61 research outputs found

    Phenotypic Plasticity in Gut Length in the Planktivorous Filter-Feeding Silver Carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

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    Phenotypic plasticity widely exists in the external morphology of animals as well as the internal traits of organs. In the present study, we studied the gut length plasticity of planktivorous filter-feeding silver carp under different food resources in large-net cage experiments in Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu in 2004 and 2005. There was a significant difference in stocking density between these 2 years. Under a low stocking density and abundant food resources, silver carp increased their energy intake by feeding on more zooplankton. Meanwhile, silver carp adjusted their gut length to match the digestive requirements of food when exposed to different food resources. In the main growth seasons (from April to October), silver carp significantly increased their relative gut length when feeding on more phytoplankton in 2005 (p < 0.01, 9.23 ± 1.80 in 2004 and 10.77 ± 2.05 in 2005, respectively). There was a nearly significant negative correlation between zooplankton proportion in the diet and the relative gut length when silver carp were stocked in a high density (p = 0.112). It appears that silver carp might have evolved plasticity to change their gut length rapidly to facilitate efficient utilization of food resources. Such resource polymorphisms in the gut may be a good indication of temporal adaptation to resource conditions. Our work provided field evidence for understanding the functional basis of resource polymorphisms and the evolution of phenotypic plasticity in planktivorous filter-feeding fish

    Field and Laboratory Studies on Pathological and Biochemical Characterization of Microcystin-Induced Liver and Kidney Damage in the Phytoplanktivorous Bighead Carp

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    Field and experimental studies were conducted to investigate pathological characterizations and biochemical responses in the liver and kidney of the phytoplanktivorous bighead carp after intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of microcystins (MCs) and exposure to natural cyanobacterial blooms in Meiliang Bay, Lake Taihu. Bighead carp in field and laboratory studies showed a progressive recovery of structure and function in terms of histological, cellular, and biochemical features. In laboratory study, when fish were i.p. injected with extracted MCs at the doses of 200 and 500 μg MC-LReq/kg body weight, respectively, liver pathology in bighead carp was observed in a time dose-dependent manner within 24 h postinjection and characterized by disruption of liver structure, condensed cytoplasm, and the appearance of massive hepatocytes with karyopyknosis, karyorrhexis, and karyolysis. In comparison with previous studies on other fish, bighead carp in field study endured higher MC doses and longer-term exposure, but displayed less damage in the liver and kidney. Ultrastructural examination in the liver revealed the presence of lysosome proliferation, suggesting that bighead carp might eliminate or lessen cell damage caused by MCs through lysosome activation. Biochemically, sensitive responses in the antioxidant enzymes and higher basal glutathione concentrations might be responsible for their powerful resistance to MCs, suggesting that bighead carp can be used as biomanipulation fish to counteract cyanotoxin contamination

    In situ studies on physiological and biochemical responses of four fishes with different trophic levels to toxic cyanobacterial blooms in a large Chinese lake

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    Physiological and biochemical responses of four fishes with different trophic levels to toxic cyanobacterial blooms were studied in a large net cage in Meiliang Bay, a hypereutrophic region of Lake Taihu. We sampled four fishes: the phytoplanktivorous Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Aristichthys nobilis, the omnivorous Carassius auratus, and the carnivorous Culter ilishaeformis. Alterations of the antioxidant (GSH) and the major antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD, GPx, GST) in livers were monitored monthly, and the ultrastructures of livers were compared between the bloom and post-bloom periods. During the cyanobacterial blooms, the phytoplanktivorous fishes displayed only slight ultrastructural changes in liver, while the carnivorous fish presented the most serious injury as swollen endomembrane system and morphologically altered nuclei in hepatocytes. Biochemically, the phytoplanktivorous fishes possessed higher basal GSH concentrations and better correlations between the major antioxidant enzymes in liver, which might be responsible for their powerful resistance to MCs. This article provided physiological and toxicological evidences for the possible succession of fish communities following occurrence of toxic cyanobacterial blooms and also for the applicability of using phytoplanktivorous fish to counteract toxic cyanobacterial blooms in natural waters. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Physiological and biochemical responses of four fishes with different trophic levels to toxic cyanobacterial blooms were studied in a large net cage in Meiliang Bay, a hypereutrophic region of Lake Taihu. We sampled four fishes: the phytoplanktivorous Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Aristichthys nobilis, the omnivorous Carassius auratus, and the carnivorous Culter ilishaeformis. Alterations of the antioxidant (GSH) and the major antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD, GPx, GST) in livers were monitored monthly, and the ultrastructures of livers were compared between the bloom and post-bloom periods. During the cyanobacterial blooms, the phytoplanktivorous fishes displayed only slight ultrastructural changes in liver, while the carnivorous fish presented the most serious injury as swollen endomembrane system and morphologically altered nuclei in hepatocytes. Biochemically, the phytoplanktivorous fishes possessed higher basal GSH concentrations and better correlations between the major antioxidant enzymes in liver, which might be responsible for their powerful resistance to MCs. This article provided physiological and toxicological evidences for the possible succession of fish communities following occurrence of toxic cyanobacterial blooms and also for the applicability of using phytoplanktivorous fish to counteract toxic cyanobacterial blooms in natural waters. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

    Factors Affecting Temporal and Spatial Variations of Microcystins in Gonghu Bay of Lake Taihu, with Potential Risk of Microcystin Contamination to Human Health

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    A field survey of the seasonal variation of microcystin (MC) concentration was performed in Gonghu Bay (a total of 15 sampling sites) of Lake Taihu from January to December 2008. Microcystis spp. biomass and intra-/extracellular MCs were significantly correlated with water temperature, suggesting the importance of temperature in cyanobacterial blooming in the lake. Higher MC concentration was found in summer and autumn, and peaks of Microcystis biomass and intra-/extracellular MC concentrations were all present in October. Spatially, risk of MCs was higher in littoral zones than in the pelagic area. There were significant correlations between N or P concentrations, and Microcystis biomass or MC content, suggesting that N and P levels affected MC production through influencing Microcystis biomass. Intra-/extracellular MCs and Microcystis biomass had negative exponential relationships with TN:TP, and the maximum values all occurred when TN:TP was <25. Multivariate analyses by PCCA indicated that intra- and extracellular MC concentrations had better correlations with biological factors (such as Microcystis biomass and chl-a) than with physicochemical factors. The maximum MC concentration reached up to 17 mu g/L MC-LReq, considerably higher than the drinking water safety standard (1 mu g/L) recommended by the WHO. So it is necessary to take measures to reduce the exposure risk of cyanobacterial toxins to human beings

    Assessment effects of cage culture on nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics in relation to fallowing in a shallow lake in China

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    Nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics in relation to fallowing in a fish cage farm was investigated in a shallow lake in China. Four sampling sites were set: beneath the cages, at the cage sides, and 50 and 100 m east of the cage farm. Total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in lake water and sediment were analyzed during a 2-year rearing cycle. The cage culture had a fish yield of 16.3-39.2 tonnes in the study period. Based on the mass balance equation, 1533-3084 kg TN and 339-697 kg TP were contributed to the lake environment. Nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations showed greater increase in the first culture period than in the second rearing cycle. No obvious changes were found at the sampling sites 50 and 100 m east of the cages during the study periods. Main impacts were found close to the cages (beneath the cages and at the cage side); the sampling points at the cage side showed relatively high TN and TP sedimentation. After 3 months of fallowing, water TN and TP decreased significantly but the sediment TN and TP contents remained high. Therefore, recovery seems to happen during fallowing but attention should be paid to whether the culture continues to operate in the future.Nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics in relation to fallowing in a fish cage farm was investigated in a shallow lake in China. Four sampling sites were set: beneath the cages, at the cage sides, and 50 and 100 m east of the cage farm. Total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in lake water and sediment were analyzed during a 2-year rearing cycle. The cage culture had a fish yield of 16.3-39.2 tonnes in the study period. Based on the mass balance equation, 1533-3084 kg TN and 339-697 kg TP were contributed to the lake environment. Nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations showed greater increase in the first culture period than in the second rearing cycle. No obvious changes were found at the sampling sites 50 and 100 m east of the cages during the study periods. Main impacts were found close to the cages (beneath the cages and at the cage side); the sampling points at the cage side showed relatively high TN and TP sedimentation. After 3 months of fallowing, water TN and TP decreased significantly but the sediment TN and TP contents remained high. Therefore, recovery seems to happen during fallowing but attention should be paid to whether the culture continues to operate in the future

    Phenotypic plasticity in gut length in the planktivorous filter-feeding silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix ). The Scientific World

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    Phenotypic plasticity widely exists in the external morphology of animals as well as the internal traits of organs. In the present study, we studied the gut length plasticity of planktivorous filter-feeding silver carp under different food resources in large-net cage experiments in Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu in 2004 and 2005. There was a significant difference in stocking density between these 2 years. Under a low stocking density and abundant food resources, silver carp increased their energy intake by feeding on more zooplankton. Meanwhile, silver carp adjusted their gut length to match the digestive requirements of food when exposed to different food resources. In the main growth seasons (from April to October), silver carp significantly increased their relative gut length when feeding on more phytoplankton in 2005 (p &lt; 0.01, 9.23 ± 1.80 in 2004 and 10.77 ± 2.05 in 2005, respectively). There was a nearly significant negative correlation between zooplankton proportion in the diet and the relative gut length when silver carp were stocked in a high density (p = 0.112). It appears that silver carp might have evolved plasticity to change their gut length rapidly to facilitate efficient utilization of food resources. Such resource polymorphisms in the gut may be a good indication of temporal adaptation to resource conditions. Our work provided field evidence for understanding the functional basis of resource polymorphisms and the evolution of phenotypic plasticity in planktivorous filter-feeding fish

    Characterization of dominant and cellulolytic bacterial communities along the gut of silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix during cyanobacterial blooms

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    Silver carp is one of the most important planktivorous fish in Chinese aquaculture and plays a significant role controlling cyanobacterial blooms. A balanced gut microbiota is crucial for growth and health of the host because of its important roles in immune defense, digestion of complex carbohydrates, and production of enterocytes. In our study, the dominant bacterial and cellulolytic bacterial (Clostridium I, Clostridium III, Clostridium XIVab, and Fibrobacter) communities in the contents and mucus of the silver carp gut (foregut, midgut, and hindgut) were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analyses. The results revealed that the dominant and cellulolytic bacterial communities were significantly different among gut regions as well as in contents and mucus. Bacterial diversity and richness in contents and mucus increased along the gut and were higher in contents than those in local mucus. A sequence analysis of gut samples exhibited the conservative phylotypes of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. The gut of silver carp harbored an abundance of cellulolytic bacteria, particularly Clostridium XIV ab. The foregut segment had the highest proportions of the four cellulolytic bacteria, followed by the midgut and hindgut. However, the proportions of cellulolytic species in the silver carp gut was much lower than those in the terrestrial vertebrate gastrointestinal tract. We conclude that gut bacteria could help silver carp obtain energy from cyanobacteria, which may be why silver carp can maintain high growth rates during cyanobacterial blooms

    Fish-mediated changes in bacterioplankton community composition: an in situ mesocosm experiment

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    We characterized variations in bacterioplankton community composition (BCC) in mesocosms subject to three different treatments. Two groups contained fish (group one: Cyprinus carpio; group two: Hypophthalmichthys molitrix); and group three, the untreated mesocosm, was the control. Samples were taken seven times over a 49-d period, and BCC was analyzed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Results revealed that introduction of C. carpio and H. molitrix had a remarkable impact on the composition of bacterioplankton communities, and the BCC was significantly different between each treatment. Sequencing of DGGE bands revealed that the bacterioplankton community in the different treatment groups was consistent at a taxonomic level, but differed in its abundance. H. molitrix promoted the richness of Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria, while more bands affiliated to Cyanobacteria were detected in C. carpio mesocosms. The redundancy analysis (RDA) result demonstrated that the BCC was closely related to the bottom-up (total phosphorus, chlorophyll a, phytoplankton biomass) and top-down forces (biomass of copepods and cladocera) in C. carpio and control mesocosms, respectively. We found no evidence for top-down regulation of BCC by zooplankton in H. molitrix mesocosms, while grazing by protozoa (heterotrophic nanoflagellates, ciliates) became the major way to regulate BCC. Total bacterioplankton abundances were significantly higher in C. carpio mesocosms because of high nutrient concentration and suspended solids. Our study provided insights into the relationship between fish and bacterioplankton at species level, leading to a deep understanding of the function of the microbial loop and the aquatic ecosystem.</p

    Fish-mediated changes in bacterioplankton community composition: an in situ mesocosm experiment

    No full text
    We characterized variations in bacterioplankton community composition (BCC) in mesocosms subject to three different treatments. Two groups contained fish (group one: Cyprinus carpio ; group two: Hypophthalmichthys molitrix); and group three, the untreated mesocosm, was the control. Samples were taken seven times over a 49-d period, and BCC was analyzed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Results revealed that introduction of C . carpio and H . molitrix had a remarkable impact on the composition of bacterioplankton communities, and the BCC was significantly different between each treatment. Sequencing of DGGE bands revealed that the bacterioplankton community in the different treatment groups was consistent at a taxonomic level, but differed in its abundance. H . molitrix promoted the richness of Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria, while more bands affiliated to Cyanobacteria were detected in C . carpio mesocosms. The redundancy analysis (RDA) result demonstrated that the BCC was closely related to the bottom-up (total phosphorus, chlorophyll a, phytoplankton biomass) and top-down forces (biomass of copepods and cladocera) in C . carpio and control mesocosms, respectively. We found no evidence for top-down regulation of BCC by zooplankton in H . molitrix mesocosms, while grazing by protozoa (heterotrophic nanoflagellates, ciliates) became the major way to regulate BCC. Total bacterioplankton abundances were significantly higher in C . carpio mesocosms because of high nutrient concentration and suspended solids. Our study provided insights into the relationship between fish and bacterioplankton at species level, leading to a deep understanding of the function of the microbial loop and the aquatic ecosystem
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