220 research outputs found

    'Help, my teacher is pressuring me!' The role of students' coping with controlling teaching in motivation and engagement

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    Ample research has shown that a controlling teaching style is detrimental for students' motivation and engagement in school. However, little is known about how students cope with such a teaching style. Therefore, grounded in Self-Determination Theory, the present study examines the role of four coping strategies (i.e. oppositional defiance, compulsive compliance, negotiation and accommodation) in students' motivation and engagement. A repeated measures design with four weekly assessments was used to examine associations both at the between- and within-student level. The sample consisted of students from 4 to 6th grade (N = 433; 51% boys, Mage = 10.6 years). The findings showed that oppositional defiance exacerbated associations between controlling teaching and amotivation. The moderating role of both compulsive compliance and negotiation was limited. Accommodation buffered associations between controlling teaching and amotivation and low engagement at the within-person level of analysis. In addition to a moderating role, we also found evidence for a mediating role of coping. Specifically, controlling teaching related positively to oppositional defiance and compulsive compliance, which, in turn, were related to maladaptive student outcomes. Moreover, controlling teaching related positively to negotiation, which, in turn, related positively to adaptive student outcomes. Overall, the results underscore students' active role in teacher-student dynamics. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed

    Predictors and outcomes of sports coaches’ athlete-invested contingent self-worth

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    Some sports coaches not only invest considerable time and energy in their athletes, but also attach their selfworth to the successes and failures of their athletes. Grounded in Self-Determination Theory, the present study aimed to examine the theoretical predictors and outcomes of such Athlete-Invested Contingent Self-worth (AICS). Results from a cross-sectional study (Study 1; N = 740, Mage = 34.37 years) and an experimental vignette-based study among youth sports coaches (Study 2; N = 318, Mage = 38.94 years) indicated that AICS was positively related to a controlling coaching style and negatively related to a structuring style. Study 1 showed that a perceived evaluative club board was positively related to AICS, and Study 2 further demonstrated that poor performance was negatively associated with AICS and that an evaluative climate was related to AICS through experiences of need frustration. The discussion focuses on the pitfalls of coaches' contingent self-worth for the development of their athletes

    The importance of good data quality and proper pathogenicity reporting in the medical genetics field: the case of oligogenic diseases

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    though standards and guidelines for the interpretation of variants identified in genes that cause Mendelian disorders have been developed, this is not the case for more complex genetic models including variant combinations in multiple genes. 318 research articles reporting oligogenic cases were extracted from PubMed. A transparent curation protocol was developed assigning a confidence score to each oligogenic case based on the amount of pathogenic evidence at the genetic and functional level, based on the relevant oligogenic information collected by independent curators (i) from the articles and (ii) from public relevant databases. The collection and assessment of this data led to the creation of OLIDA, the Oligogenic Diseases Database. OLIDA contains information on 1229 oligogenic cases linked to 177 different genetic diseases. Each instance is linked with a confidence score depicting the quality of the associated genetic and functional pathogenic evidence. The curation process revealed that the majority of papers do not provide proper genetic evidence refuting a monogenic model, and rarely perform functional experiments for confirmation. Our recommendations stress the necessity of fulfilling both conditions. The use of multiple extended pedigrees showing a clear segregation of the reported variants, control cohorts of a suitable size, as well as functional experiments showing the synergistic effect of the involved variants are essential for this purpose. With our work we reveal the recurrent issues on the reporting of oligogenic cases and stress the need for the development of standards in the field. As the number of papers identifying oligogenic causes to disease is increasing rapidly, initiating this discussion is imperative.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishe

    The Role of Dyadic Sexual Desire Similarity in Predicting Sexual Behaviors in Cohabitating Couples: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

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    Although researchers are increasingly paying attention to the dyadic nature of sexual desire and its relevance to sexual and relational outcomes, our understanding of how sexual desire operates on a couple level and how it may influence the occurrence of sexual activity in relationships remains limited. This study used ecological momentary assessments to explore to what extent similarity in levels of desire for sex with one's sexual partner, or dyadic sexual desire, was associated with sexual initiations, receptivity to one's partner's initiations, and partnered sexual activity, and how these associations were moderated by perceived partner support. Ninety-four cohabitating couples ( M age = 26.30, SD = 7.60) provided six reports a day for 10 consecutive days. We used response surface analysis to examine the associations among both the degree and direction of (dis)similarity in partners' dyadic desire and each of the three outcome variables. Our results revealed that although partners tended to experience similar levels of desire on a moment-to-moment basis, similarity in desire levels was not associated with the three outcome variables. Rather, higher desire within couples predicted each partner's behavioral outcomes. At lower levels of perceived partner support, dyadic sexual desire was negatively associated with women's receptivity to sexual initiations by their partners, indicating high context-sensitivity of women's sexual responding. These findings offer new insights into the links between the similarity in partners' levels of dyadic desire and sexual behaviors in couples, suggesting the need for increased focus on maintaining desire and promoting perceived partner support in clinical practice

    Daily sexual behavior, sexual esteem, and body image in transgender and cisgender individuals

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    Multiple surveys have suggested that transgender individuals show lower sexual well-being than cisgender individuals. Most studies, however, are limited in terms of ecological validity and memory bias and cross-sectional in nature. These issues are less prevalent in diary studies monitoring responses over time at home. For three weeks, 47 transgender (M age = 29.00, SD = 11.62) and 52 cisgender individuals (M age = 32.90, SD = 11.44) reported daily on their sexual behavior, sexual esteem and body image. Using multilevel model analyses, we investigated the daily associations between these variables, and addressed differences between transgender and cisgender individuals. We found that in transgender individuals, intimacy predicted sexual esteem; sexual openness predicted sexual esteem and body image; and sexual esteem predicts intimacy, masturbation, and sexual openness on the daily level. While transgender individuals scored lower on daily sexual esteem and body image than cisgender individuals, groups did not differ in daily sexual behavior. They also did not differ in any of the predictive relations described above, but we did find that the association between masturbation and body image was moderated by a cisgender identity, and sexual esteem predicted sexual activity more positively in cisgender compared to transgender individuals. These results complement findings from cross-sectional studies and indicate how transgender individuals struggling with sexuality can increase sexual openness. Implications for clinical practice are that clinicians discussing sexuality with their transgender patients should not define sexual activity too narrowly, and that sexual esteem might be a relevant factor in determining sexual behavior

    The Ghent Psychotherapy Study:A Pragmatic, Stratified, Randomized Parallel Trial into the Differential Efficacy of Psychodynamic and Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions in Dependent and Self-Critical Depressive Patients

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    Introduction: Different types of psychotherapy are effective for treating major depressive disorder across groups yet show large within-group differences. Patient personality style is considered a potentially useful variable for treatment matching. Objective: This study is the first experimental test of the interaction between therapeutic approach and patients' dependent versus self-critical personality styles. Methods: A pragmatic stratified parallel trial was carried out with 100 adult patients diagnosed with DSM-IV-TR major depressive disorder. They were randomly assigned to short-term (16-20 sessions) cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) or short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (STPP). Patients were assessed at baseline, during therapy, post-therapy, and at 3- and 6-month follow-up. Primary outcome is depression severity measured by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression posttreatment. Primary analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry (&lt;ext-link ext-link-type="uri"xlink:href="http://www.isrctn.com"xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink"&gt;www.isrctn.com&lt;/ext-link&gt;), number ISRCTN17130982. Results: The intention-to-treat sample consisted of 100 participants; 40 with self-critical and 60 with dependent personality styles were randomized to either CBT (n = 50) or STPP (n = 50). We observed no interaction effect (-0.34 [-6.14, 5.46]) between therapy and personality style and found no evidence for a difference in effectiveness between the treatments in general in terms of symptom reduction and maintained benefits at 6-month follow-up. Conclusion: We found no evidence that dependent versus self-critical personality styles moderate the relation between treatment and outcome in depression. Research using individual patient data could gain further insight into why specific therapeutic approaches work better for specific patients.</p

    Diagnostic yield of genetic testing in heart transplant recipients with prior cardiomyopathy

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    BACKGROUND: The importance of genetic testing for cardiomyopathies has increased in the last decade. However, in heart transplant patients with former cardiomyopathy, genetic testing in retrospect is not routinely performed. We hypothesize that the yield of genetic testing in this population is considerable, and will have a major impact for both patients and relatives. METHODS: Patients that underwent heart transplantation (HTx) between 1995 and 2020 and were still in follow-up, were offered genetic testing if the primary etiology was non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. Next generation sequencing (NGS) of known cardiomyopathy genes was performed and variants were classified as variant of unknown significance (class 3), likely pathogenic (class 4) or pathogenic (class 5) variant. RESULTS: Of the 99 HTx patients in active follow-up, only 6 patients had a genetic diagnosis at the time of HTx. In this study, 31 selected patients with prior non-ischemic cardiomyopathy underwent genetic testing post HTx. 23/31 patients (74.2%) carried a variant that was classified as class 3 or higher. In 12/31 patients a class 4/5 variant (38.7%) was identified, and in 11/31 patients (35.5%) a class 3 variant. Class 5 Variants in TTN were the most prevalent (7/31), followed by class 5 variants in MYBPC3 (2/31). A positive family history was present in 21/31 (67.7%) and a second precipitating factor (e.g., alcohol abuse, pregnancy) was present in 17/31 patients (54.8%). Diagnostic yield of genetic testing was similar between patients with or without familial history and/or second hit. Through cascade screening 48 family members were screened for presence of a class 4/5 variant, of whom 19 (39.6%) were genotype positive, of whom 10 (52.6%) showed a cardiac phenotype. Appropriate follow-up was offered. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic testing for cardiomyopathy genes established a molecular diagnosis in 38.7% of patients post HTx. These results highlight the importance of genetic testing in this population as it is still often overlooked in patients that already underwent HTx in the past. Genetic testing is highly recommended, independent of family history or second precipitating factors, as it might identify relatives at risk
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