130,674 research outputs found

    Bayesian variational transformer : a generalizable model for rotating machinery fault diagnosis

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    Transformer has been widely applied in the research of rotating machinery fault diagnosis due to its ability to explore the internal correlation of vibration signals. However, challenges still exist despite the countless efforts. Generally, Transformer is more prone to overfitting than CNN on small-scale datasets. In practical engineering, collecting sufficient fault samples for training is difficult, resulting in poor generalization of Transformer. In addition, the measured signals are often accompanied with severe noise, further reducing the generalization performance of the model. Meanwhile, the collected signals often follow different distributions due to the changing operating conditions, which places higher demands on the generalizability of Transformer. This paper proposes a Bayesian variational Transformer (Bayesformer) to cope with the abovementioned problems. In Bayesformer, all the attention weights are treated as latent random variables, rather than determined values as the previous studies. This allows to train an ensemble of networks, instead of a single one, enhancing the generalizability of the model. Three experimental studies are conducted to illustrate the developed model and superior diagnostic performance is showed throughout the experiments

    Performance of the local reconstruction algorithms for the CMS hadron calorimeter with Run 2 data

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    A description is presented of the algorithms used to reconstruct energy deposited in the CMS hadron calorimeter during Run 2 (2015–2018) of the LHC. During Run 2, the characteristic bunch-crossing spacing for proton-proton collisions was 25 ns, which resulted in overlapping signals from adjacent crossings. The energy corresponding to a particular bunch crossing of interest is estimated using the known pulse shapes of energy depositions in the calorimeter, which are measured as functions of both energy and time. A variety of algorithms were developed to mitigate the effects of adjacent bunch crossings on local energy reconstruction in the hadron calorimeter in Run 2, and their performance is compared

    Table_2_Effects of non-pharmacological interventions on youth with internet addiction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.docx

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    ObjectiveTo assess the overall effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions on internet addiction (IA) in youth.MethodRandomized controlled trials (RCTs) published from their inception to April 1, 2023 were searched in Cochrane, Embase, Medline, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Science and Technology Journal Database, Chinese BioMedical Literature Database, and WanFang Data. Two reviewers independently extracted data and evaluated bias using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool.ResultsSixty-six studies performed from 2007 to 2023, with a total of 4,385 participants, were identified. The NPIs included group counseling, cognitive behavioral therapy, sports intervention, combined interventions, eHealth, educational intervention, positive psychology intervention, sand play intervention, and electrotherapy. The results revealed that NPIs significantly reduced IA levels (standardized mean difference, SMD: −2.01, 95% confidence interval, CI: −2.29 to −1.73, I2 = 93.0%), anxiety levels (SMD: −1.07, 95%CI: −1.41 to −0.73, I2 = 72.4%), depression levels (SMD: −1.11, 95%CI: −1.52 to −0.7, I2 = 84.3%), and SCL-90 (SMD: −0.75, 95%CI: −0.97 to −0.54, I2 = 27.7%). Subgroup analysis stratified by intervention measure showed that cognitive behavioral therapy, group counseling, sports intervention, combined intervention, educational intervention, positive psychology intervention, sandplay intervention, and mobile health were all effective in relieving symptoms of IA except electrotherapy.ConclusionNPIs appear to be effective in the treatment of IA in youth, which would act as an alternative treatment of IA. Further studies with larger sample sizes and robust designs are needed.</p

    Table3_Overexpression of tousled-like kinase 2 predicts poor prognosis in HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma patients after radical resection.DOCX

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    Background: Tousled-like kinase 2 (TLK2) is integral to DNA repair, replication, and cell cycle regulation, crucial for maintaining genome stability and integrity. However, the expression and prognostic value of TLK2 in hepatitis B viral (HBV) -related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear.Methods: We examined TLK2 expression and prognostic implications in pan-cancer by using diverse databases. Subsequently, TLK2 expression in HBV-related HCC tissues and adjacent tissues was assessed using quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. The prognostic value of TLK2 was assessed through ROC curves, time-dependent ROC curves, Cox regression, Kaplan-Meier curve, and decision curve analysis. Additionally, analyses of immune infiltration, protein-protein interactions, key molecules of tumor-related signaling pathways, molecular subtypes, and TLK2-associated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were conducted, along with GO/KEGG and GSEA enrichment analyses.Results: TLK2 expression was significantly higher in HCC tissues compared to adjacent tissues and correlated with gender, AFP levels, albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) grade, microvascular invasion (MVI), maximum tumor diameter, tumor number, and TNM stage. TLK2 overexpression emerged as an independent risk factor for overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) in HBV-related HCC patients. An integrated OS nomogram model, incorporating TLK2, age, ALBI grade, MVI, and tumor number, displayed enhanced prognostic capability (C-index: 0.765, 95% CI: 0.732–0.798) in predicting OS and has a higher net benefit than the TNM stage. Moreover, TLK2 expression correlated closely with immune cell infiltration and key molecules of signaling pathways. Functional enrichment analyses highlighted significant associations with DNA duplex unwinding, double-strand break repair, DNA replication, cell cycle, E2F targets, G2M checkpoint, and MYC targets V1.Conclusion: TLK2 is notably overexpressed in HBV-related HCC and emerges as a promising prognostic biomarker, necessitating further validation.</p

    Computation-Aided Phylogeny-Oriented Engineering of β‑Xylosidase: Modification of “Blades” to Enhance Stability and Activity for the Bioconversion of Hemicellulose to Produce Xylose

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    Hemicellulose is a highly abundant, ubiquitous, and renewable natural polysaccharide, widely present in agricultural and forestry residues. The enzymatic hydrolysis of hemicellulose has generally been accomplished using β-xylosidases, but concomitantly increasing the stability and activity of these enzymes remains challenging. Here, we rationally engineered a β-xylosidase from Bacillus clausii to enhance its stability by computation-aided design combining ancestral sequence reconstruction and structural analysis. The resulting combinatorial mutant rXYLOM25I/S51L/S79E exhibited highly improved robustness, with a 6.9-fold increase of the half-life at 60 °C, while also exhibiting improved pH stability, catalytic efficiency, and hydrolytic activity. Structural analysis demonstrated that additional interactions among the propeller blades in the catalytic module resulted in a much more compact protein structure and induced the rearrangement of the opposing catalytic pocket to mediate the observed improvement of activity. Our work provides a robust biocatalyst for the hydrolysis of agricultural waste to produce various high-value-added chemicals and biofuels

    Complete chloroplast genome of <i>Petrocosmea qinlingensis</i> (Gesneriaceae), a protected wild plant in the Qinling mountains

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    Petrocosmea qinlingensis is a protected wild plant endemic in China, inhabiting low-light limestone cliffs but the complete chloroplast genome has not been reported. In this study, we first sequenced and assembled the complete chloroplast genome of P. qinlingensis. The total size of this genome was 153,865 bp, including a large single-copy (LSC) region (84,737 bp), a small single-copy (SSC) region (18,244 bp), and two inverted repeats (IRs) regions (25,442 bp). This genome encoded 111 uniquegenes, consisted of 77 protein-coding genes, four ribosomal RNA genes, and 30 transfer RNA genes. Phylogenomic analysis based on the chloroplast protein-coding genes and showed that the genus Petrocosmea was the closest relative to Raphiocarpus. Our results will support further phylogeographic, population genetic studies of this species.</p

    Impact of lockdown on the growth of children in China aged 3-6 years during the COVID-19 pandemic

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    BackgroundLockdowns in COVID-19 pandemic led to less physical activity and more intake of unhealthy food in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the negative impact of major lockdowns on the growth of children aged 3-6 years during COVID-19 pandemic period.MethodsPhysical examination results in 2019 to 2022 from 5834 eligible children (2972 males and 2862 females) from Southwestern China who were 3 years old in 2019 were retrospectively collected. Height and weight data points were extracted from the results, and percentiles of height (height%), weight (weight%), and BMI (BMI%), and rates of overweight and obesity were calculated and compared between different years during the pandemic.ResultsAfter analyzing the 15404 growth data points from 5834 children, a slowly increasing trend of height% from 2019 to 2022 was observed. Weight%, BMI%, overweight rate, obesity rate, and combined overweight and obesity rate had two peaks in 2020 and 2022 when major lockdowns were adopted and a drop in between (year 2021), except for obesity rate which did not drop in 2021. Similar results were shown after stratification by gender.ConclusionThe lockdowns in COVID-19 pandemic promoted obesity of kindergarten children, but did not show any negative impact on their height growth possibly due to over-nutrition of children during lockdowns. More efforts need to be made to limit the increase of obesity rate in kindergarten children during possible future lockdowns

    Extracting the speed of sound in the strongly interacting matter created in ultrarelativistic lead-lead collisions at the LHC