for many census tracts. While 268 (10%) census tracts contracted by 10%, twice as many census tracts (21%, N = 557) grew at least 10%. Notably, the non-Hispanic African-American population grew 10% or more in 152 tracts. Although there were overall reductions in working class and undereducated populations and gains in incomes, most census tracts experienced growing income inequalities and an increased poverty rate. These changes were most pronounced in urban census tracts. Differences in population characteristics in a decade showed growing disparities in demographics and socioeconomic status. This study elucidates that important population shifts should be taken into account when conducting longitudinal research

    Charting a Path to Location Intelligence for STD Control

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    This article describes the New York State Department of Health's GeoDatabase project, which developed new methods and techniques for designing and building a geocoding and mapping data repository for sexually transmitted disease (STD) control. The GeoDatabase development was supported through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Outcome Assessment through Systems of Integrated Surveillance workgroup. The design and operation of the GeoDatabase relied upon commercial-off-the-shelf tools that other public health programs may also use for disease-control systems. This article provides a blueprint of the structure and software used to build the GeoDatabase and integrate location data from multiple data sources into the everyday activities of STD control programs

    Author manuscript; available in PMC

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    Abstract The current study aims to further our understanding of the applicability of the transtheoretical model (TM) to intimate partner violence (IPV), with particular focus on mental health symptoms (depression, posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology, suicidal ideation) in a sample of lowincome African American women seeking medical services at an inner city emergency department. Results revealed that of the 121 abused African American women, the majority (95%) were in the precontempla-tion and contemplation stages of the change process. Further, contrary to predictions, bivariate analyses revealed those at further stages of change endorsed more severe mental health symptoms. However, a multivariate analysis of variance examining differences in level of mental health symptoms between women high and low on stages of change was inconclusive due to the small number of women at the higher stages of the TM model. These findings contribute to the growing body of literature supporting the TM as applied to IPV. Results are discussed in terms of applicability to intervention design. Keywords intimate partner violence; African American women; transtheoretical model The transtheoretical model (TM), also known as the stages of change model, describes an individual's readiness to change behavior. The TM suggests that to make a successful behavior change, individuals must go through a process of evaluating and increasing their readiness to change, ultimately making the change and maintaining the behavior. The TM conceptualize

    Population-based type-specific prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in Estonia

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Effective prophylactic vaccines are available against human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16, and 18 which are licensed for routine use among young women. Monitoring is needed to demonstrate protection against cervical cancer, to verify duration of protection, and assess replacement frequency of non-vaccine types among vaccinated cohorts.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Data from a population-based study were used to assess the type-specific prevalence of HPV in a non-vaccinated population in Estonia: 845 self-administered surveys and self-collected vaginal swabs were distributed, 346 were collected by mail and tested for HPV DNA from female participants 18-35 years of age.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The overall HPV prevalence (weighted estimate to account for the sampling method) in the study population (unvaccinated women aged 18-35) was calculated to be 38% (95% CI 31-45%), with estimated prevalences of high- and low-risk HPV types 21% (95% CI 16-26%), and 10% (95% CI 7-14%), respectively. Of the high-risk HPV types, HPV 16 was detected most frequently (6.4%; 95% CI 4.0-9.8%) followed by HPV 53 (4.3%; 95% CI 2.3-7.2%) and HPV 66 (2.8%; 95% CI 1.3-5.2%).</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>We observed a high prevalence of total and high-risk type HPV in an Eastern European country. The most common high-risk HPV types detected were HPV 16, 53, and 66.</p

    Enhanced tuberculosis case detection among substitution treatment patients: a randomized controlled trial

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Historically, HIV, TB (tuberculosis) and illegal drug treatment services in Estonia have been developed as vertical structures. Related health care services are often provided by different health care institutions and in different locations. This may present obstacles for vulnerable groups, such as injecting drug users (IDU), to access the needed services. We conducted a small scale randomized controlled trial to evaluate a case management intervention aimed at increasing TB screening and treatment entry among IDUs referred from a methadone drug treatment program in Jõhvi, North-Eastern Estonia.</p> <p>Findings</p> <p>Of the 189 potential subjects, 112 (59%) participated. HIV prevalence was 86% (n = 96) and 7.4% (n = 8) of participants were interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) positive (6.5% were both HIV and IGRA-positive, n = 7). Overall, 44% of participants (n = 49) attended TB clinic, 17 (30%) from control group and 32 (57%) from case management group (p = 0.004). None of the participants were diagnosed with TB. In a multivariate model, those randomized to case management group were more likely to access TB screening services.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>These findings demonstrate the urgent need for scaling up TB screening among IDUs and the value of more active approach in referring substitution treatment patients to TB services.</p> <p>Trial registration</p> <p>ClinicalTrials.gov: <a href="http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01290081">NCT01290081</a></p

    The impact of different benefit packages of Medical Financial Assistance Scheme on health service utilization of poor population in Rural China

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Since 2003 and 2005, National Pilot Medical Financial Assistance Scheme (MFA) has been implemented in rural and urban areas of China to improve the poorest families' accessibility to health services. Local governments of the pilot areas formulated various benefit packages. Comparative evaluation research on the effect of different benefit packages is urgently needed to provide evidence for improving policy-making of MFA. This study was based on a MFA pilot project, which was one component of Health VIII Project conducted in rural China. This article aimed to compare difference in health services utilization of poor families between two benefit package project areas: H8 towns (package covering inpatient service, some designated preventive and curative health services but without out-patient service reimbursement in Health VIII Project,) and H8SP towns (package extending coverage of target population, covering out- patient services and reducing co-payment rate in Health VIII Supportive Project), and to find out major influencing factors on their services utilization.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2004, which used stratified cluster sampling method to select poor families who have been enrolled in MFA scheme in rural areas of ChongQing. All family members of the enrolled households were interviewed. 748 and 1129 respondents from two kinds of project towns participated in the survey. Among them, 625 and 869 respondents were included (age≥15) in the analysis of this study. Two-level linear multilevel model and binomial regressions with a log link were used to assess influencing factors on different response variables measuring service utilization.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>In general, there was no statistical significance in physician visits and hospitalizations among all the respondents between the two kinds of benefit package towns. After adjusting for major confounding factors, poor families in H8SP towns had much higher frequency of MFA use (β = 1.17) and less use of hospitalization service (OR = 0.7 (H8SP/H8), 95%CI (0.5, 1.0)) among all the respondents. While calculating use of hospital services among those who needed, there was significant difference (p = 0.032) in percentage of hospitalization use between H8SP towns (46%) and H8 towns (33%). Meanwhile, the non-use but ought-to-use hospitalization ratio of H8SP (54%) was lower than that of H8 (67 %) towns. This indicated that hospitalization utilizations had improved in H8SP towns among those who needed. Awareness of MFA detailed benefit package and presence of physician diagnosed chronic disease had significant association with frequency of MFA use and hospitalizations. There was no significant difference in rate of borrowing money for illness treatment between the two project areas. Large amount of medical debt had strong association with hospitalization utilization.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>The new extended benefit package implemented in pilot towns significantly increased the poor families' accessibility to MFA package in H8SP than that of H8 towns, which reduced poor families' demand of hospitalization services for their chronic diseases, and improved the poor population's utilization of out-patient services to some degree. It can encourage poor people to use more outpatient services thus reduce their hospitalization need. Presence of chronic disease and hospitalization had strong association with the presence of large amount of medical debt, which indicated that: although establishment of MFA had facilitated accessibility of poor families to this new system, and improved service utilization of poor families to some degree, but its role in reducing poor families' medical debt resulted from chronic disease and hospitalization was still very limited. Besides, the following requirements of MFA: co-payment for in-patient services, ceiling and deductibles for reimbursement, limitations on eligibility for diseases reimbursement, also served as most important obstacles for poor families' access to health care.</p> <p>Therefore, there is great need to improve MFA benefit package design in the future, including extending to cover out-patient services, raising ceiling for reimbursement, removing deductibles of MFA, reducing co-payment rate, and integrating MFA with New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme more closely so as to provide more protection to the poor families.</p
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