139 research outputs found

    On the set of optimal policies in discrete dynamic programming

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    Project design with limited commitment and teams

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    We study the interaction between a group of agents who exert effort to complete a project and a manager who chooses its objectives. The manager has limited commitment power so that she can commit to the objectives only when the project is sufficiently close to completion. We show that the manager has incentives to extend the project as it progresses. This result has two implications. First, the manager will choose a larger project if she has less commitment power. Second, the manager should delegate the decision rights over the project size to the agents unless she has sufficient commitment power

    Liquidity and the drivers of search, due diligence and transaction times for UK commercial real estate investments

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    Trading commercial real estate involves a process of exchange that is costly and which occurs over an extended and uncertain period of time. This has consequences for the performance and risk of real estate investments. Most research on transaction times has occurred for residential rather than commercial real estate. We study the time taken to transact commercial real estate assets in the UK using a sample of 578 transactions over the period 2004 to 2013. We measure average time to transact from a buyer and seller perspective, distinguishing the search and due diligence phases of the process, and we conduct econometric analysis to explain variation in due diligence times between assets. The median time for purchase of real estate from introduction to completion was 104 days and the median time for sale from marketing to completion was 135 days. There is considerable variation around these times and results suggest that some of this variation is related to market state, type and quality of asset, and type of participants involved in the transaction. Our findings shed light on the drivers of liquidity at an individual asset level and can inform models that quantify the impact of uncertain time on market on real estate investment risk

    Sex, Lies, and the Hillblom Estate: A Decision Analysis

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    The De Novo Cytosine Methyltransferase DRM2 Requires Intact UBA Domains and a Catalytically Mutated Paralog DRM3 during RNA–Directed DNA Methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana

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    Eukaryotic DNA cytosine methylation can be used to transcriptionally silence repetitive sequences, including transposons and retroviruses. This silencing is stable between cell generations as cytosine methylation is maintained epigenetically through DNA replication. The Arabidopsis thaliana Dnmt3 cytosine methyltransferase ortholog DOMAINS REARRANGED METHYLTRANSFERASE2 (DRM2) is required for establishment of small interfering RNA (siRNA) directed DNA methylation. In mammals PIWI proteins and piRNA act in a convergently evolved RNA–directed DNA methylation system that is required to repress transposon expression in the germ line. De novo methylation may also be independent of RNA interference and small RNAs, as in Neurospora crassa. Here we identify a clade of catalytically mutated DRM2 paralogs in flowering plant genomes, which in A.thaliana we term DOMAINS REARRANGED METHYLTRANSFERASE3 (DRM3). Despite being catalytically mutated, DRM3 is required for normal maintenance of non-CG DNA methylation, establishment of RNA–directed DNA methylation triggered by repeat sequences and accumulation of repeat-associated small RNAs. Although the mammalian catalytically inactive Dnmt3L paralogs act in an analogous manner, phylogenetic analysis indicates that the DRM and Dnmt3 protein families diverged independently in plants and animals. We also show by site-directed mutagenesis that both the DRM2 N-terminal UBA domains and C-terminal methyltransferase domain are required for normal RNA–directed DNA methylation, supporting an essential targeting function for the UBA domains. These results suggest that plant and mammalian RNA–directed DNA methylation systems consist of a combination of ancestral and convergent features

    The theory of the firm and its critics: a stocktaking and assessment

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    Includes bibliographical references."Prepared for Jean-Michel Glachant and Eric Brousseau, eds. New Institutional Economics: A Textbook, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.""This version: August 22, 2005."Since its emergence in the 1970s the modern economic or Coasian theory of the firm has been discussed and challenged by sociologists, heterodox economists, management scholars, and other critics. This chapter reviews and assesses these critiques, focusing on behavioral issues (bounded rationality and motivation), process (including path dependence and the selection argument), entrepreneurship, and the challenge from knowledge-based theories of the firm
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