40 research outputs found

    Social Policies for a Recovery

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    The fallout from the global economic downturn of 2008-09 is a continuing source of stress on families and a constraint on government policies. How can social policies contribute to a quick and equitable recovery from the crisis and how can they best respond to the difficulties that households continue to face? What role can and should social policy budgets play in improving the budget outlook of countries facing unsustainable government debt? And how should governments prioritise different areas of social spending when faced with heightened demand for support but, often, much reduced fiscal space? This paper addresses these questions in light of countries' experiences during the most recent and earlier economic downturns.economic crisis, social policy, redistribution, unemployment, government spending

    The effect of work on mental health: Does occupation Matter?

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    mental health panel data model labour market status occupation

    On the dynamics of health, work and socioeconomic status

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    Lindeboom, M. [Promotor]Klaauw, B. van der [Copromotor

    Disparities in work, risk and health between immigrants and native-born Spaniards

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    We analyse the impact of working and contractual conditions, particularly exposure to job risks, on the probability of acquiring a permanent disability, controlling for other personal and firm characteristics. We postulate a model in which this impact is mediated by the choice of occupation, with a level of risk associated with it. We assume this choice is endogenous, and that it depends on preferences and opportunities in the labour market, both of which may differ between immigrants and natives. To test this hypothesis we apply a bivariate probit model to data for 2006 from the Continuous Sample of Working Lives provided by the Spanish Social Security system, containing records for over a million workers. We find that risk exposure increases the probability of permanent disability- arising from any cause - by almost 5%

    The effect of work on mental health: does occupation matter?

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    This paper considers the effect of work choices on mental health and looks at whether this differs across occupations. This requires a model that can deal with the endogeneity in the relationship between health, occupation and work choices. We specify such a model and estimate it on a unique UK panel survey. The survey, called the National Child development Survey (NCDS), follows a cohort since their birth in 1958 until age 42. The analyses show us that early childhood health and ability have long lasting consequences for the mental health at the later ages. Females have lower levels of mental health. Mental health deteriorates with age for males and females, but the rate of deterioration is substantially lower for females. We also find that the rate of depreciation is lower when individuals work. For females we find large effects of occupation, for males we do not find this. Employment status is important for males, but not for females. For both genders we find very large effects of the onset of a long-standing illness. The probability of experiencing such an event depends on employment status, occupation and life style variables. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

    Health shocks, disability and work

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    This paper focuses on the relation between health shocks and the onset of a disability and employment outcomes. We estimate an event-history model using data from the British National Child Development Study (NCDS), where accidents causing a unscheduled hospitalization are the measure for unanticipated health shocks. Our results show that experiencing such a health shock substantially increases the likelihood of the onset of a disability, while it does not have direct effects on employment at later ages. This finding is used to simulate the causal effects of the onset of a disability on later employment outcomes. These simulations show that about two-third of the association between disability and employment can be explained by the causal effect of the onset of a disability on employment. The remaining one-third is selection. For men and lower-educated workers the association is mainly explained by the causal effect, while for women selection is more important

    Disability and Work: The Role of Health Shocks and Childhood Circumstances

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    This paper focuses on the relation between the onset of disability and employment outcomes. We develop an event history model that includes unscheduled hospitalizations as a measure for unanticipated health shocks and estimate the model on data from the British National Child Development Study (NCDS). We show that such health shocks increase the likelihood of an onset of a disability by around 138%. However, health shocks are relatively rare events and therefore the larger part of observed disability rates result from gradual deteriorations in health. We find no direct effect of health shocks on employment outcomes. Using the health shock as an instrumental variable shows that the onset of a disability at age 25 causally reduces the employment rate at age 40 with around 21 percentage points. Our results show that early childhood conditions are important in explaining adult health and socioeconomic outcomes. Those who have experienced bad conditions during early childhood have higher rates of health deterioration during adulthood, are more likely to become non-employed and suffer from longer spells of non-employment during the course of life.disability; early childhood conditions; employment; health shocks
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