31 research outputs found

    Investigation of the Interaction between Aloe vera Anthraquinone Metabolites and c-Myc and C-Kit G-Quadruplex DNA Structures

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    G-quadruplexes are nucleotide sequences present in the promoter region of numerous oncogenes, having a key role in the suppression of gene transcription. Recently, the binding of anthraquinones from Aloe vera to G-quadruplex structures has been studied through various physico-chemical techniques. Intrigued by the reported results, we investigated the affinity of aloe emodin, aloe emodin-8-glucoside, and aloin to selected G-quadruplex nucleotide sequences by NMR spectroscopy. The structural determinants for the formation of the ligand/nucleotide complexes were elucidated and a model of the interactions between the tested compounds and C-Kit and c-Myc G-quadruplex DNA structures was built by integrated NMR and molecular modeling studies. Overall, the obtained results confirmed and implemented the previously reported findings, pointing out the complementarity of the different approaches and their contribution to a more detailed overview of the ligand/nucleotide complex formation. Furthermore, the proposed models of interaction could pave the way to the design of new nature-derived compounds endowed with increased G-quadruplex stabilizing activity

    Exploring the Interaction of G-quadruplex Binders with a (3 + 1) Hybrid G-quadruplex Forming Sequence within the PARP1 Gene Promoter Region

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    The enzyme PARP1 is an attractive target for cancer therapy, as it is involved in DNA repair processes. Several PARP1 inhibitors have been approved for clinical treatments. However, the rapid outbreak of resistance is seriously threatening the efficacy of these compounds, and alternative strategies are required to selectively regulate PARP1 activity. A noncanonical G-quadruplex-forming sequence within the PARP1 promoter was recently identified. In this study, we explore the interaction of known G-quadruplex binders with the G-quadruplex structure found in the PARP gene promoter region. The results obtained by NMR, CD, and fluorescence titration, also confirmed by molecular modeling studies, demonstrate a variety of different binding modes with small stabilization of the G-quadruplex sequence located at the PARP1 promoter. Surprisingly, only pyridostatin produces a strong stabilization of the G-quadruplex-forming sequence. This evidence makes the identification of a proper (3+1) stabilizing ligand a challenging goal for further investigation.This research was supported by the Italian MIUR Project PRIN 2017 2017SA5837 and by PIANO DI SOSTEGNO ALLA RICERCA 2020鈥擫inea 2 azione B (DEFENS). This investigation was also supported by a research grant from the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovaci贸n (PID2019-107158GB-I00).Peer reviewe

    Exploring the Interaction of G-quadruplex Binders with a (3 + 1) Hybrid G-quadruplex Forming Sequence within the PARP1 Gene Promoter Region

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    The enzyme PARP1 is an attractive target for cancer therapy, as it is involved in DNA repair processes. Several PARP1 inhibitors have been approved for clinical treatments. However, the rapid outbreak of resistance is seriously threatening the efficacy of these compounds, and alternative strategies are required to selectively regulate PARP1 activity. A noncanonical G-quadruplex-forming sequence within the PARP1 promoter was recently identified. In this study, we explore the interaction of known G-quadruplex binders with the G-quadruplex structure found in the PARP gene promoter region. The results obtained by NMR, CD, and fluorescence titration, also confirmed by molecular modeling studies, demonstrate a variety of different binding modes with small stabilization of the G-quadruplex sequence located at the PARP1 promoter. Surprisingly, only pyridostatin produces a strong stabilization of the G-quadruplex-forming sequence. This evidence makes the identification of a proper (3+1) stabilizing ligand a challenging goal for further investigation

    G-quadruplex binding properties of a potent PARP-1 inhibitor derived from 7-azaindole-1-carboxamide

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    oly ADP-ribose polymerases (PARP) are key proteins involved in DNA repair, maintenance as well as regulation of programmed cell death. For this reason they are important therapeutic targets for cancer treatment. Recent studies have revealed a close interplay between PARP1 recruitment and G-quadruplex stabilization, showing that PARP enzymes are activated upon treatment with a G4 ligand. In this work the DNA binding properties of a PARP-1 inhibitor derived from 7-azaindole-1-carboxamide, (2-[6-(4-pyrrolidin-1-ylmethyl-phenyl)-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-1-yl]-acetamide, compound 1) with model duplex and quadruplex DNA oligomers were studied by NMR, CD, fluorescence and molecular modelling. We provide evidence that compound 1 is a strong G-quadruplex binder. In addition we provide molecular details of the interaction of compound 1 with two model G-quadruplex structures: the single repeat of human telomeres, d(TTAGGGT)4, and the c-MYC promoter Pu22 sequence. The formation of defined and strong complexes with G-quadruplex models suggests a dual G4 stabilization/PARP inhibition mechanism of action for compound 1 and provides the molecular bases of its therapeutic potential

    Exploring the interaction of Curaxin CBL0137 with G-Quadruplex DNA oligomers

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    Curaxins and especially the second-generation derivative curaxin CBL0137 have important antitumor activities in multiple cancers such as glioblastoma, melanoma and others. Although most of the authors suggest that their mechanism of action comes from the activation of p53 and inactivation of NF-kB by targeting FACT, there is evidence supporting the involvement of DNA binding in their antitumor activity. In this work, the DNA binding properties of curaxin CBL0137 with model quadruplex DNA oligomers were studied by 1H NMR, CD, fluorescence and molecular modeling. We provided molecular details of the interaction of curaxin with two G-quadruplex structures, the single repeat of human telomere d(TTAGGGT)4 and the c-myc promoter Pu22 sequence. We also performed 1H and 31P NMR experiments were also performed in order to investigate the interaction with duplex DNA models. Our data support the hypothesis that the interaction of curaxin with G-quadruplex may provide a novel insight into the DNA-binding properties of CBL0137, and it will be helpful for the design of novel selective DNA-targeting curaxin analogues

    Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of 未-viniferin analogues and isosteres

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    The natural stilbenoid dehydro-未-viniferin, containing a benzofuran core, has been recently identified as a promising antimicrobial agent. To define the structural elements relevant to its activity, we modified the styryl moiety, appended at C5 of the benzofuran ring. In this paper, we report the construction of stilbenoid-derived 2,3-diaryl-5-substituted benzofurans, which allowed us to prepare a focused collection of dehydro-未-viniferin analogues. The antimicrobial activity of the synthesized compounds was evaluated against S. aureus ATCC29213. The simplified analogue 5,5鈥-(2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)benzofuran-3,5-diyl)bis(benzene-1,3-diol), obtained in three steps from 4-bromo-2-iodophenol (63% overall yield), emerged as a promising candidate for further investigation (MIC = 4 碌g/mL)

    Investigation of the Complexes Formed between PARP1 Inhibitors and PARP1 G-Quadruplex at the Gene Promoter Region

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    DNA repair inhibitors are one of the latest additions to cancer chemotherapy. In general, chemotherapy produces DNA damage but tumoral cells may become resistant if enzymes involved in DNA repair are overexpressed and are able to reverse DNA damage. One of the most successful drugs based on modulating DNA repair are the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) inhibitors. Several PARP1 inhibitors have been recently developed and approved for clinical treatments. We envisaged that PARP inhibition could be potentiated by simultaneously modulating the expression of PARP 1 and the enzyme activity, by a two-pronged strategy. A noncanonical G-quadruplex-forming sequence within the PARP1 promoter has been recently identified. In this study, we explored the potential binding of clinically approved PARP1 inhibitors to the G-quadruplex structure found at the gene promoter region. The results obtained by NMR, CD, and fluorescence titration confirmed by molecular modeling demonstrated that two out the four PARP1 inhibitors studied are capable of forming defined complexes with the PARP1 G-quadruplex. These results open the possibility of exploring the development of better G-quadruplex binders that, in turn, may also inhibit the enzyme

    Structural Investigation and Molecular Modeling Studies of Strobilurin-Based Fungicides Active against the Rice Blast Pathogen Pyricularia oryzae

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    The increasing emergence of fungicide-resistant pathogens requires urgent solutions for crop disease management. Here, we describe a structural investigation of new fungicides obtained by combining strobilurin and succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor pharmacophores. We identified compounds endowed with very good activity against wild-type Pyricularia oryzae, combined in some cases with promising activity against strobilurin-resistant strains. The first three-dimensional model of P. oryzae cytochrome bc1 complex containing azoxystrobin as a ligand was developed. The model was validated with a set of commercially available strobilurins, and it well explains both the resistance mechanism to strobilurins mediated by the mutation G143A and the activity of metyltetraprole against strobilurin-resistant strains. The obtained results shed light on the key recognition determinants of strobilurin-like derivatives in the cytochrome bc1 active site and will guide the further rational design of new fungicides able to overcome resistance caused by G143A mutation in the rice blast pathogen

    Structural Requirements of Benzofuran Derivatives Dehydro-未- and Dehydro-蔚-Viniferin for Antimicrobial Activity Against the Foodborne Pathogen Listeria monocytogenes

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    In a recent study, we investigated the antimicrobial activity of a collection of resveratrol-derived monomers and dimers against a series of foodborne pathogens. Out of the tested molecules, dehydro-δ-viniferin and dehydro-ε-viniferin emerged as the most promising derivatives. To define the structural elements essential to the antimicrobial activity against the foodborne pathogen L. monocytogenes Scott A as a model Gram-positive microorganism, the synthesis of a series of simplified benzofuran-containing derivatives was carried out. The systematic removal of the aromatic moieties of the parent molecules allowed a deeper insight into the most relevant structural features affecting the activity. While the overall structure of compound 1 could not be altered without a substantial loss of antimicrobial activity, the structural simplification of compound 2 (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 16 µg/mL, minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) >512 µg/mL) led to the analogue 7 with increased activity (MIC 8 µg/mL, MBC 64 µg/mL)

    Putative SARS-CoV-2 Mpro Inhibitors from an In-House Library of Natural and Nature-Inspired Products: A Virtual Screening and Molecular Docking Study

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    A novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV-2) has been the cause of a recent global pandemic. The highly contagious nature of this life-threatening virus makes it imperative to find therapies to counteract its diffusion. The main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 is a promising drug target due to its indispensable role in viral replication inside the host. Using a combined two-steps approach of virtual screening and molecular docking techniques, we have screened an in-house collection of small molecules, mainly composed of natural and nature-inspired compounds. The molecules were selected with high structural diversity to cover a wide range of chemical space into the enzyme pockets. Virtual screening experiments were performed using the blind docking mode of the AutoDock Vina software. Virtual screening allowed the selection of structurally heterogeneous compounds capable of interacting effectively with the enzymatic site of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. The compounds showing the best interaction with the protein were re-scored by molecular docking as implemented in AutoDock, while the stability of the complexes was tested by molecular dynamics. The most promising candidates revealed a good ability to fit into the protein binding pocket and to reach the catalytic dyad. There is a high probability that at least one of the selected scaffolds could be promising for further researc
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