34,319 research outputs found

    Green roof - understanding their benefits for Australia

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    Summary of Actions Towards Sustainable Outcomes Environmental Issues / Principal Impacts The increased growth of cities is intensifying its impact on people and the environment through: • increased use of energy for the heating and cooling of more buildings, leading to urban heat islands and more greenhouse gas emissions • increased amount of hard surfaces contributing to higher temperatures in cities and more stormwater runoff • degraded air quality and noise impact • reduced urban biodiversity • compromised health and general well-being of people Basic Strategies In many design situations boundaries and constraints limit the application of cutting EDGe actions. In these circumstances designers should at least consider the following: • Consider green roofs early in the design process in consultation with all stakeholders to enable maximised integration with building systems and to mitigate building cost (avoid constructing as a retrofit). • Design of the green roof as part of a building’s structural, mechanical and hydraulic systems could lead to structural efficiency, the ability to optimise cooling benefits and better integrated water recycling systems. • Inform the selection of the type of green roof by considering its function, for example designing for social activity, required maintenance/access regime, recycling of water or habitat regeneration or a combination of uses. • Evaluate existing surroundings to determine possible links to the natural environment and choice of vegetation for the green roof with availability of local plant supply and expertise. Cutting EDGe Strategies • Create green roofs to contribute positively to the environment through reduced urban heat island effect and building temperatures, to improved stormwater quality, increased natural habitats, provision of social spaces and opportunity for increased local food supply. • Maximise solar panel efficiency by incorporating with design of green roof. • Integrate multiple functions for a single green roof such as grey water recycling, food production, more bio-diverse plantings, air quality improvement and provision of delightful spaces for social interaction. Synergies & references • BEDP Environment Design Guide DES 53: Roof and Facade Gardens GEN 4: Positive Development – designing for Net Positive Impacts TEC 26: Living Walls - a way to green the built environment • Green Roofs Australia: www.greenroofs.wordpress.com • International Green Roof Association: www.igra-world.com • Green Roofs for Healthy Cities (USA): www.greenroofs.org • Centre for Urban Greenery and Ecology (Singapore): http://research.cuge.com.s

    Regression tree models for designed experiments

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    Although regression trees were originally designed for large datasets, they can profitably be used on small datasets as well, including those from replicated or unreplicated complete factorial experiments. We show that in the latter situations, regression tree models can provide simpler and more intuitive interpretations of interaction effects as differences between conditional main effects. We present simulation results to verify that the models can yield lower prediction mean squared errors than the traditional techniques. The tree models span a wide range of sophistication, from piecewise constant to piecewise simple and multiple linear, and from least squares to Poisson and logistic regression.Comment: Published at http://dx.doi.org/10.1214/074921706000000464 in the IMS Lecture Notes--Monograph Series (http://www.imstat.org/publications/lecnotes.htm) by the Institute of Mathematical Statistics (http://www.imstat.org

    Effects of White Space on Consumer Perceptions of Value in E-Commerce

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    As e-commerce becomes an increasingly large industry, questions remain about how the isolated effects of design elements on websites influence consumer perceptions and purchasing behavior. This study used a quantitative approach to measuring the effect of a ubiquitous element of design, white space, on the perception of the monetary value of individual items. White space is a key component of design and website usability, yet it has been shown to be related to the perception of luxury. Little is known about the direct relationship between manipulation of white space and the outcomes on consumer perceptions of value in an e-commerce context. This study found no significant difference between two levels of total white space area (large vs. small) measured by participants\u27 perceived cost of items (chairs). In contrast, while holding total white space constant, the effect of white space distance between images was significant for males but not for females. Additionally, no significant relationship between gender and frequency of online shopping behavior was found, χ2(1) = 3.19, p = .07, ϕ = .17. Gender and amount of time spent per month online were significantly related, χ2(1) = 6.21, p = .013, ϕ = .24